Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1201

Search results for: solar dryer

1201 Drying of Agro-Industrial Wastes Using a Cabinet Type Solar Dryer

Authors: N. Metidji, O. Badaoui, A. Djebli, H. Bendjebbas, R. Sellami


The agro-industry is considered as one of the most waste producing industrial fields as a result of food processing. Upgrading and reuse of these wastes as animal or poultry food seems to be a promising alternative. Combined with the use of clean energy resources, the recovery process would contribute more to the environment protection. It is in this framework that a new solar dryer has been designed in the Unit of Solar Equipment Development. Direct solar drying has, also, many advantages compared to natural sun drying. In fact, the first does not cause product degradation as it is protected by the drying chamber from direct sun, insects and exterior environment. The aim of this work is to study the drying kinetics of waste, generated during the processing of pepper, by using a direct natural convection solar dryer at 35◦C and 55◦C. The rate of moisture removal from the product to be dried has been found to be directly related to temperature, humidity and flow rate. The characterization of these parameters has allowed the determination of the appropriate drying time for this product namely peppers waste.

Keywords: solar energy, solar dryer, energy conversion, pepper drying, forced convection solar dryer

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1200 Drying of Agro-Industrial Wastes Using an Indirect Solar Dryer

Authors: N. Metidji, N. Kasbadji Merzouk, O. Badaoui, R. Sellami, A. Djebli


The Agro-industry is considered as one of the most waste producing industrial fields as a result of food processing. Upgrading and reuse of these wastes as animal or poultry food seems to be a promising alternative. Combined with the use of clean energy resources, the recovery process would contribute more to the environment protection. It is in this framework that a new solar dryer has been designed in the Unit of Solar Equipments Development. Indirect solar drying has, also, many advantages compared to natural sun drying. In fact, the first does not cause product degradation as it is protected by the drying chamber from direct sun, insects and exterior environment. The aim of this work is to study the drying kinetics of waste, generated during the processing of orange to make fruit juice, by using an indirect forced convection solar dryer at 50 °C and 60 °C, the rate of moisture removal from the product to be dried has been found to be directly related to temperature, humidity and flow rate. The characterization of these parameters has allowed the determination of the appropriate drying time for this product namely orange waste.

Keywords: solar energy, solar dryer, energy conversion, orange drying, forced convection solar dryer

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1199 Performance Optimization of Low-Cost Solar Dryer Using Modified PI Controller

Authors: Rajesh Kondareddy, Prakash Kumar Nayak, Maunash Das, Vrinatri Velentina Boro


Today, there is a huge global concern for sustainable development which would include minimizing the consumption of non-renewable energies without affecting the basic global economy. Solar drying is one of the important processes used for extending the shelf life of agricultural products. The performance of a low cost automated solar dryer fitted with cascade control scheme and modified PI controller for drying chilli was investigated. The dryer was composed of designed solar collector (air heater) fitted with cylindrical pipes to improve the air velocity and a solar drying chamber containing rack of two cheese cloth (net) trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channelled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded). Here, to maintain the temperature in the heating chambers and to improve performance, a modified PI (Proportional–Integral) controller was used due its simplicity and robustness. Drying time for drying chilli from the initial moisture content of 88.5% (wb) to 7.3% (wb) was estimated to be 14 hours in solar dryer whereas 32 h was observed in the open sun drying.

Keywords: cascade control, chilli, PI controller, solar dryer

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1198 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari


Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiency

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1197 Development of a Passive Solar Tomato Dryer with Movable Heat Storage System

Authors: Jacob T. Liberty, Wilfred I. Okonkwo


The present study designed and constructed a post-harvest passive solar tomato dryer of dimension 176 x 152 x 54cm for drying tomato. Quality of the dried crop was evaluated and compared with the fresh ones. The solar dryer consist of solar collector (air heater), 110 x 61 x 10 x 10cm, the drying chamber, 102 x54cm, removal heat storage unit, 40 x 35 x 13cm and drying trays, 43 x 42cm. The physicochemical properties of this crop were evaluated before and after drying. Physicochemical properties evaluated includes moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C, contents. The fresh, open and solar dried samples were analysed for their proximate composition using the recommended method of AOAC. Also, statistical analysis of the data was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely Randomize Design (CRD) and means were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (DNMRT). Proximate analysis showed that solar dried tomato had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C except for the fat content that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all the open sun dried samples than the solar dried and fresh product. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. Result indicates that moisture loss in solar dried tomato was faster and lower than the open dried samples and as such makes the solar dried products of lesser tendency to mould and bacterial growth. Also, the open sun dried samples had to be carried into the sheltered place each time it rained. The solar dried produce is of high quality. Further processing of the dried crops will involve packaging for commercial purposes. This will also help in making these agricultural product available in a relatively cheap price in off season and also avert micronutrient deficiencies in diet especially among the low-income groups in Nigeria.

Keywords: tomato, passive solar dryer, physicochemical properties, removal heat storage

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1196 Development of Solar Poly House Tunnel Dryer (STD) for Medicinal Plants

Authors: N. C. Shahi, Anupama Singh, E. Kate


Drying is practiced to enhance the storage life, to minimize losses during storage, and to reduce transportation costs of agricultural products. Drying processes range from open sun drying to industrial drying. In most of the developing countries, use of fossil fuels for drying of agricultural products has not been practically feasible due to unaffordable costs to majority of the farmers. On the other hand, traditional open sun drying practiced on a large scale in the rural areas of the developing countries suffers from high product losses due to inadequate drying, fungal growth, encroachment of insects, birds and rodents, etc. To overcome these problems a middle technology dryer having low cost need to be developed for farmers. In case of mechanical dryers, the heated air is the main driving force for removal of moisture. The air is heated either electrically or by burning wood, coal, natural gas etc. using heaters. But, all these common sources have finite supplies. The lifetime is estimated to range from 15 years for a natural gas to nearly 250 years for coal. So, mankind must turn towards its safe and reliable utilization and may have undesirable side effects. The mechanical drying involves higher cost of drying and open sun drying deteriorates the quality. The solar tunnel dryer is one of promising option for drying various agricultural and agro-industrial products on large scale. The advantage of Solar tunnel dryer is its relatively cheaper cost of construction and operation. Although many solar dryers have been developed, still there is a scope of modification in them. Therefore, an attempt was made to develop Solar tunnel dryer and test its performance using highly perishable commodity i.e. leafy vegetables (spinach). The effect of air velocity, loading density and shade net on performance parameters namely, collector efficiency, drying efficiency, overall efficiency of dryer and specific heat energy consumption were also studied. Thus, the need for an intermediate level technology was realized and an effort was made to develop a small scale Solar Tunnel Dryer . A dryer consisted of base frame, semi cylindrical drying chamber, solar collector and absorber, air distribution system with chimney and auxiliary heating system, and wheels for its mobility were the main functional components. Drying of fenugreek was carried out to analyze the performance of the dryer. The Solar Tunnel Dryer temperature was maintained using the auxiliary heating system. The ambient temperature was in the range of 12-33oC. The relative humidity was found inside and outside the Solar Tunnel Dryer in the range of 21-75% and 35-79%, respectively. The solar radiation was recorded in the range of 350-780W/m2 during the experimental period. Studies revealed that total drying time was in range of 230 to 420 min. The drying time in Solar Tunnel Dryer was considerably reduced by 67% as compared to sun drying. The collector efficiency, drying efficiency, overall efficiency and specific heat consumption were determined and were found to be in the range of 50.06- 38.71%, 15.53-24.72%, 4.25 to 13.34% and 1897.54-3241.36 kJ/kg, respectively.

Keywords: overall efficiency, solar tunnel dryer, specific heat consumption, sun drying

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1195 Dimensioning of a Solar Dryer with Application of an Experiment Design Method for Drying Food Products

Authors: B. Touati, A. Saad, B. Lips, A. Abdenbi, M. Mokhtari.


The purpose of this study is an application of experiment design method for dimensioning of a solar drying system. NIMROD software was used to build up the matrix of experiments and to analyze the results. The software has the advantages of being easy to use and consists of a forced way, with some choices about the number and range of variation of the parameters, and the desired polynomial shape. The first design of experiments performed concern the drying with constant input characteristics of the hot air in the dryer and a second design of experiments in which the drying chamber is coupled with a solar collector. The first design of experiments allows us to study the influence of various parameters and get the studied answers in a polynomial form. The correspondence between the polynomial thus determined, and the model results were good. The results of the polynomials of the second design of experiments and those of the model are worse than the results in the case of drying with constant input conditions. This is due to the strong link between all the input parameters, especially, the surface of the sensor and the drying chamber, and the mass of the product.

Keywords: solar drying, experiment design method, NIMROD, mint leaves

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1194 Economic Assessment of the Fish Solar Tent Dryers

Authors: Collen Kawiya


In an effort of reducing post-harvest losses and improving the supply of quality fish products in Malawi, the fish solar tent dryers have been designed in the southern part of Lake Malawi for processing small fish species under the project of Cultivate Africa’s Future (CultiAF). This study was done to promote the adoption of the fish solar tent dryers by the many small scale fish processors in Malawi through the assessment of the economic viability of these dryers. With the use of the project’s baseline survey data, a business model for a constructed ‘ready for use’ solar tent dryer was developed where investment appraisal techniques were calculated in addition with the sensitivity analysis. The study also conducted a risk analysis through the use of the Monte Carlo simulation technique and a probabilistic net present value was found. The investment appraisal results showed that the net present value was US$8,756.85, the internal rate of return was 62% higher than the 16.32% cost of capital and the payback period was 1.64 years. The sensitivity analysis results showed that only two input variables influenced the fish solar dryer investment’s net present value. These are the dried fish selling prices that were correlating positively with the net present value and the fresh fish buying prices that were negatively correlating with the net present value. Risk analysis results showed that the chances that fish processors will make a loss from this type of investment are 17.56%. It was also observed that there exist only a 0.20 probability of experiencing a negative net present value from this type of investment. Lastly, the study found that the net present value of the fish solar tent dryer’s investment is still robust in spite of any changes in the levels of investors risk preferences. With these results, it is concluded that the fish solar tent dryers in Malawi are an economically viable investment because they are able to improve the returns in the fish processing activity. As such, fish processors need to adopt them by investing their money to construct and use them.

Keywords: investment appraisal, risk analysis, sensitivity analysis, solar tent drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1193 Quality Analysis of Lake Malawi's Diplotaxodon Fish Species Processed in Solar Tent Dryer versus Open Sun Drying

Authors: James Banda, Jupiter Simbeye, Essau Chisale, Geoffrey Kanyerere, Kings Kamtambe


Improved solar tent dryers for processing small fish species were designed to reduce post-harvest fish losses and improve supply of quality fish products in the southern part of Lake Malawi under CultiAF project. A comparative analysis of the quality of Diplotaxodon (Ndunduma) from Lake Malawi processed in solar tent dryer and open sun drying was conducted using proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Proximates for solar tent dried fish and open sun dried fish in terms of proteins, fats, moisture and ash were 63.3±0.15% and 63.3±0.34%, 19.6±0.09% and 19.9±0.25%, 8.3±0.12% and 17.0±0.01%, and 15.6±0.61% and 21.9±0.91% respectively. Crude protein and crude fat showed non-significant differences (p = 0.05), while moisture and ash content were significantly different (p = 001). Open sun dried fish had significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria counts (5.2×10⁶ CFU) than solar tent dried fish (3.9×10² CFU). Most isolated bacteria from solar tent dried and open sun dried fish were 1.0×10¹ and 7.2×10³ for Total coliform, 0 and 4.5 × 10³ for Escherishia coli, 0 and 7.5 × 10³ for Salmonella, 0 and 5.7×10² for shigella, 4.0×10¹ and 6.1×10³ for Staphylococcus, 1.0×10¹ and 7.0×10² for vibrio. Qualitative evaluation of sensory properties showed higher acceptability of 3.8 for solar tent dried fish than 1.7 for open sun dried fish. It is concluded that promotion of solar tent drying in processing small fish species in Malawi would support small-scale fish processors to produce quality fish in terms of nutritive value, reduced microbial contamination, sensory acceptability and reduced moisture content.

Keywords: diplotaxodon, Malawi, open sun drying, solar tent drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1192 Finite Element Modeling of Mass Transfer Phenomenon and Optimization of Process Parameters for Drying of Paddy in a Hybrid Solar Dryer

Authors: Aprajeeta Jha, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy


Drying technologies for various food processing operations shares an inevitable linkage with energy, cost and environmental sustainability. Hence, solar drying of food grains has become imperative choice to combat duo challenges of meeting high energy demand for drying and to address climate change scenario. But performance and reliability of solar dryers depend hugely on sunshine period, climatic conditions, therefore, offer a limited control over drying conditions and have lower efficiencies. Solar drying technology, supported by Photovoltaic (PV) power plant and hybrid type solar air collector can potentially overpower the disadvantages of solar dryers. For development of such robust hybrid dryers; to ensure quality and shelf-life of paddy grains the optimization of process parameter becomes extremely critical. Investigation of the moisture distribution profile within the grains becomes necessary in order to avoid over drying or under drying of food grains in hybrid solar dryer. Computational simulations based on finite element modeling can serve as potential tool in providing a better insight of moisture migration during drying process. Hence, present work aims at optimizing the process parameters and to develop a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture profile in paddy during solar drying. COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to develop a 3D finite element model for predicting moisture profile. Furthermore, optimization of process parameters (power level, air velocity and moisture content) was done using response surface methodology in design expert software. 3D finite element model (FEM) for predicting moisture migration in single kernel for every time step has been developed and validated with experimental data. The mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative error (MRE) and standard error (SE) were found to be 0.003, 0.0531 and 0.0007, respectively, indicating close agreement of model with experimental results. Furthermore, optimized process parameters for drying paddy were found to be 700 W, 2.75 m/s at 13% (wb) with optimum temperature, milling yield and drying time of 42˚C, 62%, 86 min respectively, having desirability of 0.905. Above optimized conditions can be successfully used to dry paddy in PV integrated solar dryer in order to attain maximum uniformity, quality and yield of product. PV-integrated hybrid solar dryers can be employed as potential and cutting edge drying technology alternative for sustainable energy and food security.

Keywords: finite element modeling, moisture migration, paddy grain, process optimization, PV integrated hybrid solar dryer

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1191 Effect of Pretreatment on Quality Parameters of Natural Convection Mixed-Mode Solar Dried Potato

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava


With present high global population, the need for rising food usage by minimizing food wastage and investment is highly necessary to achieve food security. The purpose of this study is to enlighten the effect of pre-drying treatment on rehydration, color, texture, nanohardness, microstructure and surface morphology of solar dried potato samples dried in the mixed-mode solar dryer. Locally bought potatoes were cleaned and cut into cylindrical pieces and pretreated with sodium metabisulfite (0.5%) for 10 min before placing them in natural convection solar dryer designed and developed in Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. Advanced quality characteristics were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation method, along with color, texture and water activity. The rehydration indices of solar dried potatoes were significantly biased by pretreatment followed by rehydration temperature. A lower redness index (a*) with a higher value of yellowness index (b*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) were obtained for pretreated samples. Also, the average nanohardness (H) of untreated samples exhibited substantial lower value (18.46%) compared to pretreated samples. Additionally, a creep displacement of 43.27 nm during 20 s dwell time under constant load of 200

Keywords: pretreatment, nanohardness, microstructure, surface morphology

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1190 Production of Banana Milk Powder Using Spray and Freeze Dryer

Authors: Siti Noor Suzila Maqsood-Ul-Haque, Ummi Kalthum Ibrahim, Norekanadirah Abdul Rahman


Banana are rich in vitamins, potassium and carbohydrate.The objective for this research work is to produce banana milk powder that can help children that suffers from constipation. Two types of the most common dryers used for this purpose are the spray and freeze dryer. The effects of the type of dryers, pump feed speed in the spray dryer and the ratio proportion of the banana milk powder were investigated in the study. The result indicate that increasing proportion ratio of the banana milk powder produce lower yield of the powder.From the result it is also concluded that speed 2 is more suitable in the production of the banana milk powder since the value of the moisture content is lower.

Keywords: freeze dryer, spray dryer, moisture content, dissolution, banana, milk

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1189 Performance of Photovoltaic Thermal Greenhouse Dryer in Composite Climate of India

Authors: G. N. Tiwari, Shyam


Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) roof type greenhouse dryer installed above the wind tower of SODHA BERS COMPLEX, Varanasi has been analyzed for all types of weather conditions. The product to be dried has been kept at three different trays. The upper tray receives energy from the PV cover while the bottom tray receives thermal energy from the hot air of the wind tower. The annual energy estimation has been done for the all types of weather condition of composite climate of northern India. It has been found that maximum energy saving is observed for c type of weather condition whereas minimum energy saving is observed for a type of weather condition. The energy saving on overall thermal energy basis and exergy basis are 1206.8 kWh and 360 kWh respectively for c type of weather condition. The energy saving from all types of weather condition are found to be 3175.3 kWh and 957.6 kWh on overall thermal energy and overall exergy basis respectively.

Keywords: exergy, greenhouse, photovoltaic thermal, solar dryer

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1188 Alternative Animal Feed Additive Obtain with Different Drying Methods from Carrot Unsuitable for Human Consumption

Authors: Rabia Göçmen, Gülşah Kanbur, Sinan Sefa Parlat


This study was conducted to determine that carrot powder obtain by different drying methods (oven and vacuum-freeze dryer) of carrot unfit for human consumption that whether feed additives in animal nutrition or not. Carrots randomly divided 2 groups. First group was dried by using oven, second group was by using vacuum freeze dryer methods. Dried carrot prepared from fresh carrot was analysed nutrient matter (energy, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, beta carotene, mineral concentration and colour). The differences between groups in terms of energy, crude protein, ash, Ca and Mg was not significant (P> 0,05). Crude oil, P, beta carotene content and colour values (L, a, b) with vacuum-freeze dryer group was greater than oven group (P<0,05). Consequently, carrot powder obtained by drying the vacuum-freeze dryer method can be used as a source of carotene.

Keywords: carrot, vacuum freeze dryer, oven, beta carotene

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1187 Efficiency Enhancement in Solar Panel

Authors: R. S. Arun Raj


In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is the solar energy. The SUN provides every hour as much energy as mankind consumes in one year. This paper clearly explains about the solar panel design and new models and methodologies that can be implemented for better utilization of solar energy. Minimisation of losses in solar panel as heat is my innovative idea revolves around. The pay back calculations by implementation of solar panels is also quoted.

Keywords: on-grid and off-grid systems, pyro-electric effect, pay-back calculations, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
1186 A Technical-Economical Study of a New Solar Tray Distillator

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Assia Cherfa, Lamia Karadaniz


Multiple tray solar distillation offers an interesting alternative for small-scale desalination and production high quality distilled water at a competitive cost using solar energy. In this work, we present indoor/outdoor trial performance data of our multiple tray solar distillation as well as the results of cost estimation analysis.

Keywords: solar desalination, tray distillation, multi-étages solaire, solar distillation

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1185 Influence of Flight Design on Discharging Profiles of Granular Material in Rotary Dryer

Authors: I. Benhsine, M. Hellou, F. Lominé, Y. Roques


During the manufacture of fertilizer, it is necessary to add water for granulation purposes. The water content is then removed or reduced using rotary dryers. They are commonly used to dry wet granular materials and they are usually fitted with lifting flights. The transport of granular materials occurs when particles cascade from the lifting flights and fall into the air stream. Each cascade consists of a lifting and a falling cycle. Lifting flights are thus of great importance for the transport of granular materials along the dryer. They also enhance the contact between solid particles and the air stream. Optimization of the drying process needs an understanding of the behavior of granular materials inside a rotary dryer. Different approaches exist to study the movement of granular materials inside the dryer. Most common of them are based on empirical formulations or on study the movement of the bulk material. In the present work, we are interested in the behavior of each particle in the cross section of the dryer using Discrete Element Method (DEM) to understand. In this paper, we focus on studying the hold-up, the cascade patterns, the falling time and the falling length of the particles leaving the flights. We will be using two segment flights. Three different profiles are used: a straight flight (180° between both segments), an angled flight (with an angle of 150°), and a right-angled flight (90°). The profile of the flight affects significantly the movement of the particles in the dryer. Changing the flight angle changes the flight capacity which leads to different discharging profile of the flight, thus affecting the hold-up in the flight. When the angle of the flight is reduced, the range of the discharge angle increases leading to a more uniformed cascade pattern in time. The falling length and the falling time of the particles also increase up to a maximum value then they start decreasing. Moreover, the results show an increase in the falling length and the falling time up to 70% and 50%, respectively, when using a right-angled flight instead of a straight one.

Keywords: discrete element method, granular materials, lifting flight, rotary dryer

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1184 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert


Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1183 Development of Drying System for Dew Collection to Supplement Minimum Water Required for Grazing Plants in Arid Regions

Authors: Mohamed I. Alzarah


Passive dew harvesting and rainwater collection requires a very small financial investment meanwhile they can exploit a free and clean source of water in rural or remote areas. Dew condensation on greenhouse dryer cladding and assorted other surfaces was frequently noticed. Accordingly, this study was performed in order to measure the quantity of condensation in the arid regions. Dew was measured by using three different kinds of collectors which were glass of flat plate solar collector, tempered glass of photovoltaic (PV) and double sloped (25°) acrylic plexiglas of greenhouse dryer. The total amount of dew collection for three different types of collectors was measured during December 2013 to March 2014 in Alahsa, Saudi Arabia. Meteorological data were collected for one year. The condensate dew drops were collected naturally (before scraping) and by scraping once and twice. Dew began to condense most likely between 12:00 am and 6:30 am and its intensity reached the peak at about 45 min before sunrise. The cumulative dew yield on double-sloped test roof was varying with wind speed and direction. Results indicated that, wiping twice gave more dew yield compared to wiping once or collection by gravity. Dew and rain pH were neutral (close to 7) and the total mineralization was considerable. The ions concentration agrees with the World Health Organization recommendations for potable water. Using existing drying system for dew and rain harvesting cold provide a potable water source for arid region.

Keywords: PV module, flat plate solar collector, greenhouse, drying system, dew collection, water vapor, rainwater harvesting

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1182 Technical and Economical Feasibility Analysis of Solar Water Pumping System - Case Study in Iran

Authors: A. Gharib, M. Moradi


The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate. Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with a storage battery, AC solar water pumping with a storage tank, and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical and economic feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, solar water pumping system

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1181 Models to Estimate Monthly Mean Daily Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface in Alexandria

Authors: Ahmed R. Abdelaziz, Zaki M. I. Osha


Solar radiation data are of great significance for solar energy system design. This study aims at developing and calibrating new empirical models for estimating monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in Alexandria, Egypt. Day length hours, sun height, day number, and declination angle calculated data are used for this purpose. A comparison between measured and calculated values of solar radiation is carried out. It is shown that all the proposed correlations are able to predict the global solar radiation with excellent accuracy in Alexandria.

Keywords: solar energy, global solar radiation, model, regression coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
1180 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Over Two Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar


Global and Diffuse Solar radiation on horizontal surface over two cities of Sindh, namely Jacobabad and Rohri were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization in Sindh province. The result obtained shows a high variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months (80% direct and 20% diffuse). The contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low even in monsoon months i.e. July and August. The appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated value indicates that this part of Sindh has higher solar potential and solar panels can be used for power generation. The solar energy can be utilized throughout the year in this part of Sindh, Pakistan.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over two cities of Sindh, environmental engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
1179 A Platform to Analyze Controllers for Solar Hot Water Systems

Authors: Aziz Ahmad, Guillermo Ramirez-Prado


Governments around the world encourage the use of solar water heating in residential houses due to the low maintenance requirements and efficiency of the solar collector water heating systems. The aim of this work is to study a domestic solar water heating system in a residential building to develop a model of the entire solar water heating system including flat-plate solar collector and storage tank. The proposed model is adaptable to any households and location. The model can be used to test different types of controllers and can provide efficiency as well as economic analysis. The proposed model is based on the heat and mass transfer equations along with assumptions applied in the model which can be modified for a variety of different solar water heating systems and sizes. Simulation results of the model were compared with the actual system which shows similar trends.

Keywords: solar thermal systems, solar water heating, solar collector model, hot water tank model, solar controllers

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1178 Development of All-in-One Solar Kit

Authors: Azhan Azhar, Mohammed Sakib, Zaurez Ahmad


The energy we receive from the sun is known as solar energy, and it is a reliable, long-lasting, eco-friendly and the most widely used energy source in the 21st century. It is. There are several techniques for harnessing solar energy, and we are all seeing large utility-scale projects to collect maximum amperes from the sun using current technologies. Solar PV is now on the rise as a means of harvesting energy from the sun. Moving a step further, our project is focused on designing an All-in-one portable Solar Energy based solution. We considered the minimum load conditions and evaluated the requirements of various devices utilized in this study to resolve the power requirements of small stores, hawkers, or travelers.

Keywords: DOD-depth of discharge, pulse width modulation charge controller, renewable energy, solar PV- solar photovoltaic

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
1177 The Analysis of Solar Radiation Exergy in Hakkari

Authors: Hasan Yildizhan


According to the Solar Energy Potential Atlas (GEPA) prepared by Turkish Ministry of Energy, Hakkari is ranked first in terms of sunshine duration and it is ranked eighth in terms of solar radiation energy. Accordingly, Hakkari has a rich potential of investment with regard to solar radiation energy. The part of the solar radiation energy arriving on the surface of the earth which is transposable to useful work is determined by means of exergy analysis. In this study, the radiation exergy values for Hakkari have been calculated and evaluated by making use of the monthly average solar radiation energy and temperature values measured by General Directorate of State Meteorology.

Keywords: solar radiation exergy, Hakkari, solar energy potential, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
1176 Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance

Authors: Aysegul Sarac


Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, 6-Sigma methodology, washer-dryers, water condensation technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1175 Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer System in Adjustable Flat Collector Orientation for Commercial Solar Dryers

Authors: Adeaga Ibiyemi Iyabo, Adeaga Oyetunde Adeoye


Interestingly, mechanical drying methods has played a major role in the commercialization of agricultural and agricultural allied sectors. In the overall, drying enhances the favorable storability and preservation of agricultural produce which in turn promotes its producibility, marketability, salability, and profitability. Recent researches have shown that solar drying is easier, affordable, controllable, and of course, cleaner and purer than other means of drying methods. It is, therefore, needful to persistently appraise solar dryers with a view to improving on the existing advantages. In this paper, mathematical equations were formulated for solar dryer using mass conservation law, material balance law and least cost savings method. Computer codes were written in Visual Basic.Net. The developed computer software, which considered Ibadan, a strategic south-western geographical location in Nigeria, was used to investigate the relationship between variable orientation angle of flat plate collector on solar energy trapped, derived monthly heat load, available energy supplied by solar and fraction supplied by solar energy when 50000 Kg/Month of produce was dried over a year. At variable collector tilt angle of 10°.13°,15°,18°, 20°, the derived monthly heat load, available energy supplied by solar were 1211224.63MJ, 102121.34MJ, 0.111; 3299274.63MJ, 10121.34MJ, 0.132; 5999364.706MJ, 171222.859MJ, 0.286; 4211224.63MJ, 132121.34MJ, 0.121; 2200224.63MJ, 112121.34MJ, 0.104, respectively .These results showed that if optimum collector angle is not reached, those factors needed for efficient and cost reduction drying will be difficult to attain. Therefore, this software has revealed that off - optimum collector angle in commercial solar drying does not worth it, hence the importance of the software in decision making as to the optimum collector angle of orientation.

Keywords: energy, ibadan, heat - load,

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1174 Solar Radiation Studies and Performance of Solar Panels for Three Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar


Solar radiation on horizontal surface over three southern cities of Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad and Nawabshah has been investigated to asses the feasibility of solar energy application for power generation. In the present work, measured data of bright sunshine hour of the region have been used to estimate the global and diffuse solar radiation. The regression coefficient 'a' and 'b' have been calculated using first order Angstrom type co-relation. The result obtained shows that the contribution of direct solar radiation is low and diffuse radiation is high during the monsoon months July and August for Karachi and Hyderabad. The sky remains clear from September to June, whereas for Nawabshah the global radiation remains high throughout the year. The potential of grid quality solar photovoltaic power in Karachi is estimated for 10 square meter area of solar panel.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over three cities of Sindh, solar panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1173 The Construction Technology of Dryer Silo Materials to Grains Made from Webbing Bamboo: A Drying Technology Solutions to Empowerment Farmers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Nursigit Bintoro, Abadi Barus, Catur Setyo Dedi Pamungkas


Indonesia is an agrarian country have almost population work as farmers. One of the popular agriculture commodity in Indonesia is paddy and corn. Production of paddy and corn are increased, but not balanced to the development of appropriate technology to farmers. Methods of drying applied with farmers still using sunshine. Drying by this method has some drawbacks, such as differences moisture content of corn grains, time used to dry around 3 days, and less quality of the products obtained. Beside it, the method of drying by using sunshine can’t do when the rainy season arrives. On this season the product obtained has less quality. One solution to the above problems is to create a dryer with simple technology. That technology is made silo dryer from webbing bamboo and wood. This technology is applicable to be applied to farmers' groups as well as the creation technology is quite cheap. The experiment material used in this research will be obtained from the corn grains. The equipment used are woven bamboo with a height of 3 meters and have capacity of up to 900 kgs as a silo, gas, burner, blower, bucket elevators, thermocouple, Arduino microcontroller 2560. This tools automatically records all the data of temperature and relative humidity. During on drying, each 30 minutes take 9 sample for measuring moisture content with moisture meter. By using this technology, farmers can save time, energy, and cost to the drying their agriculture product. In addition, by using this technology have good quality moisture content of grains and have a longer shelf life because the temperature when the heating process is controlled. Therefore, this technology is applicable to be applied to the public because the materials used to make the dryer easier to find, cheaper, and manufacture of the dryer made simple with good quality.

Keywords: grains, dryer, moisture content, appropriate technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1172 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney for Mild or Warm Climates

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin


This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: active and passive solar technologies, solar cooling system, solar chimney, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney

Procedia PDF Downloads 463