Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7450

Search results for: hematological parameters

7450 Hematological Profiles of Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients before and after Treatment of Anti-Leishmanial Drugs at University of Gondar Leishmania Research and Treatment Center Northwest, Ethiopia

Authors: Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Fadil Murad, Mitikie Tigabie, Mareye Abebaw, Tadele Alemu, Sefanit Abate, Rezika Mohammedw, Arega Yeshanew, Elias Shiferaw


Background: Visceral leshimaniasis is a parasitic disease characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells. Hematological parameters of these patients may be affected by the progress of the disease or treatment. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the hematological profiles of visceral leishmaniasis patients before and after treatment. Method: An institutional based retrospective cohort study was conducted among visceral leishmaniasis patients at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center from 2013 to 2018. Hematological profiles before initiation and after completion of treatment were extracted from registration book. Descriptive statics was presented using frequency and percentage. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test were used for comparing mean difference for normally and non- normally distributed data, respectively. Spearman and Pearson correlation analysis was used to describe the correlation of hematological parameters with different variables. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Except absolute nerutrophil count, post treatment hematological parameters show a significant increment compared to pretreatment one. The prevalence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia was 85.5%, 83.4% and 75.8% prior to treatment and it was 58.3%, 38.2% and 19.2% after treatment, respectively. Moreover, parasite load of the disease showed statistically significant negative correlation with hematological profiles mainly with white blood cell and red blood cell. Conclusion: Majority of hematological profiles of patients with active VL have been restored after treatment, which might be associated with treatment effect on parasite proliferation and concentration of parasite in visceral organ, which directly affect hematological profiles.

Keywords: visceral leshimaniasis, hematological profile, anti-leshimanial drug, Gondar

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7449 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary


The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: camel calves, chromium, haematological, immune response

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7448 Toxicological Study of Umbilicus rupesris L. Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

Authors: Afaf Benhouda, Mouloud Yahia, Hachani Khadraoui, Asma Meddour, Souhila Benbia, Abdelmoudjib Ghecham, Djahida Benhouda


Umbilicus rupestris (UR) is an herbal medicine traditionally applied against the ignitions of the skin. The present paper aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity with orally administered methanolic leaves extract of Umbilicus rupestris L (URMeOH). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of rats (n = 6/group/female) were orally treated with doses of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg, and general behaviour, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received URAMeOH by gavage at the doses of 100, 200 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney) were determined. URMeOH did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with URMeOH did not show any change in body weight, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed either in macroscopic or microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Umbilicus rupestris extract could be safe for human use.

Keywords: acute toxicity, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters, Umbilicus rupestris, subacute toxicity

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7447 Impact of Environmental Changes on Blood Parameters in the Pelophylax ridibundus

Authors: Murat Tosunoglu, Cigdem Gul, Nurcihan Hacioglu, Nurdan Tepeova


Amphibian and Reptilian species are influenced by pollution and habitat destruction. Blood parameters of Amphibia species were particularly affected by the negative environmental conditions. Studied frog samples 36 clinically normal Pelophylax ridibundus individuals were captured along the Biga Stream between April–June 2014. When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. locality was a "contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples of the live specimens were obtained in the laboratory within one day of their capture. The blood samples were taken from the etherized frogs by means of ventriculus punctures, via heparinized hematocrit capillaries. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (444210.52-426846.15 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (4215.78-4684.61 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (29.25-29.43 %), hemoglobin concentration (7.76-7.22 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (637.64-719.99 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (184.78-174.75 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (29.44-24.82 %), glucose (103.74-124.13 mg/dl), urea (87.68-81.72 mg/L), cholesterol (148.20-197.39 mg/dl), creatinine (0.29-0.28 mg/dl), uric acid (10.26-7.55 mg/L), albumin (1.13-1.39 g/dl), calcium (11.45-9.70 mg/dl), triglyceride (135.23-155.85 mg/dl), total protein (4.26-3.73 g/dl), phosphorus (6.83-17.86 mg/dl), and magnesium (0.95-1.06 mg/dl). The some hematological parameters in P. ridibundus specimens are given for the first time in this study. No water quality dependent variation was observed in clinic hematology parameters measured.

Keywords: Pelophylax ridibundus, hematological parameters, biochemistry, freshwater quality

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7446 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin


In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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7445 Haematological Alterations in Anemic Bali Cattle Raised in Semi-Intensive Husbandry System

Authors: Jully Handoko, B. Kuntoro, E. Saleh, Sadarman


Most farmers in Bangkinang Seberang sub district raise Bali cattle in semi-intensive husbandry system. The farmers believe that raising such a way is economical and quite effective. The farmers do not need to provide forage and plant feed crops. Furthermore, the raising method is considered not to interfere with the main job. Screening for anemia in Bali cattle of Bangkinang Seberang subdistrict, Kampar regency, Riau, Indonesia, had been conducted. The aim of the study was to analyze hematological alterations in the anemic Bali cattle. A number of 75 Bali cattle were screened for anemia on the basis of Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. The other hematological parameters that were measured including packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The screening showed that 18 (24.00%) of Bali cattle were anemic. Levels of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC in anemic Bali cattle were 7.15±1.61 g/dl, 21.15±4.16%, 3.72±1.10x106/µl, 52.75±4.13 fl, 17.31±1.86 pg and 32.77±1.69 g/dl respectively. Hematological values of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in anemic Bali cattle compared to non-anemic Bali cattle.

Keywords: anemia, Bali cattle, alterations, hematology

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7444 Influence of Copper-Methionine on Hematological and Biochemical Changes and Ascites Incidence in Cold-Stressed Broilers

Authors: M. Bagheri Varzaneh, H. R. Rahmani, R. Jahanian


The present study aimed to investigate the effects of copper-methionine on ascites incidence and hematological, morphological and enzymatic responses in broiler chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including two ambient temperatures (thermoneutral and cold stress) and three copper levels (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg as copper-methionine) with 4 replicates (20 birds in each replicate). Broilers were kept in an environmentally-controlled room from 1 to 28 days; then, half of them exposed to cold temperature from 28 to 45 days of age. The birds were sacrificed at days 38 and 45 of age. Heparinized blood samples were collected to measure hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Heart, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected and weighed separately on a sensitive digital scale. At d 38 of age, none of hematological variables, enzymatic parameters, and relative weights of organs were affected by treatments. Ascitic broilers were observed in group subjected to cold temperature and control diet (without supplemental copper) at d 45 of age. Relative weight of lungs and relative weight of heart in broilers fed on copper-methionine supplemented diets in cold temperature were lower compared with other groups. Relative liver weight, ALT, AST activities, and hematological parameters such as hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count in ascitic broilers were significantly increased. In contrast, a significant decrease of the relative weight of spleen was shown in these chickens. The results showed that dietary supplementation with copper–methionine can decrease probability of ascites incidence in broilers chicks, especially under cold condition.

Keywords: ascites, cold temperature, copper-methionine, cold-stressed broiler

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7443 Some Hematological Parameters of the Mauremys rivulata in Two Different Water Quality in the Biga Stream (Çanakkale, Turkey)

Authors: Cigdem Gul, Murat Tosunoglu, Nurcihan Hacioglu


The contamination or desiccation of fresh waters also has a negative effect on freshwater turtles like other fresh water-dependent species. In order to conserve those species, which are confronted with such negative conditions, it is necessary to know beforehand the biology and the physiology of species. In this study, a comprehensive health assessment was conducted on a total of 20 clinically normal individuals free living Western Caspian Turtle (Mauremys rivulata) captured from two different freshwater localities in the Biga stream (Çanakkale-Turkey). When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. Locality was a “contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples for hematological and biochemical analyses were obtained from the dorsal coccygeal vein. A total of 1-2 mL of blood was collected from each of the specimens via needle. After the required procedures had been performed, the turtles were put back in the same localities. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (512600-582666.66 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (5920-5980 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (24-24.66 %), hemoglobin concentration (6.52-6.35 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (466.20-468.98 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (125.77-113.84 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (28.25-26.49 %), glucose (94.43-87.43 mg/dl), creatinine (0.23-0.3241 mg/dl), uric acid (12.59-10.48 mg/L), albumin (1.46-1.25 g/dl), calcium (8.67-9.59 mg/dl), triglyceride (95.55-75.21 mg/dl), and total protein (4.85-3.45 g/dl). When an examination was made depending on the water quality of freshwater, variations were detected in hematology and biochemistry values, but not found significant difference.

Keywords: biochemistry, freshwater quality, hematological parameters, Mauremys rivulata.

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7442 Acute Exposure Of Two Classes Of Fungicides And Its Effects On Hematological Indices Of Fish (Clarius batrachus) - A Comparative Study

Authors: Pallavi Srivastava, Ajay Singh


Hematological assay has used for evaluation of blood changes according to its environment. It’s studies employed to evaluate possible eco-toxic risk due to the exposure of chemicals and pesticides in aquatic organisms. Fishes serve as a sensitive bio-indicator, as changes occur in its surrounding environment. The aim of present study has two-folds first we observed that after exposure of two doses of each class of fungicide i.e. 1.11mg/l, 2.23mg/l for Propiconazole and 11.43mg/l, 22.87mg/l for Mancozeb show maximum blood changes. Second we conclude that toxic effects and blood changes induced by Propiconazole is greater than Mancozeb.

Keywords: hematological assay, fungicides, bio-indicator, eco-toxic risk

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7441 The Influence of the Aquatic Environment on Hematological Parameters in Cyprinus carpio

Authors: Andreea D. Șerban, Răzvan Mălăncuș, Mihaela Ivancia, Șteofil Creangă


Just as air influences the quality of life in the terrestrial environment, water, as a living environment, is one of great importance when it comes to the quality of life of underwater animals, which acquires an even higher degree of importance when analyzing underwater creatures as future products for human consumption. Thus, going beyond the ideal environment, in which all water quality parameters are permanently in perfect standards for reproduction, growth, and development of fish material and customizing this study to reality, it was demonstrated the importance of reproduction, development, and growth of biological material, necessary in the population fish farms, in the same environment to gain the maximum yield that a fish farm can offer. The biological material used was harvested from 3 fish farms located at great distances from each other to have environments with different parameters. The specimens were clinically healthy at 2 years of age. Thus, the differences in water quality parameters had effects on specimens from other environments, describing large curves in their evolution in new environments. Another change was observed in the new environment, the specimens contributing with the "genetic package" to its modification, tending to a balance of the parameters studied to the values in the environment in which they lived until the time of the experiment. The study clearly showed that adaptability to the environment in which an individual has developed and grown is not valid in environments with different parameters, resulting even in the fatality of one sample during the experiment. In some specimens, the values of the studied hematological parameters were halved after the transfer to the new environment, and in others, the same parameters were doubled. The study concludes that the specimens were adapted to the environment in which they developed and grew, their descendants having a higher value of heritability only in the initial environment. It is known that heritability is influenced 50% by the genetic package of the individual and 50% by the environment, by removing the value of the environment, the duration of improvement of characters of interest will be shorter and the maximum yield of fish farms can be achieved in a smaller period.

Keywords: environment, heritability, quality, water

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7440 Impact of Climate Change on Some Physiological Parameters of Cyclic Female Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Nabil Abu-Heakal, Ismail Abo-Ghanema, Basma Hamed Merghani


The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of seasonal variations in Egypt on hematological parameters, reproductive and metabolic hormones of Egyptian buffalo-cows. This study lasted one year extending from December 2009 to November 2010 and was conducted on sixty buffalo-cows. Group of 5 buffalo-cows at estrus phase were selected monthly. Then, after blood sampling through tail vein puncture in the 2nd day after natural service, they were divided in two samples: one with anticoagulant for hematological analysis and the other without anticoagulant for serum separation. Results of this investigation revealed that the highest atmospheric temperature was in hot summer 32.61±1.12°C versus 26.18±1.67°C in spring and 19.92±0.70°C in winter season, while the highest relative humidity % was in winter season 43.50±1.60% versus 32.50±2.29% in summer season. The rise in temperature-humidity index from 63.73±1.29 in winter to 78.53±1.58 in summer indicates severe heat stress which is associated with significant reduction in total red blood cell count (3.20±0.15×106), hemoglobin concentration (8.83±0.43 g/dl), packed cell volume (30.73±0.12%), lymphocytes % (40.66±2.33 %), serum progesterone hormone concentration (0.56±0.03 ng/mll), estradiol17-B concentration (16.8±0.64 ng/ml), triiodothyronin (T3) concentration (2.33±0.33 ng/ml) and thyroxin hormone (T4) concentration (21.66±1.66 ng/ml), while hot summer resulted in significant increase in mean cell volume (96.55±2.25 fl), mean cell hemoglobin (30.81±1.33 pg), total white blood cell count (10.63±0.97×103), neutrophils % (49.66±2.33%), serum prolactin hormone (PRL) concentration (23.45±1.72 ng/ml) and cortisol hormone concentration (4.47±0.33 ng/ml) compared to winter season. There was no significant seasonal variation in mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). It was concluded that in Egypt there was a seasonal variation in atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI) and the rise in THI above the upper critical level (72 units), which, for lactating buffalo-cows in Egypt is the major constraint on buffalo-cows' hematological parameters and hormonal secretion that affects animal reproduction. Hence, we should improve climatic conditions inside the dairy farm to eliminate or reduce summer infertility.

Keywords: buffalo, climate change, Egypt, physiological parameters

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7439 Effects of Vitamin C and Spondias mombin Supplementation on Hematology, Growth, Egg Production Traits, and Eggshell Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in a Hot-Humid Tropics

Authors: B. O. Oyebanji, I. O. Dudusola, C. T. Ademola, S. A. Olaniyan


A 56 day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of Spondias mombin on hematological, growth, egg parameters and egg shell quality of Japanese quails, Cortunix cortunix japonica. One hundred birds were used for this study, and they were allocated randomly into 5 groups and replicated twice. Group 1 animals served as control without inclusion of extract, groups 2, 3, and 4 had 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg inclusion of SM, group 5 had 600 mg/kg of vitamin C respectively. The birds were weighed weekly to determine weight change, the blood parameters analyzed at the completion of the experiment were PCV, Hb, RBC WBC, differential WBC count, MCH, MCH, and MCV were afterwards calculated from these parameters. 5 eggs were collected from each group and egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, albumen percentage, yolk percentage and shell percentage were determined. There was no significant difference among the group for the hematological parameters measured and calculated. The egg weight and albumen weight of quails on 800 mg/kg was highest of all the groups, all other egg parameters measured showed no significant difference. The birds supplemented with Vitamin C had the highest weight gain (40.8±2.5 g) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (2.25). There was no mortality recorded in all the groups except in the SM800 group with 10% mortality. It can be concluded from this experiment that Vitamin C supplementation has positive effect on quail production in humid tropics and the inclusion of Spondias mombin leaf extract has a dose-dependent toxicity in quails.

Keywords: hematology, quails, Spondias mombin, vitamin C

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7438 Investigation of the Effects of Aerobic Exercise Programs on Hematological Parameters of Sedentary People

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Swati Choudhary


Background: A variety of studies warn that sedentary lifestyles can contribute to many preventable causes of death. This study was taken to determine the effects of two types of aerobic training programs on erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets and hematocrit of sedentary people (N=60) with age group 20 to 30 years. Methods: All the subjects were randomly divided into three groups i.e. two experiments groups (aerobic dance & cardio fitness) and control group. Each group having 10 male and 10 females. Experimental groups undergone 60 minutes of training 5 times a week for 12 weeks whereas the control group did not participate in any training program except their daily routine. The aerobic dance group was chosen to perform exercise like step –touch, side-to-side, V-step and hand and body movements, etc. The cardio fitness group was chosen to perform exercises with modern fitness equipment like treadmill, elliptical trainer, stationary bike and rowing machine. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale developed by Gunner Borg was used to monitor the intensity of the workout. Aerobic programs were encompassed of low-impact (0- 4 week & perceived exertion from 6 to 12), moderate-impact (4-8 week and perceived exertion from 12 to 16) and high-impact (8- 12 week & perceived exertion from 16 to 20). Results: To test the effectiveness of training programs paired t-test was used and significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, hematocrit but no significant effects of training was found in leukocytes (p>0.05). Paired t-test also showed that no effect of time was seen in the control group in all the cases (p>0.05). Further analysis of covariance was used to know which program was more effective and it was seen that F value was found significant in the case of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, and hematocrit as their associated p-value (p<0.05) is lesser than 0.05. As F value was found significant for hematological parameters, fishers least significant difference test was used and results of post hoc mean comparison indicated that experimental groups (aerobic dance group and cardio fitness group) had significant difference with control group in erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets and hematocrit and insignificant difference was found between aerobic dance group & cardio fitness group in all the cases. Thus, it may be concluded that in general, both the aerobic training programs had adequate effects on all the hematological parameters except leukocytes.

Keywords: aerobic dance, cardio fitness, hematological variables, rating perceived exertion scale

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7437 Anti-lipidemic and Hematinic Potentials of Moringa Oleifera Leaves: A Clinical Trial on Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Rural Nigerian Community

Authors: Ifeoma C. Afiaenyi, Elizabeth K. Ngwu, Rufina N. B. Ayogu


Diabetes has crept into the rural areas of Nigeria, causing devastating effects on its sufferers; most of them could not afford diabetic medications. Moringa oleifera has been used extensively in animal models to demonstrate its antilipidaemic and haematinic qualities; however, there is a scarcity of data on the effect of graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the lipid profile and hematological parameters in human diabetic subjects. The study determined the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves on the lipid profile and hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic subjects in Ukehe, a rural Nigerian community. Twenty-four adult male and female diabetic subjects were purposively selected for the study. These subjects were shared into four groups of six subjects each. The diets used in the study were isocaloric. A control group (diabetics, group 1) was fed diets without Moringa oleifera leaves. Experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 received 20g, 40g and 60g of Moringa oleifera leaves daily, respectively, in addition to the diets. The subjects' lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured prior to the feeding trial and at the end of the feeding trial. The feeding trial lasted for fourteen days. The data obtained were analyzed using the computer program Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) for windows version 21. A Paired-samples t-test was used to compare the means of values collected before and after the feeding trial within the groups and significance was accepted at p < 0.05. There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in the mean total cholesterol of the subjects in groups 1, 2 and 3 after the feeding trial. There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in the mean triglyceride levels of the subjects in group 1 after the feeding trial. Groups 1 and 3 subjects had a non-significant (p > 0.05) decrease in their mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after the feeding trial. Groups 1, 2 and 4 had a significant (p < 0.05) increase in their mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol after the feeding trial. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean hemoglobin level was observed only in group 4 subjects. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean packed cell volume of group 4 subjects. It was only in group 4 that a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the mean white blood cells of the subjects was also observed. The changes observed in the parameters assessed were not dose-dependent. Therefore, a similar study of longer duration and more samples is imperative to authenticate these results.

Keywords: anemia, diabetic subjects, lipid profile, moringa oleifera

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7436 Impact of Sunflower Oil Supplemented Diet on Performance and Hematological Stress Indicators of Growing-Finishing Pigs Exposed to Hot Environment

Authors: Angela Cristina Da F. De Oliveira, Salma E. Asmar, Norbert P. Battlori, Yaz Vera, Uriel R. Valencia, Tâmara Duarte Borges, Antoni D. Bueno, Leandro Batista Costa


As homeothermic animals, pigs manifest maximum performance when kept at comfortable temperature levels, represented by a limit where thermoregulatory processes are minimal (18 - 20°C). In a stress situation where it will have a higher energy demand for thermal maintenance, the energy contribution to the productive functions will be reduced, generating health imbalances, drop in productive rates and welfare problems. The hypothesis of this project is that 5% starch replacement per 5% sunflower oil (SO), in growing and finishing pig’s diet (Iberic x Duroc), is effective as a nutritional strategy to reduce the negative impacts of thermal stress on performance and animal welfare. Seventy-two crossbred males (51± 6,29 kg body weight- BW) were housed according to the initial BW, in climate-controlled rooms, in collective pens, and exposed to heat stress conditions (30 - 32°C; 35% to 50% humidity). The experiment lasted 90 days, and it was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial, composed of two diets (starch or sunflower oil (with or without) and two feed intake management (ad libitum and restriction). The treatments studied were: 1) control diet (5% starch x 0% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 2) SO diet (replacement of 5% of starch per 5% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 3) control diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18); or 4) SO diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18). Feed was provided in two phases, 50–100 Kg BW for growing and 100-140 Kg BW for finishing period, respectively. Hematological, biochemical and growth performance parameters were evaluated on all animals at the beginning of the environmental treatment, on the transition of feed (growing to finishing) and in the final of experiment. After the experimental period, when animals reached a live weight of 130-140 kg, they were slaughtered by carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. Data have shown for the growing phase no statistical interaction between diet (control x SO) and management feed intake (ad libitum x restriction) on animal performance. At finishing phase, pigs fed with SO diet with restriction feed intake had the same average daily gain (ADG) compared with pigs in control diet with ad libitum feed intake. Furthermore, animals fed with the same diet (SO), presented a better feed gain (p < 0,05) due to feed intake reduce (p < 0,05) when compared with control group. To hematological and biochemical parameters, animals under heat stress had an increase in hematocrit, corpuscular volume, urea concentration, creatinine, calcium, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0,05) when compared with the beginning of experiment. These parameters were efficient to characterize the heat stress, although the experimental treatments were not able to reduce the hematological and biochemical stress indicators. In addition, the inclusion of SO on pig diets improve feed gain in pigs at finishing phase, even with restriction feed intake.

Keywords: hematological, performance, pigs, welfare

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7435 Oral Toxicity of Low Doses of Fungicides, Propinebe, Propiconazole and Their Mixtures in the Male Rat

Authors: Mallem Leila, Aiche Mohamed Amine, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah


A number of chemical compounds are being used to protect agricultural crops from diseases. Residues of these chemicals lead to environmental pollution and pose some threat to non target organisms, human and animal. The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the rat. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with propiconazole (60 mg/kg body weight/day), propinebe (100 mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment period, animals of all groups were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were toxic in the treated animals. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in all treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole, it was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated group as compared with control. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis and epidydimis and liver in the group treated with mixture.

Keywords: fungicides, mixture, fertility, hematological, biochemical's parameters

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7434 The Prognostic Value of Dynamic Changes of Hematological Indices in Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

Authors: Yao Song, Danni Cheng, Jianjun Ren


Objectives: We aimed to explore the prognostic effects of absolute values and dynamic changes of common hematological indices on oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients treated with radiation. Methods and materials: The absolute values of white blood cell (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), albumin (Alb), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) at baseline (within 45 days before radiation), 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months after the start of radiotherapy were retrospectively collected. Locally-estimated smoothing scatterplots were used to describe the smooth trajectory of each index. A mixed-effect model with a random slope was fitted to describe the changing rate and trend of indices over time. Cox proportional hazard analysis was conducted to assess the correlation between hematological indices and treatment outcomes. Results: Of the enrolled 85 OPSCC patients, inflammatory indices, such as WBC and ALC, dropped rapidly during acute treatment and gradually recovered, while NLR and PLR increased at first three months and subsequently declined within 3-12 months. Higher absolute value or increasing trend of nutritional indices (Alb and Hb) was associated with better prognosis (all p<0.05). In contrast, patients with higher absolute value or upward trend of inflammatory indices (WBC, ANC, Plt, PLR and NLR) had worse survival (all p<0.05). Conclusions: The absolute values and dynamic changes of hematological indices were valuable prognostic factors for OPSCC patients who underwent radiotherapy.

Keywords: hematological indices, oropharyngeal cancer, radiotherapy, NLR, PLR

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7433 The Importance of Erythrocyte Parameters in Obese Children

Authors: Orkide Donma, M. Metin Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Feti Tulubas, Murat Aydin, Tuba Gokkus, Ahmet Gurel


Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has increased the interest in early and late indicators of gaining weight. Cell blood counts may be indicators of proinflammatory states. The aim was to evaluate associations of hematological parameters, including Hematocrit (HTC), hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and their indices with the degree of obesity in pediatric population. A total of 249; -139 morbidly obese (MO), 82 healthy Normal Weight (NW) and 28 Overweight (OW) children were included into the scope of the study. WHO BMI-for age percentiles were used to form age- and sex-matched groups. Informed consent forms and the Ethics Committee approval were obtained. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Hematological parameters were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. Significant differences (p=0.000) between waist-to-hip ratios and head-to-neck ratios (hnrs) of MO and NW children were detected. A significant difference between hnrs of OW and MO children (p=0.000) was observed. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) was higher in OW children than NW group (p=0.030). Such finding couldn’t be detected between MO and NW groups. Increased RDW was prominent in OW children. The decrease in Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values in MO children was sharper than the values in OW children (p=0.006 vs p=0.042) compared to those in NW group. Statistically higher HTC levels were observed between MO-NW (p=0.014), but none between OW-NW. Though the cause-effect relationship between obesity and erythrocyte indices still needs further investigation, alterations in RDW, HTC, MCHC during obesity may be of significance in the early life.

Keywords: anthropometry, children, erythrocytes, obesity

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7432 Effects of a Bioactive Subfraction of Strobilanthes Crispus on the Tumour Growth, Body Weight and Haematological Parameters in 4T1-Induced Breast Cancer Model

Authors: Yusha'u Shu'aibu Baraya, Kah Keng Wong, Nik Soriani Yaacob


Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus), is a Malaysian herb locally known as ‘Pecah kaca’ or ‘Jin batu’ which have demonstrated potent anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo models. In particular, S. crispus subfraction (SCS) significantly reduced tumor growth in N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea-induced breast cancer rat model. However, there is paucity of information on the effects of SCS in breast cancer metastasis. Thus, in this study, the antimetastatic effects of SCS (100 mg/kg) was investigated following 30 days of treatment in 4T1-induced mammary tumor (n = 5) model. The response to treatment was assessed based on the outcome of the tumour growth, body weight and hematological parameters. The results demonstrated that tumor bearing mice treated with SCS (TM-S) had significant (p<0.05) reduction in the mean tumor number and tumor volume as well as tumor weight compared to the tumor bearing mice (TM), i.e. tumor untreated group. Also, there was no secondary tumor formation or tumor-associated lesions in the major organs of TM-S compared to the TM group. Similarly, comparable body weights were observed among the TM-S, normal (uninduced) mice treated with SCS and normal (untreated/control) mice (NM) groups compared to the TM group (p<0.05). Furthermore, SCS administration does not cause significant changes in the hematological parameters as compared to the NM group, which indicates no sign of anemia and toxicity related effects. In conclusion, SCS significantly inhibited the overall tumor growth and metastasis in 4T1-induced breast cancer mouse model suggesting its promising potentials as therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: 4T1-cells, breast cancer, metastasis, Strobilanthes crispus

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7431 Effects of Different Load on Physiological, Hematological, Biochemical, Cytokines Indices of Zanskar Ponies at High Altitude

Authors: Prince Vivek, Vijay Kumar Bharti, Deepak Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Kapil Nehra, Dhananjay Singh, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Bhuvnesh Kumar


High altitude native people still rely heavily on animal transport for logistic support at eastern and northern Himalayas regions. The prevalent mountainous terrains and rugged region are not suitable for the motorized vehicle to use in logistic transport. Therefore, people required high endurance pack animals for load carrying and riding. So far to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been taken to evaluate the effect of loads on the physiology of ponies in high altitude region. So, in this view, we evaluated variation in physiological, hematological, biochemical, and cytokines indices of Zanskar ponies during load carrying at high altitude. Total twelve (12) of Zanskar ponies, mare, age 4-6 years selected for this study, Feed was offered at 2% of body weight, and water ad libitum. Ponies were divided into three groups; group-A (without load), group-B (60 kg), and group-C (80 kg) of backpack loads. The track was very narrow and slippery with gravel, uneven with a rocky surface and has a steep gradient of 4 km uphill at altitude 3291 to 3500m. When we evaluate these parameters, it is understood that the heart rate, pulse rate, and respiration rate was significantly increased in 80 kg group among the three groups. The hematology parameters viz. hemoglobin significantly increased in 80 kg group on 1st day after load carrying among the three groups which was followed by control and 60 kg whereas, PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes percentage significantly increased however, ESR and eosinophil % significantly decreased in 80 kg group after load carrying on 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. In biochemical parameters viz. LA, LDH, TP, hexokinase (HK), cortisol (CORT), T3, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The ALT, ALB, GLB, UR, and UA significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day before and after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The CRT, AST, and CK-MB were significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 1st and 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. It has been concluded that, heart rate, respiration rate, hematological indices like PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, Hb and ESR, biochemical indices like lactic acid, LDH, TP, HK, CORT, T3, ALT, AST and CRT, ALB, GLB, UR, UA, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 are important biomarkers to assess effect of load on animal physiology and endurance. Further, this result has revealed the strong correlation of change in biomarkers level with performance in ponies during load carry. Hence, these parameters might be used for the performance of endurance of Zanskar ponies in the high mountain region.

Keywords: biochemical, endurance, high altitude, load, ponies

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7430 Hematological Changes in Oral Cancer Patients with Smokable and Chewable Tobacco

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch


Objective: To analyze hematological changes in patients of oral cancer with history of smokable and chewable tobacco use, and to compare them with healthy controls. Study Design: Descriptive type of study survey. Setting: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LUMHS, Jamshoro. Study Period: One year July, 2013 to July, 2014. Subject and Methods: Histopathologically confirmed hundred cases of oral cancer with the history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco were selected to analyze the hematological variation. Inclusion Criteria: Histopathologically diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma, with history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco. Exclusion Criteria: Patient with any systemic medically compromising problem, terminally ill patients, radio or chemotherapeutically treated patients, patients with metastasis to lungs or any distant metastasis, patients with the history of more than one well-defined etiological factor involved. Results: There were 73% patients of oral cancer reported with anemic. Significantly lower values of Hb, platelet, and higher mean values of ESR, TLC, and were observed in both groups of oral cancer patients; tobacco smokers and tobacco chewers as compared to non-smokers healthy controls. There was more decline in the level of haemoglobin and incline in the level of ESR observed in tobacco chewer oral cancer patients as compared to tobacco smokers patients, while TLC was more observed in smokers. Conclusion: Oral cancer patients with a history of chewable/smokable tobacco have likely worse hematological profile, which increases the anesthetic and surgical challenges for maxillofacial surgeons, which have a significant impact on treatment planning as well.

Keywords: oral cancer, hematological variations, tobacco, smokers

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7429 Comparative Evaluation of Pentazocine and Tramadol as Pre-Emptive Analgesics for Ovariohysterectomy in Female Dogs

Authors: Venkatgiri, Ranganath, L. Nagaraja, B. N. Sagar Pandav, S. M. Usturge, D. Dilipkumar, B. V. Shivprakash, B. Bhagwanthappa, D. Jahangir


A comparative evaluation of Tramadol and Pentazocine as a pre-emptive analgesic in clinical cases of female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy was undertaken during this study. During the study, the following parameters were assessed viz., Rectal temperature (ᵒF), Respiratory rate (breaths/min) and Heart rate (beats/min). Hematological and biochemical parameters viz., total erythrocyte count (TEC) (millions/cmm), hemoglobin (g %), otal leucocytes count (TLC) (thousands/cmm), differential leucocytes count (DLC) (%), serum creatinine (mg/dl), plasma protein (mg/dl), blood glucose (mg/dl) was estimated before the surgery and after administration of general anaesthesia and immediate postoperative periods of 0, 12 and 24 hr respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) includes measurement of parameters like posture, vocalization, activity level, response to palpation and agitation at different intervals was calculated before surgery and after administration of general anesthesia and post-operative periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12hrs and 24 hrs respectively. Mean Total Pain Score (MTPS) was given for each parameter (Posture, Vocalization, Activity Level, Response to Palpation and Agitation) like 0,1,2,3. (maximum score will be given was 4.). Results were revealed in all three groups including control group. There were significant minor alterations in physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters. MTPS (mean total pain score) were revealed and found a significant alteration when compared with control group. In conclusion, Tramadol found to be a better analgesic and had up to 8hrs of analgesic effect and Pentazocine is superior in post-operative pain management when compared to Tramadol because this group of dogs experienced less surgical stress, consumed less anesthetic dose, they recovered early, and they had less MTPS score.

Keywords: dog, pentazocine, tramadol, ovariohysterectomy

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7428 Trends in the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies in the Period 1991–2012

Authors: V. N. Chebotkevich, E. E. Schetinkina, V. V. Burylev, E. I. Kaytandzhan, N. P. Stizhak


Objective: Blood stream infections (BSI) are severe, life-threatening illness for immuno compromised patients with hematological malignancies. We report the trend in blood-stream infections in this group of patients in the period 1991-2013. Methods: A total of 4742 blood samples investigated. All blood cultures were incubated in a continuous monitoring system for 7 days before discarding negative. On signaled positive, organism was identified by conventional methods. The Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the indication of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results: Between 1991 and 2001 the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) being the most common germs isolated (70,9%) were as Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) – 29,1%. In next decade 2002-2012 the number of Gram-negative bacteria was increased up to 40.2%. It is shown that the incidence of bacteremia was significantly more frequent at the background of detectable Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA in blood. Over recent years, an increased frequency of micro mycetes was registered in blood of the patients with hematological malignancies (Candida spp. was predominant). Conclusion: Accurate and timely detection of BSI is important in determining appropriate treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematological malignancies. The isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood cultures remains a clinical dilemma for physicians and microbiologists. But in many cases this agent is of the clinical significance in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The role of CMV and EBV in development of bacteremia was demonstrated.

Keywords: infectious complications, blood stream infections, bacteremia, hemoblastosis

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7427 Effect of Feeding Camel Rumen Content on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens under Semi-Arid Condition

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Adamu, Aminu Maidala


One hundred and fifty (150) day old chicks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments birds and each treatment where replicated twice in groups of fifteen birds in each replicate. Camel rumen content (CRC) was included in the diets of broiler at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to replace maize and groundnut cake to evaluate the effect on the performance and hematological parameters at the starter and finisher phase. A completely randomized design was used and 600g of feed was given daily and water was given ad libitum. At the starter phase, the daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by the test ingredients, although T1(0% CRC) which serve as a control, were similar with T2(5% CRC), T3(10% CRC), and T4(15% CRC), while the lowest value was recorded in T5(20% CRC). The result indicates that up to 15% (CRC) level can be included in the starter diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without any effect on the performance. However, at the finisher phase, the daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio show no significant (F>0.05) difference among the dietary treatments. Similarly, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) also did not differ significantly (F>0.05) among the dietary treatments while hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) differs significantly. The differential counts of eosinophils, heterophils, and lymphocytes differ significantly among the treatment groups, while that of basophils and monocytes shows no significant difference among the treatment groups. This means up to 20% CRC inclusion level can be used to replaced maize and groundnut cake in the finisher diet without any adverse effect on the performance and hematological parameters of the chickens.

Keywords: camel, rumen content, growth, hematology

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7426 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Feed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: N. S. Okoro


An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 2% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that hematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P < 0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23g/dl) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: hematology, internal organs, Pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

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7425 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh


Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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7424 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish

Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hoda M. A. Abu Taleb


This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.

Keywords: Lake Manzala, Oreochromis niloticus fish, water pollution, physiological, hematological and histopathological parameters

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7423 Effect of Zidovudine on Hematological and Virologic Parameters among Female Sex Workers Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in North-Western Nigeria

Authors: N. M. Sani, E. D. Jatau, O. S. Olonitola, M. Y. Gwarzo, P. Moodley, N. S. Mujahid


Haemoglobin (HB) indicates anaemia level and by extension may reflect the nutritional level and perhaps the immunity of an individual. Some antiretroviral drugs like zidovudine are known to cause anaemia in People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A cross-sectional study using demographic data and blood specimen from 218 female commercial sex workers attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics was conducted between December 2009 and July 2011 to assess the effect of zidovudine on haematologic and RNA viral load of female sex workers receiving antiretroviral treatment in north-western Nigeria. Anaemia is a common and serious complication of both HIV infection and its treatment. In the setting of HIV infection, anaemia has been associated with decreased quality of life, functional status, and survival. Antiretroviral therapy, particularly the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), has been associated with a decrease in the incidence and severity of anaemia in HIV-infected patients who have received a HAART regimen for at least 1 year. In this study, result has shown that out of 218 patients, 26 with haemoglobin count between 5.1–10 g/dl were observed to have the highest viral load count of 300,000–350,000 copies/ml. It was also observed that most patients (190) with HB of 10.1–15.0 g/dl had viral load count of 200,000–250,000 copies/ml. An inverse relationship therefore exists, i.e. the lower the haemoglobin level, the higher the viral load count, even though the test statistics did not show any significance between the two (P=0.206). This shows that multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that anaemia was associated with a CD4+ cell count below 50/µL in female sex workers with a viral load above 100,000 copies/mL who use zidovudine. Severe anaemia was less prevalent in this study population than in historical comparators; however, mild to moderate anaemia rates remain high. The study, therefore, recommends that hematological and virologic parameters be monitored closely in patients receiving first line ART regimen.

Keywords: anaemia, female sex worker, haemoglobin, Zidovudine

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7422 Comparative Hematological Analysis of Blood Profile in Experimentally Infected with Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis Mice

Authors: Valeria T. Dilcheva, Svetlozara L. Petkova, Ivelin Vladov


Trichinellosis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella which are zoonotic parasites with cosmopolitan distribution and major socio-economic importance. Human infection is acquired through consumption of undercooked meat from domestic or wild animal. Penetration of Trichinella larvae into striated skeletal muscle cells results in ultrastructural and metabolic changes. Migration of larvae causes the typical symptoms and signs of the disease. The severity of the symptoms depends on the number of ingested Trichinella larvae and the immune response of the host. Eosinophilia is present, with few exceptions, in most cases of human trichinellosis, inasmuch as it is the earliest and most important host response. Even in human asymptomatic cases, increases in eosinophilia of up to 15% have been observed. Eosinophilia appears at an early stage of infection between the second and fifth weeks of infection. By 2005 it was considered that only two species of Trichinella genus were found in the country. After routine trichinelloscopy procedure disseminated single muscle larvae in samples of wild boars and badger were PCR-identified as T. pseudospiralis. The study aimed to observed hematological changes occurring during experimentally induced infection with Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis in mice. We performed hematological blood profile, tracking 15 blood indicators. In statistical analysis made by Two-way ANOVA, there were significant differences of HGB, MCHC, PLT, Lymph%, Gran% in all three types of trichinellosis compared to control animals. Capsule-forming T. spiralis showed statistically significant differences in HGB, MCHC, Lymph% and PLT compared to the other two species. Non capsule-forming T. pseudospiralis showed statistically significant differences in Lymph%, Gran% relative to the control and in Gran% relative to T. spiralis. It appears rather substantial the process of capsule formation for prolonged immune response and retention of high content of percentage of lymphocytes(Lymph%) and low of granulocyte(Gran%) in T. pseudospiralis, which is contrary to studies for T. spiralis and eosinophilia. Studies and analyzes of some specific blood profile parameters can provide additional data in favor of early diagnosis and adequate treatment as well as provide a better understanding of acute and chronic trichinosis.

Keywords: hematological test, T. britovi, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis

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7421 Prevalence of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Women of Childbearing Age in the North-West of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila, Basma Nuri Kajruba, Hanan Elhadi, Rehab Ramadan Wali


Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by a decrease of Hb (hemoglobin), serum iron, ferritin, and RBC (red blood cells) (shape and size). Also, it is characterized by an increase in total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Red blood cells become microctytic and hypochromic due to a decrease in iron content. This study was conducted in the north west of Libya and included 210 women in childbearing age (18-45 years) who were visiting women clinic. After filling the questionnaire, blood samples were taken and analyzed for hematological and biochemical profiles. Biochemical tests included measurement of serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Among the total sample (210 women), there were 87 (41.42%) pregnant and 123 (58.57%) non-pregnant women (includes married and single). Pregnant women (87) were classified according to the gestational age into first, second, and third trimesters. The means of biochemical and hematological parameters in the studied samples were: Hb = 10.37± 2.02 g/dl, RBC = 3.78± 1.037 m/m3, serum iron 61.86± 40.28 µg/dl, and TIBC = 386.01 ± 94.91 µg/dl. In this study, we considered that any women have hemoglobin below 11.5 g/dl is anemic. 89.1%, 69.5%, and 47.8% of pregnant women who belong to third trimester had low (below normal value) Hb, serum iron, and ferritin, i.e. iron deficiency anemia was more common in third trimester among the first and the second trimesters. Third trimester pregnant women also had high TIBC more than first and second trimesters.

Keywords: red blood cells, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, ferritin

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