Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1913

Search results for: emerging pollutants

1913 Development of Nanostructured Materials for the Elimination of Emerging Pollutants in Water through Adsorption Processes

Authors: J. Morillo, Otal E., A. Caballero, R. M. Pereñiguez, J. Usero


The present work shows in the first place, the manufacture of the perovskitic material used as adsorbent, by means of two different methods to obtain two types of perovskites (LaFeO₃ and BiFeO₃). The results of this work show the characteristics of this manufactured material, as well as the synthesis yields obtained, achieving a better result for the self-combustion synthesis. Secondly, from the manufactured perovskites, an adsorption system has been developed, at the laboratory level, for the adsorption of the emerging pollutants Trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin and Ibuprofen.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, emerging pollutants, water, adsorption processes

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1912 Deteriorating Ambient Air Quality Resulted from Invasion of Foreign Air Pollutants

Authors: Kuo-C. Lo, Chung-H. Hung


Invasion of foreign air pollutants to deteriorate local air quality has become an emerging international issue of concern. This study aimed to apply meteorological and air quality model, WRF-Chem (V3.1), for simulating and analyzing the phenomenon of forming of high-concentrated particulate matters, PM10 and PM2.5, in ambient air of Taiwan during January 17th to 19th, 2014. The foreign air pollutants were mainly from long-distance transport of air pollutants of China being transported with a strong continental cold high. It was observed that PM10 and PM2.5 peaked as high as 182~588 μg/m3 and 95~165 μg/m3, respectively, in the ambient air of west side of Taiwan. They were about 2~3 folds higher than the usual concentrations of particulate matters in these seasons.

Keywords: WRF-Chem, air pollution, PM2.5, ambient air quality

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1911 A Magnetic Hydrochar Nanocomposite as a Potential Adsorbent of Emerging Pollutants

Authors: Aura Alejandra Burbano Patino, Mariela Agotegaray, Veronica Lassalle, Fernanda Horst


Water pollution is of worldwide concern due to its importance as an essential resource for life. Industrial and urbanistic growth are anthropogenic activities that have caused an increase of undesirable compounds in water. In the last decade, emerging pollutants have become of great interest since, at very low concentrations (µg/L and ng/L), they exhibit a hazardous effect on wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and human organisms. One group of emerging pollutants that are a matter of study are pharmaceuticals. Their high consumption rate and their inappropriate disposal have led to their detection in wastewater treatment plant influent, effluent, surface water, and drinking water. In consequence, numerous technologies have been developed to efficiently treat these pollutants. Adsorption appears like an easy and cost-effective technology. One of the most used adsorbents of emerging pollutants removal is carbon-based materials such as hydrochars. This study aims to use a magnetic hydrochar nanocomposite to be employed as an adsorbent for diclofenac removal. Kinetics models and the adsorption efficiency in real water samples were analyzed. For this purpose, a magnetic hydrochar nanocomposite was synthesized through the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) technique hybridized to co-precipitation to add the magnetic component into the hydrochar, based on iron oxide nanoparticles. The hydrochar was obtained from sunflower husk residue as the precursor. TEM, TGA, FTIR, Zeta potential as a function of pH, DLS, BET technique, and elemental analysis were employed to characterize the material in terms of composition and chemical structure. Adsorption kinetics were carried out in distilled water and real water at room temperature, pH of 5.5 for distilled water and natural pH for real water samples, 1:1 adsorbent: adsorbate dosage ratio, contact times from 10-120 minutes, and 50% dosage concentration of DCF. Results have demonstrated that magnetic hydrochar presents superparamagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization value of 55.28 emu/g. Besides, it is mesoporous with a surface area of 55.52 m²/g. It is composed of magnetite nanoparticles incorporated into the hydrochar matrix, as can be proven by TEM micrographs, FTIR spectra, and zeta potential. On the other hand, kinetic studies were carried out using DCF models, finding percent removal efficiencies up to 85.34% after 80 minutes of contact time. In addition, after 120 minutes of contact time, desorption of emerging pollutants from active sites took place, which indicated that the material got saturated after that t time. In real water samples, percent removal efficiencies decrease up to 57.39%, ascribable to a possible mechanism of competitive adsorption of organic or inorganic compounds, ions for active sites of the magnetic hydrochar. The main suggested adsorption mechanism between the magnetic hydrochar and diclofenac include hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as well as hydrogen bonds. It can be concluded that the magnetic hydrochar nanocomposite could be valorized into a by-product which appears as an efficient adsorbent for DCF removal as a model emerging pollutant. These results are being complemented by modifying experimental variables such as pollutant’s initial concentration, adsorbent: adsorbate dosage ratio, and temperature. Currently, adsorption assays of other emerging pollutants are being been carried out.

Keywords: environmental remediation, emerging pollutants, hydrochar, magnetite nanoparticles

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1910 Adsorption and Desorption of Emerging Water Contaminants on Activated Carbon Fabrics

Authors: S. Delpeux-Ouldriane, M. Gineys, S. Masson, N. Cohaut, L. Reinert, L. Duclaux, F. Béguin


Nowadays, a wide variety of organic contaminants are present at trace concentrations in wastewater effluents. In order to face these pollution problems, the implementation of the REACH European regulation has defined lists of targeted pollutants to be eliminated selectively in water. It therefore implies the development of innovative and more efficient remediation techniques. In this sense, adsorption processes can be successfully used to achieve the removal of organic compounds in waste water treatment processes, especially at low pollutant concentration. Especially, activated carbons possessing a highly developed porosity demonstrate high adsorption capacities. More specifically, carbon cloths show high adsorption rates, an easily handling, a good mechanical integrity and regeneration potentialities. When loaded with pollutants, these materials can be indeed regenerated using an electrochemical polarization.

Keywords: nanoporous carbons, activated carbon cloths, adsorption, micropollutants, emerging contaminants, regeneration, electrochemistry

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1909 Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CPH Using ANSYS CFX

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu


This paper presents the results obtained by numerical simulation of the pollutants dispersion in the atmosphere coming from the evacuation of combustion gases resulting from the fuel combustion used by electric thermal power plant using the software ANSYS CFX-CFD. The model uses the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. We considered as important factors in elaboration of simulation the atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction), the exhaust velocity of the combustion gases, chimney height and the obstacles (buildings). Using the air quality monitoring stations we have measured the concentrations of main pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM). The pollutants were monitored over a period of 3 months, after that we calculated the average concentration, which is used by the software. The concentrations are: 8.915 μg/m3 (NOx), 9.587 μg/m3 (SO2) and 42 μg/m3 (PM). A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dispersion of the pollutant as well the concentration of this pollutants in the atmosphere.

Keywords: air pollutants, computational fluid dynamics, dispersion, simulation

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1908 Functionalized Carbon-Base Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Emerging Contaminants Targeted Analysis

Authors: Alexander Rodríguez-Hernández, Arnulfo Rojas-Perez, Liz Diaz-Vazquez


The rise in consumerism over the past century has resulted in the creation of higher amounts of plasticizers, personal care products and other chemical substances, which enter and accumulate in water systems. Other sources of pollutants in Neotropical regions experience large inputs of nutrients with these pollutants resulting in eutrophication of water which consume large quantities of oxygen, resulting in high fish mortality. This dilemma has created a need for the development of targeted detection in complex matrices and remediation of emerging contaminants. We have synthesized carbon nanoparticles from macro algae (Ulva fasciata) by oxidizing the graphitic carbon network under extreme acidic conditions. The resulting material was characterized by STEM, yielding a spherical 12 nm average diameter nanoparticles, which can be fixed into a polysaccharide aerogel synthesized from the same macro algae. Spectrophotometer analyses show a pH dependent fluorescent behavior varying from 450-620 nm in aqueous media. Heavily oxidized edges provide for easy functionalization with enzymes for a more targeted analysis and remediation technique. Given the optical properties of the carbon base nanoparticles and the numerous possibilities of functionalization, we have developed a selective and robust targeted bio-detection and bioremediation technique for the treatment of emerging contaminants in complex matrices like estuarine embayment.

Keywords: aerogels, carbon nanoparticles, fluorescent, targeted analysis

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1907 Estimation of Gaseous Pollutants at Kalyanpur, Dhaka City

Authors: Farhana Tarannum


Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. The concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO and O3) have been determined from samples collected at Kallyanpur along Shamoli corridor in Dhaka city. Pollutants were determined in a sample collected at ground level and a roof of a 7-storied building. These pollutants are emitted largely from stationary sources like fossil fuel fired power plants, industrial plants, and manufacturing facilities as well as mobile sources. The incomplete combustion of fuel, wood and the Sulphur containing fuel used in the vehicles are one of the main causes of CO and SOx respectively in our natural environment. When the temperature of combustion in high enough and some of that nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the air, various nitrogen oxides (NOx) are then formed. The VOCs react with NOx in the presence of sunlight to form O3. UV Visible spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination of SOx, NOx and O3. The sensor type device was used for the estimation of CO. It was found that the air pollutants (CO, SOx, NOx and O3) of a sample collected at the roof of a building were lower compared to the ground level; it indicated that ground level people are mostly affected by the gaseous pollutants.

Keywords: gaseous pollutants, UV-visible spectrophotometry, ambient air quality, Dhaka city

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1906 Release of Legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mitigating Their Effects in Downstream Communities

Authors: Kimberley Rain Miner, Karl Kreutz, Larry LeBlanc


During the period of 1950-1970 persistent organic pollutants such as DDT, dioxin and PCB were released in the atmosphere and distributed through precipitation into glaciers throughout the world. Recent abrupt climate change is increasing the melt rate of these glaciers, introducing the toxins to the watershed. Studies have shown the existence of legacy pollutants in glacial ice, but neither the impact nor quantity of these toxins on downstream populations has been assessed. If these pollutants are released at toxic levels it will be necessary to create a mitigation plan to lower their impact on the affected communities.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, mitigation, risk management

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1905 A Comparison of Air Quality in Arid and Temperate Climatic Conditions – a Case Study of Leeds and Makkah

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Said Munir, Karl Ropkins, Essam A. Morsy, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Abdulaziz R. Seroji


In this paper air quality conditions in Makkah and Leeds are compared. These two cities have totally different climatic conditions. Makkah climate is characterised as hot and dry (arid) whereas that of Leeds is characterised as cold and wet (temperate). This study uses air quality data from year 2012 collected in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and Leeds, UK. The concentrations of all pollutants, except NO are higher in Makkah. Most notable, the concentrations of PM10 are much higher in Makkah than in Leeds. This is probably due to the arid nature of climatic conditions in Makkah and not solely due to anthropogenic emission sources, otherwise like PM10 some of the other pollutants, such as CO, NO, and SO2 would have shown much greater difference between Leeds and Makkah. Correlation analysis is performed between different pollutants at the same site and the same pollutants at different sites. In Leeds the correlation between PM10 and other pollutants is significantly stronger than in Makkah. Weaker correlation in Makkah is probably due to the fact that in Makkah most of the gaseous pollutants are emitted by combustion processes, whereas most of the PM10 is generated by other sources, such as windblown dust, re-suspension, and construction activities. This is in contrast to Leeds where all pollutants including PM10 are predominantly emitted by combustions, such as road traffic. Furthermore, in Leeds frequent rains wash out most of the atmospheric particulate matter and supress re-suspension of dust. Temporal trends of various pollutants are compared and discussed. This study emphasises the role of climatic conditions in managing air quality, and hence the need for region-specific controlling strategies according to the local climatic and meteorological conditions.

Keywords: air pollution, climatic conditions, particulate matter, Makkah, Leeds

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1904 Producing Sustained Renewable Energy and Removing Organic Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater using Consortium of Sludge Microbes

Authors: Anubha Kaushik, Raman Preet


Distillery wastewater in the form of spent wash is a complex and strong industrial effluent, with high load of organic pollutants that may deplete dissolved oxygen on being discharged into aquatic systems and contaminate groundwater by leaching of pollutants, while untreated spent wash disposed on land acidifies the soil. Stringent legislative measures have therefore been framed in different countries for discharge standards of distillery effluent. Utilising the organic pollutants present in various types of wastes as food by mixed microbial populations is emerging as an eco-friendly approach in the recent years, in which complex organic matter is converted into simpler forms, and simultaneously useful gases are produced as renewable and clean energy sources. In the present study, wastewater from a rice bran based distillery has been used as the substrate in a dark fermenter, and native microbial consortium from the digester sludge has been used as the inoculum to treat the wastewater and produce hydrogen. After optimising the operational conditions in batch reactors, sequential batch mode and continuous flow stirred tank reactors were used to study the best operational conditions for enhanced and sustained hydrogen production and removal of pollutants. Since the rate of hydrogen production by the microbial consortium during dark fermentation is influenced by concentration of organic matter, pH and temperature, these operational conditions were optimised in batch mode studies. Maximum hydrogen production rate (347.87ml/L/d) was attained in 32h dark fermentation while a good proportion of COD also got removed from the wastewater. Slightly acidic initial pH seemed to favor biohydrogen production. In continuous stirred tank reactor, high H2 production from distillery wastewater was obtained from a relatively shorter substrate retention time (SRT) of 48h and a moderate organic loading rate (OLR) of 172 g/l/d COD.

Keywords: distillery wastewater, hydrogen, microbial consortium, organic pollution, sludge

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1903 Catalytic Degradation of Tetracycline in Aqueous Solution by Magnetic Ore Pyrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Allah Bakhsh Javid, Ali Mashayekh-Salehi, Fatemeh Davardoost


This study presents the preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of a novel natural mineral-based catalyst for destructive adsorption of tetracycline (TTC) as water emerging compounds. Degradation potential of raw and calcined magnetite catalyst was evaluated at different experiments situations such as pH, catalyst dose, reaction time and pollutant concentration. Calcined magnetite attained greater catalytic potential than the raw ore in the degradation of tetracycline, around 69% versus 3% at reaction time of 30 min and TTC aqueous solution of 50 mg/L, respectively. Complete removal of TTC could be obtained using 2 g/L calcined nanoparticles at reaction time of 60 min. The removal of TTC increased with the increase in solution temperature. Accordingly, considering its abundance in nature together with its very high catalytic potential, calcined pyrite is a promising and reliable catalytic material for destructive decomposition for catalytic decomposition and mineralization of such pharmaceutical compounds as TTC in water and wastewater.

Keywords: catalytic degradation, tetracycline, pyrite, emerging pollutants

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1902 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina


Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: pollutant, trend, air quality monitoring, Mann-Kendall

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1901 Divalent Iron Oxidative Process for Degradation of Carbon and Nitrogen Based Pollutants from Dye Intermediate Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Nibedita Pani, Vishnu Tejani, T. S. Anantha Singh


Water pollution resulting from discharge of partial/not treated textile wastewater containing high carbon and nitrogen pollutants pose a huge threat to the environment, ecosystem, and human health. It is essential to remove carbon- and nitrogen-based organic pollutants more effectively from industrial wastewater before discharging. The present study focuses on removal of carbon-based pollutant in particular COD (chemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen-based pollutants, in particular, ammoniacal nitrogen by Fenton oxidation process using Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ as reagents. The study was carried out with high strength wastewater containing initial COD 5632 mg/L and NH⁴⁺-N 1372 mg/L. The major operating condition like pH was varied between 1.0 to 4.0. The maximum degradation was obtained at pH 3.0 taking the molar ratio of Fe²⁺/H₂O₂ as 1:1. At this pH, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were found to be 77.27% and 74.9%, respectively. The Fenton process can be the best alternative for the simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, Fenton oxidation, industrial wastewater

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1900 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez


The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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1899 Assessment of the Performance of the Sonoreactors Operated at Different Ultrasound Frequencies, to Remove Pollutants from Aqueous Media

Authors: Gabriela Rivadeneyra-Romero, Claudia del C. Gutierrez Torres, Sergio A. Martinez-Delgadillo, Victor X. Mendoza-Escamilla, Alejandro Alonzo-Garcia


Ultrasonic degradation is currently being used in sonochemical reactors to degrade pollutant compounds from aqueous media, as emerging contaminants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, drugs and personal care products.) because they can produce possible ecological impacts on the environment. For this reason, it is important to develop appropriate water and wastewater treatments able to reduce pollution and increase reuse. Pollutants such as textile dyes, aromatic and phenolic compounds, cholorobenzene, bisphenol-A and carboxylic acid and other organic pollutants, can be removed from wastewaters by sonochemical oxidation. The effect on the removal of pollutants depends on the type of the ultrasonic frequency used; however, not much studies have been done related to the behavior of the fluid into the sonoreactors operated at different ultrasonic frequencies. Based on the above, it is necessary to study the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid generated by the ultrasonic irradiation to design efficient sonoreactors to reduce treatment times and costs. In this work, it was studied the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluid in sonochemical reactors at different frequencies (250 kHz, 500 kHz and 1000 kHz). The performances of the sonoreactors at those frequencies were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Due to there is great sound speed gradient between piezoelectric and fluid, k-e models were used. Piezoelectric was defined as a vibration surface, to evaluate the different frequencies effect on the fluid into sonochemical reactor. Structured hexahedral cells were used to mesh the computational liquid domain, and fine triangular cells were used to mesh the piezoelectric transducers. Unsteady state conditions were used in the solver. Estimation of the dissipation rate, flow field velocities, Reynolds stress and turbulent quantities were evaluated by CFD and 2D-PIV measurements. Test results show that there is no necessary correlation between an increase of the ultrasonic frequency and the pollutant degradation, moreover, the reactor geometry and power density are important factors that should be considered in the sonochemical reactor design.

Keywords: CFD, reactor, ultrasound, wastewater

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1898 Statistical Analysis and Impact Forecasting of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles on the Environment: Case Study in the State of Maryland

Authors: Alireza Ansariyar, Safieh Laaly


Over the last decades, the vehicle industry has shown increased interest in integrating autonomous, connected, and electrical technologies in vehicle design with the primary hope of improving mobility and road safety while reducing transportation’s environmental impact. Using the State of Maryland (M.D.) in the United States as a pilot study, this research investigates CAVs’ fuel consumption and air pollutants (C.O., PM, and NOx) and utilizes meaningful linear regression models to predict CAV’s environmental effects. Maryland transportation network was simulated in VISUM software, and data on a set of variables were collected through a comprehensive survey. The number of pollutants and fuel consumption were obtained for the time interval 2010 to 2021 from the macro simulation. Eventually, four linear regression models were proposed to predict the amount of C.O., NOx, PM pollutants, and fuel consumption in the future. The results highlighted that CAVs’ pollutants and fuel consumption have a significant correlation with the income, age, and race of the CAV customers. Furthermore, the reliability of four statistical models was compared with the reliability of macro simulation model outputs in the year 2030. The error of three pollutants and fuel consumption was obtained at less than 9% by statistical models in SPSS. This study is expected to assist researchers and policymakers with planning decisions to reduce CAV environmental impacts in M.D.

Keywords: connected and autonomous vehicles, statistical model, environmental effects, pollutants and fuel consumption, VISUM, linear regression models

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1897 Sensitivity of Credit Default Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz


Risk premium of emerging markets are moving altogether depending on the momentum and shifts in the global risk appetite. However, the magnitudes of these changes in the risk premium of emerging market economies might vary. In this paper, we focus on how global risk factor affects credit default swaps (CDS) premiums of emerging markets using principal component analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. PCA results indicate that the first common component accounts for almost 76% of common variation in CDS premiums of emerging markets. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are employed to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. There are two main macroeconomic variables that affect the sensitivity; government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP. The countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: emerging markets, principal component analysis, credit default swaps, sovereign risk

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1896 Impacts of Urban Morphologies on Air Pollutants Dispersion in Porto's Urban Area

Authors: Sandra Rafael, Bruno Vicente, Vera Rodrigues, Carlos Borrego, Myriam Lopes


Air pollution is an environmental and social issue at different spatial scales, especially in a climate change context, with an expected decrease of air quality. Air pollution is a combination of high emissions and unfavourable weather conditions, where wind speed and wind direction play a key role. The urban design (location and structure of buildings and trees) can both promote the air pollutants dispersion as well as promote their retention within the urban area. Today, most of the urban areas are applying measures to adapt to future extreme climatic events. Most of these measures are grounded on nature-based solutions, namely green roofs and green areas. In this sense, studies are required to evaluate how the implementation of these actions will influence the wind flow within the urban area and, consequently, how this will influence air pollutants' dispersion. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a set of urban morphologies in the wind conditions and in the dispersion of air pollutants, in a built-up area in Portugal. For that, two pollutants were analysed (NOx and PM10) and four scenarios were developed: i) a baseline scenario, which characterizes the current status of the study area, ii) an urban green scenario, which implies the implementation of a green area inside the domain, iii) a green roof scenario, which consists in the implementation of green roofs in a specific area of the domain; iv) a 'grey' scenario, which consists in a scenario with absence of vegetation. For that, two models were used, namely the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the CFD model VADIS (pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere under variable wind conditions). The WRF model was used to initialize the CFD model, while the last was used to perform the set of numerical simulations, on an hourly basis. The implementation of the green urban area promoted a reduction of air pollutants' concentrations, 16% on average, related to the increase in the wind flow, which promotes air pollutants dispersion; while the application of green roofs showed an increase of concentrations (reaching 60% during specific time periods). Overall the results showed that a strategic placement of vegetation in cities has the potential to make an important contribution to increase air pollutants dispersion and so promote the improvement of air quality and sustainability of urban environments.

Keywords: air pollutants dispersion, wind conditions, urban morphologies, road traffic emissions

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1895 Age-Stereotypes of Emerging Adults within the South African Work Environment

Authors: Bronwyn Bell, Lizelle Brink


Workplaces of today are populated by employees from different generations; emerging adults being the most recent demographic group entering the workplace. These individuals form part of Generation Y and are between the ages of 18 to 25. Emerging adults bring unique and different characteristics to the workplace. These individuals also differ from other generations with regards to their employment desires and ways of working. Age-stereotypes of emerging adults is, therefore, a common occurrence within workplaces. The general objective of the study was therefore to explore age-related stereotypes experienced regarding emerging adults within the South African work context and to determine the influences thereof. A qualitative research design from the social constructivism paradigm was employed in order to reach the objectives of this research study. A phenomenological approach using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling was employed within this study. A sample of 25 employees (N = 25) from various South African organisations were interviewed for the purpose of this study and formed part of three generations namely Generation Y, Generation X and Baby Boomers. In order to analyse the collected data, the steps of thematic analysis were used. The main findings of this study indicated that emerging adults experience various positive and negative stereotypes within the workplace. Results further indicated that these stereotypes influence emerging adults in a behavioural, cognitive and emotional manner. These stereotypes also influence the way emerging adults are treated by older employees within the workplace. Recommendations based on the results of this study were made for future research and practice. This study creates awareness within organisations regarding age-stereotypes of emerging adults. By being aware, employees can manage the influences thereof within the workplace.

Keywords: age-stereotypes, baby boomers, emerging adults, generation x, generation y, South African work environment, stereotypes

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1894 Performance of CALPUFF Dispersion Model for Investigation the Dispersion of the Pollutants Emitted from an Industrial Complex, Daura Refinery, to an Urban Area in Baghdad

Authors: Ramiz M. Shubbar, Dong In Lee, Hatem A. Gzar, Arthur S. Rood


Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental problems in Baghdad, Iraq. The Daura refinery located nearest the center of Baghdad, represents the largest industrial area, which transmits enormous amounts of pollutants, therefore study the gaseous pollutants and particulate matter are very important to the environment and the health of the workers in refinery and the people whom leaving in areas around the refinery. Actually, some studies investigated the studied area before, but it depended on the basic Gaussian equation in a simple computer programs, however, that kind of work at that time is very useful and important, but during the last two decades new largest production units were added to the Daura refinery such as, PU_3 (Power unit_3 (Boiler 11&12)), CDU_1 (Crude Distillation unit_70000 barrel_1), and CDU_2 (Crude Distillation unit_70000 barrel_2). Therefore, it is necessary to use new advanced model to study air pollution at the region for the new current years, and calculation the monthly emission rate of pollutants through actual amounts of fuel which consumed in production unit, this may be lead to accurate concentration values of pollutants and the behavior of dispersion or transport in study area. In this study to the best of author’s knowledge CALPUFF model was used and examined for first time in Iraq. CALPUFF is an advanced non-steady-state meteorological and air quality modeling system, was applied to investigate the pollutants concentration of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM1-10μm, at areas adjacent to Daura refinery which located in the center of Baghdad in Iraq. The CALPUFF modeling system includes three main components: CALMET is a diagnostic 3-dimensional meteorological model, CALPUFF (an air quality dispersion model), CALPOST is a post processing package, and an extensive set of preprocessing programs produced to interface the model to standard routinely available meteorological and geophysical datasets. The targets of this work are modeling and simulation the four pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and PM1-10μm) which emitted from Daura refinery within one year. Emission rates of these pollutants were calculated for twelve units includes thirty plants, and 35 stacks by using monthly average of the fuel amount consumption at this production units. Assess the performance of CALPUFF model in this study and detect if it is appropriate and get out predictions of good accuracy compared with available pollutants observation. CALPUFF model was investigated at three stability classes (stable, neutral, and unstable) to indicate the dispersion of the pollutants within deferent meteorological conditions. The simulation of the CALPUFF model showed the deferent kind of dispersion of these pollutants in this region depends on the stability conditions and the environment of the study area, monthly, and annual averages of pollutants were applied to view the dispersion of pollutants in the contour maps. High values of pollutants were noticed in this area, therefore this study recommends to more investigate and analyze of the pollutants, reducing the emission rate of pollutants by using modern techniques and natural gas, increasing the stack height of units, and increasing the exit gas velocity from stacks.

Keywords: CALPUFF, daura refinery, Iraq, pollutants

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1893 A Study of Anoxic - Oxic Microbiological Technology for Treatment of Heavy Oily Refinery Wastewater

Authors: Di Wang, Li Fang, Shengyu Fang, Jianhua Li, Honghong Dong, Zhongzhi Zhang


Heavy oily refinery wastewater with the characteristics of high concentration of toxic organic pollutant, poor biodegradability and complicated dissolved recalcitrant compounds is intractable to be degraded. In order to reduce the concentrations of COD and total nitrogen pollutants which are the major pollutants in heavy oily refinery wastewater, the Anoxic - Oxic microbiological technology relies mainly on anaerobic microbial reactor which works with methanogenic archaea mainly that can convert organic pollutants to methane gas, and supplemented by aerobic treatment. The results of continuous operation for 2 months with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60h showed that, the COD concentration from influent water of anaerobic reactor and effluent water from aerobic reactor were 547.8mg/L and 93.85mg/L, respectively. The total removal rate of COD was up to 84.9%. Compared with the 46.71mg/L of total nitrogen pollutants in influent water of anaerobic reactor, the concentration of effluent water of aerobic reactor decreased to 14.11mg/L. In addition, the average removal rate of total nitrogen pollutants reached as high as 69.8%. Based on the data displayed, Anoxic - Oxic microbial technology shows a great potential to dispose heavy oil sewage in energy saving and high-efficiency of biodegradation.

Keywords: anoxic - oxic microbiological technology, COD, heavy oily refinery wastewater, total nitrogen pollutant

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1892 Time Variance and Spillover Effects between International Crude Oil Price and Ten Emerging Equity Markets

Authors: Murad A. Bein


This paper empirically examines the time-varying relationship and spillover effects between the international crude oil price and ten emerging equity markets, namely three oil-exporting countries (Brazil, Mexico, and Russia) and seven Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The results revealed that there are spillover effects from oil markets into almost all emerging equity markets save Slovakia. Besides, the oil supply glut had a homogenous effect on the emerging markets, both net oil-exporting, and oil-importing countries (CEE). Further, the time variance drastically increased during financial turmoil. Indeed, the time variance remained high from 2009 to 2012 in response to aggregate demand shocks (global financial crisis and Eurozone debt crisis) and quantitative easing measures. Interestingly, the time variance was slightly higher for the oil-exporting countries than for some of the CEE countries. Decision-makers in emerging economies should therefore seek policy coordination when dealing with financial turmoil.

Keywords: crude oil, spillover effects, emerging equity, time-varying, aggregate demand shock

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1891 Clustering of Extremes in Financial Returns: A Comparison between Developed and Emerging Markets

Authors: Sara Ali Alokley, Mansour Saleh Albarrak


This paper investigates the dependency or clustering of extremes in the financial returns data by estimating the extremal index value θ∈[0,1]. The smaller the value of θ the more clustering we have. Here we apply the method of Ferro and Segers (2003) to estimate the extremal index for a range of threshold values. We compare the dependency structure of extremes in the developed and emerging markets. We use the financial returns of the stock market index in the developed markets of US, UK, France, Germany and Japan and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Saudi Arabia. We expect that more clustering occurs in the emerging markets. This study will help to understand the dependency structure of the financial returns data.

Keywords: clustring, extremes, returns, dependency, extermal index

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1890 A Prediction Method of Pollutants Distribution Pattern: Flare Motion Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Fluent Model with Weather Research Forecast Input Model during Transition Season

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa, Lathifah Al Hakimi, Aulia Husada


A large amount of energy is being wasted by the release of natural gas associated with the oil industry. This release interrupts the environment particularly atmosphere layer condition globally which contributes to global warming impact. This research presents an overview of the methods employed by researchers in PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia in the Minas area to determine a new prediction method of measuring and reducing gas flaring and its emission. The method emphasizes advanced research which involved analytical studies, numerical studies, modeling, and computer simulations, amongst other techniques. A flaring system is the controlled burning of natural gas in the course of routine oil and gas production operations. This burning occurs at the end of a flare stack or boom. The combustion process releases emissions of greenhouse gases such as NO2, CO2, SO2, etc. This condition will affect the chemical composition of air and environment around the boundary layer mainly during transition season. Transition season in Indonesia is absolutely very difficult condition to predict its pattern caused by the difference of two air mass conditions. This paper research focused on transition season in 2013. A simulation to create the new pattern of the pollutants distribution is needed. This paper has outlines trends in gas flaring modeling and current developments to predict the dominant variables in the pollutants distribution. A Fluent model is used to simulate the distribution of pollutants gas coming out of the stack, whereas WRF model output is used to overcome the limitations of the analysis of meteorological data and atmospheric conditions in the study area. Based on the running model, the most influence factor was wind speed. The goal of the simulation is to predict the new pattern based on the time of fastest wind and slowest wind occurs for pollutants distribution. According to the simulation results, it can be seen that the fastest wind (last of March) moves pollutants in a horizontal direction and the slowest wind (middle of May) moves pollutants vertically. Besides, the design of flare stack in compliance according to EPA Oil and Gas Facility Stack Parameters likely shows pollutants concentration remains on the under threshold NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards).

Keywords: flare motion, new prediction, pollutants distribution, transition season, WRF model

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1889 The Term Structure of Government Bond Yields in an Emerging Market: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan Bond Market

Authors: Wali Ullah, Muhammad Nishat


The study investigates the extent to which the so called Nelson-Siegel model (DNS) and its extended version that accounts for time varying volatility (DNS-EGARCH) can optimally fit the yield curve and predict its future path in the context of an emerging economy. For the in-sample fit, both models fit the curve remarkably well even in the emerging markets. However, the DNS-EGARCH model fits the curve slightly better than the DNS. Moreover, both specifications of yield curve that are based on the Nelson-Siegel functional form outperform the benchmark VAR forecasts at all forecast horizons. The DNS-EGARCH comes with more precise forecasts than the DNS for the 6- and 12-month ahead forecasts, while the two have almost similar performance in terms of RMSE for the very short forecast horizons.

Keywords: yield curve, forecasting, emerging markets, Kalman filter, EGARCH

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1888 Attachment Style, Attachment Figure, and Intimate Relationship among Emerging Adults with Anxiety and Depression

Authors: P. K. Raheemudheen, Vibha Sharma, C. B. Tripathi


Background and Aim: Intimate relationships are one of the major sources of unhappiness for emerging adults(18-25 years) and the extent of worry from it is higher for them as compared to older adults. This increases their vulnerability to develop anxiety and depression. Current academic literature have highlighted adult attachment have a crucial role in determining the psycho social adjustment and psychopathology in Emerging Adulthood. In this context, present study is an attempt to explore patterns of adult attachment styles, availability of attachment figures and dimensions of intimate relationship among emerging adults. Method: The participants(n=30) were emerging adults diagnosed with anxiety or/and depression seeking treatment from IHBAS, Delhi. Relationship Style Questionnaire was used to assess the adult attachment styles and Multidimensional Relationship Questionnaire was used to assess dimensions of intimate relationship. Results& Discussion: Results showed that majority of the participants have insecure attachment styles. They perceived their attachment figure as insensitive and unavailable. Further, it was found that participants experience multiple difficulties to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships. These findings highlight Adult attachment insecurities seem to contribute to anxiety and depression among emerging adults. It proved a conceptual foundation for planning interventions to deal with these attachment based correlate of anxiety and depression which may be more amenable to therapeutic change.

Keywords: emerging adult, adult attachment, intimate relationship, anxiety

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1887 Different Tools and Complex Approach for Improving Phytoremediation Technology

Authors: T. Varazi, M. Pruidze, M. Kurashvili, N. Gagelidze, M. Sutton


The complex phytoremediation approach given in the presented work implies joint application of natural sorbents, microorganisms, natural biosurfactants and plants. The approach is based on using the natural mineral composites, microorganism strains with high detoxification abilities, plants-phytoremediators and natural biosurfactants for enhancing the uptake of intermediates of pollutants by plant roots. In this complex strategy of phytoremediation technology, the sorbent serves to uptake and trap the pollutants and thus restrain their emission in the environment. The role of microorganisms is to accomplish the first stage biodegradation of organic contaminants. This is followed by application of a phytoremediation technology through purposeful planting of selected plants. Thus, using of different tools will provide restoration of polluted environment and prevention of toxic compounds’ dissemination from hotbeds of pollution for a considerable length of time. The main idea and novelty of the carried out work is the development of a new approach for the ecological safety. The wide spectrum of contaminants: Organochlorine pesticide – DDT, heavy metal –Cu, oil hydrocarbon (hexadecane) and wax have been used in this work. The presented complex biotechnology is important from the viewpoint of prevention, providing total rehabilitation of soil. It is unique to chemical pollutants, ecologically friendly and provides the control of erosion of soils.

Keywords: bioremediation, phytoremediation, pollutants, soil contamination

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1886 Development of Non-Point Pollutants Removal Equipments Using Media with Bacillus sp.

Authors: Han-Seul Lee, Min-Koo Kang, Sang-Ill Lee


This study was conducted to reduce runoff by rainwater infiltration facility using attached growth with Bacillus sp., which are reported to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as organic matter effectively. This study was investigated non-point pollutants removal efficiency of organic, nitrogen, and phosphorus in column using the media attached growth with Bacillus sp. To compare attached growth with bacillus sp. and detached media, two columns filled with perlite, zeolite, vermiculite, pumice, peat-moss was installed. In A column (attached growth with bacillus sp.), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS (suspended solid) 85.8±1.2 %, T-P (total phosphorus) 67.0±8.1 %, T-N (total nitrogen) 66.0±4.9 %, COD (chemical oxygen demand) 73.6±2.9 %, NH4+-N 72.7±3.0 %. In B column (detached media), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS 86.0±2.2 %, T-P 62.5±11.3 %, T-N 53.3±3.9 %, COD 34.6±3.7 %, NH4+-N 61.5±2.8 %. Removal efficiency of A column is better than B column. As the result from this study, using media with Bacillus sp. can improve an effective removal of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: non-point source pollutants, Bacillus sp., rainwater, infiltration facility

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1885 The Sensitivity of Credit Defaults Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz


Changes in the global risk appetite cause co-movement in emerging market risk premiums. However, the sensitivity of the changes in risk premium to the global risk appetite may vary across emerging markets. In this study, how the global risk appetite affects Credit Default Swap (CDS) premiums in emerging markets are analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. The PCA results indicate that the first common component derived by the PCA accounts for almost 76 percent of the common variation in CDS premiums. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over the sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are used to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. The panel regression results point to the significance of government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP in explaining sensitivity. Accordingly, countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: credit default swaps, emerging markets, principal components analysis, sovereign risk

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1884 Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Juan L. Acero, Francisco J. Real, Elena Rodriguez


Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.

Keywords: water purification, UV activated persulfate, kinetic study, sulfate radicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 62