Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Farhana Aini Saludin

35 Security Features for Remote Healthcare System: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Tamil Chelvi Vadivelu, Nurazean Maarop, Rasimah Che Yusoff, Farhana Aini Saludin

Abstract:

Implementing a remote healthcare system needs to consider many security features. Therefore, before any deployment of the remote healthcare system, a feasibility study from the security perspective is crucial. Remote healthcare system using WBAN technology has been used in other countries for medical purposes but in Malaysia, such projects are still not yet implemented. This study was conducted qualitatively. The interview results involving five healthcare practitioners are further elaborated. The study has addressed four important security features in order to incorporate remote healthcare system using WBAN in Malaysian government hospitals.

Keywords: remote healthcare, IT security, security features, wireless sensor application

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34 A Study on Al-Riba Al-Hukmi and Its Instances from View of Islam

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi, Bi Bi Zeinab Hoseni

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Islam is a comprehensive religion, and has rules for any thing. Islam attaches respect and importance to properties as well, and outlaws some types of transaction. A type of transaction that is strictly forbidden by the Islam is riba (usury), for which special punishments is considered in the Qur’an and hadiths. Usury is divided into (riba qarzi) loan usury and riba muamili (transaction usury); sometimes, in transaction and interest free loan contracts, ziyadah aini (interest in kind and of the same kind as that of the object of transaction) is not stipulated, but performance of work, provision of an advantage or a service, or a respite is stipulated, in which case although no ziyadah aini is in place, the transaction still constitutes usury and is outlaw. For instance, if a bank stipulates in an interest free loan contract that it pays a person the interest free loan only if he/she deposits a sum in the bank, this is an instance of riba hukmi. Or, for muamilah sarfi (transaction is which object of transaction and consideration is gold or silver) to be legitimate, it necessary that both the object of transaction and the consideration be handed over between the parties, because if a party takes delivery of the considered or object of transaction while the other party does not, the party who has taken delivery will accrue a benefit, as he/she wins time until he/she makes delivery to the other party, and this tantamount to usury in muamilah sarfi. Or, if a person lends a sum to another person, while the lender is indebted to the borrower, if the lender stipulates that he/she lends such amount only if the borrower postpones the maturity date of the lender’s debt to borrower, which is in one month, for a particular period of time, such loan will constitute usury. This research first provides views on riba hukmi, and then proceeds to analysis of views, trying to study fundamentals and proof regarding prohibition of riba hukmi, and to analyze instances of riba hukmi according to religious and hadith books.

Keywords: Islam, riba, prohibition, riba hukmi

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33 Histopathological Features of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Ten Year Retrospective Statistical Study in Egypt

Authors: Hala M. El-hanbuli, Mohammed F. Darweesh

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The incidence rates of any tumor vary hugely with geographical location. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most common skin cancer that has many histopathologic subtypes. Objective: The aim was to study the histopathological features of BCC cases that were received in the Pathology Department, Kasr El-Aini hospital, Cairo University, Egypt during the period from Jan 2004 to Dec 2013 and to evaluate the clinical characters through the patient data available in the request sheets. Methods: Slides and data of BCC cases were collected from the archives of the pathology department, Kasr El-Aini hospital. Revision of all available slides and histological classification of BCC according to WHO (2006) was done. Results: A total number of 310 cases of BCC representing about 65% from the total number of malignant skin tumors examined during the 10-years duration in the department. The age ranged from 8 to 84 years, the mean age was (55.7 ± 15.5). Most of the patients (85%) were above the age of 40 years. There was a slight male predominance (55%). Ulcerated BCC was the most common gross picture (60%), followed by nodular lesion (30%) and finally the ulcerated nodule (10%). Most of the lesions situated in the high-risk sites (77%) where the nose was the most common site (35%) followed by the periocular area (22%), then periauricular (15%) and finally perioral (5%). No lesion was reported outside the head. The tumor size was less than 2 centimeters in 65% of cases, and from 2-5 centimeters in the lesions' greatest dimension in the rest of cases. Histopathological reclassification revealed that the nodular BCC was the most common (68%) followed by the pigmented nodular (18.75%). The histologic high-risk groups represented (7.5%) about half of them (3.75%) being basosquamous carcinoma. The total incidence for multiple BCC and 2nd primary was 12%. Recurrent BCC represented 8%. All of the recurrent lesions of BCC belonged to the histologic high-risk group. Conclusion: Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the 10-year survey. Histopathological diagnosis and classification of BCC cases are essential for the determination of the tumor type and its biological behavior.

Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, high risk, histopathological features, statistical analysis

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32 In vitro Plant Regeneration of Gonystylus Bancanus (Miq) Kurz. Through Direct Organogenesis

Authors: Grippin Akeng, Suresh Kumar Muniandy, Nor Aini Ab Shukor

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Plant regeneration was achieved from shoot tip and nodal segment of Gonystylus bancanus (Miq) Kurz. cultured in Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The most optimum concentration of BAP for shoot initiation is 10.0 mgl⁻¹ with approximately 10% of shoot tip and 15% of nodal segment produced single shoot after 28 and 15 days of culture incubation respectively. Rooting was achieved when shoots were transferred into MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mgl⁻¹ Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Synthesizing results developed through this research can be a starting point for the upscalling and optimization process in future.

Keywords: gonystylus bancanus, organogenesis, shoot initiation, shoot tip

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31 Influence of Transformation Leadership Style on Employee Engagement among Generation Y

Authors: Z. D. Mansor, C. P. Mun, B. S. Nurul Farhana, Wan Aisyah Nasuha Wan Mohamed Tarmizi

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The aim of this research is to determine the influence of transformation leadership style on employee engagement among Generation Y. The growing of Generation Y employees in Malaysia has raised concerns about how to engage and motivate this cohort. Transformation Leadership style is one of the key factors to increase employee engagement levels in the organization. This study has proven to be important for the researchers and the organization to properly understand the concept of employee engagement, transformation leadership style and their relationship. The samples in this study included 221 respondents of Generation Y who are currently working in Selangor and Klang Valley area in Malaysia. The data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results show that there is a significant relationship between the dimension of intellectual stimulation, inspiration motivation and individual consideration on employee engagement. In contrast, the results have revealed that there is no significant relationship between idealized influences of a leader on employee engagement among Generation Y.

Keywords: employee engagement, transformational leadership styles, gen Y, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
30 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

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Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills

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29 Heuristic Evaluation of Children’s Authoring Tool for Game Making

Authors: Laili Farhana Md Ibharim, Maizatul Hayati Mohamad Yatim

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The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the heuristic inspection of children’s authoring tools to develop games. The researcher has selected 15 authoring tools for making games specifically for educational purposes. Nine students from Diploma of Game Design and Development course and four lecturers from the computing department involved in this evaluation. A set of usability heuristic checklist used as a guideline for the students and lecturers to observe and test the authoring tools selected. The study found that there are just a few authoring tools that fulfill most of the heuristic requirement and suitable to apply to children. In this evaluation, only six out of fifteen authoring tools have passed above than five elements in the heuristic inspection checklist. The researcher identified that in order to develop a usable authoring tool developer has to emphasis children acceptance and interaction of the authoring tool. Furthermore, the authoring tool can be a tool to enhance their mental development especially in creativity and skill.

Keywords: authoring tool, children, game making, heuristic

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28 Estimation of Gaseous Pollutants at Kalyanpur, Dhaka City

Authors: Farhana Tarannum

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Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. The concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO and O3) have been determined from samples collected at Kallyanpur along Shamoli corridor in Dhaka city. Pollutants were determined in a sample collected at ground level and a roof of a 7-storied building. These pollutants are emitted largely from stationary sources like fossil fuel fired power plants, industrial plants, and manufacturing facilities as well as mobile sources. The incomplete combustion of fuel, wood and the Sulphur containing fuel used in the vehicles are one of the main causes of CO and SOx respectively in our natural environment. When the temperature of combustion in high enough and some of that nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the air, various nitrogen oxides (NOx) are then formed. The VOCs react with NOx in the presence of sunlight to form O3. UV Visible spectrophotometric method has been used for the determination of SOx, NOx and O3. The sensor type device was used for the estimation of CO. It was found that the air pollutants (CO, SOx, NOx and O3) of a sample collected at the roof of a building were lower compared to the ground level; it indicated that ground level people are mostly affected by the gaseous pollutants.

Keywords: gaseous pollutants, UV-visible spectrophotometry, ambient air quality, Dhaka city

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27 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Authors: Rashidah Omar, Suzeini Abdul Halim, Aini Janteng

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The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

Keywords: analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, Hohlov operator, subordination

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26 Robot-Assisted Learning for Communication-Care in Autism Intervention

Authors: Syamimi Shamsuddin, Hanafiah Yussof, Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah, Salina Mohamed, Nur Farah Farhan Jamil, Farhana Wan Yunus

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Robot-based intervention for children with autism is an evolving research niche in human-robot interaction (HRI). Recent studies in this area mostly covered the role of robots in the clinical and experimental setting. Our previous work had shown that interaction with a robot pose no adverse effects on the children. Also, the presence of the robot, together with specific modules of interaction was associated with less autistic behavior. Extending this impact on school-going children, interactions that are in-tune with special education lessons are needed. This methodological paper focuses on how a robot can be incorporated in a current learning environment for autistic children. Six interaction scenarios had been designed based on the existing syllabus to teach communication skills, using the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) technique as the framework. Development of the robotic experience in class also covers the required set-up involving participation from teachers. The actual research conduct involving autistic children, teachers and robot shall take place in the next phase.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, humanoid robot, communication skills, robot-assisted learning

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25 Governance Structure of Islamic Philanthropic Institution: Analysis of Corporate WAQF in Malaysia

Authors: Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Nurul Husna Mohd Salleh, Nurul Aini Muhamed

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This study focuses on the governance of an Islamic philanthropic institution in Malaysia. Specifically, the internal governance structure of corporate Islamic endowment, or waqf, is being analysed. The purposes of waqf are to provide continuous charity that could generate perpetual income flow for the needy. This study is based on the principle of MCCG 2012, Shariah Governance Framework and charity governance. This study utilises publicly available data to examine the internal governance structure of a corporate waqf. This study finds that the Islamic philanthropic Institution practices, to some extent, have a sound governance structure to discharge their transparency and accountability. Furthermore, findings also showed that though governance structure is in place, most of the structures are not disclosed in the annual reports of the company. Findings from the study could extend the knowledge in these areas and stimulate further research on the governance of Islamic philanthropic institutions, particularly for corporate waqf.

Keywords: accountability, governance, Islamic philanthropic, corporate waqf

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24 Development of Terrorist Threat Prediction Model in Indonesia by Using Bayesian Network

Authors: Hilya Mudrika Arini, Nur Aini Masruroh, Budi Hartono

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There are more than 20 terrorist threats from 2002 to 2012 in Indonesia. Despite of this fact, preventive solution through studies in the field of national security in Indonesia has not been conducted comprehensively. This study aims to provide a preventive solution by developing prediction model of the terrorist threat in Indonesia by using Bayesian network. There are eight stages to build the model, started from literature review, build and verify Bayesian belief network to what-if scenario. In order to build the model, four experts from different perspectives are utilized. This study finds several significant findings. First, news and the readiness of terrorist group are the most influent factor. Second, according to several scenarios of the news portion, it can be concluded that the higher positive news proportion, the higher probability of terrorist threat will occur. Therefore, the preventive solution to reduce the terrorist threat in Indonesia based on the model is by keeping the positive news portion to a maximum of 38%.

Keywords: Bayesian network, decision analysis, national security system, text mining

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23 Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity Test of Water Fraction Extract of Sisik Naga (Drymoglossum piloselloides) Leaves

Authors: Afifah Nur Aini, Elsa Mega Suryani, Betty Lukiaty

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Drymoglossum piloselloides or more commonly known as sisik naga fern is a member of Polipodiaceae Family that is abundant and widely distributed in nature. That being said, there hasn’t been many studies reporting about the benefits of this fern. The aim of this study was to find out the active compounds and antioxidant activity of water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves. The study will be able to optimize the use of this fern in the future. In this study, phytochemical test was done qualitatively by using Mayer, Dragendorff and Wagner reagent for alkaloid test; FeCl3 for phenolic test; Shinoda test for flavonoid; Liebermann-Burchard test for triterprnoid and Forth test for saponin. Antioxidant activity test was done by using 20D spectronic spectrophotometer to determine the percentage of DPPH free radical inhibition. The results showed that water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves contain phenolic and IC50 = 5.44 μg/ml. This means that sisik naga leaves can be used as an antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity test, dpph, phytochemical test, drymoglossum piloselloides

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22 Effect of Unilateral Unoperated Ovarian Endometrioma on Responsiveness to Hyperstimulation

Authors: Abdelmaguid Ramzy, Mohamed Bahaa

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Introduction: The effects of ovarian endometrioma on fertility outcomes with IVF have been always related to poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral unoperated ovarian endometrioma < 2cm on the number of developing follicles and compare them with the contralateral ovary as a control. Design: Retrospective case control study. Setting: KasrEl-Aini IVF center. Patient(s): We studied 32 women with unilateral endometrioma who underwent their first IVF cycle. Methods: 32 Patients aged between 20-35 years selected for IVF who were diagnosed with one unilateral endometrioma (diameter <2 cm) and who did not undergo previous ovarian surgery were retrospectively identified. The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma were compared with those from the contralateral ovary. They were all hyperstimulated using long protocol with (225-300 IU) gonadotrophins. Primary outcome: The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger. Result(s): The mean ± SD age, Day 3 serum FSH and LH were 27± 3.7 years, 5.8 ± 1.6 IU/ml and 4.5 ± 1.7 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of follicles > 17 mm on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma (4.4 ±2.5) and in the opposite ovary (4.5 ± 2.8) (P= 0.48). Conclusion: The presence of ovarian endometrioma in a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle for IVF treatment is not associated with a reduced number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger.

Keywords: endometrioma, folliculometry, hyperstimulation, fertility

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21 Fingers Exergames to Improve Fine Motor Skill in Autistic Children

Authors: Zulhisyam Salleh, Fizatul Aini Patakor, Rosilah Wahab, Awangku Khairul Ridzwan Awangku Jaya

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Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how people perceive the world and interact with others. Most of these children have difficulty with fine motor skills which typically struggle with handwriting and fine activities in their routine life such as getting dressed and controlled use of the everyday tool. Because fine motor activities encompass so many routine functions, a fine motor delay can have a measurable negative impact on a person's ability to handle daily practical tasks. This project proposed a simple fine motor exercise aid plus the game (exergame) for autistic children who discover from fine motor difficulties. The proposed exergame will be blinking randomly and user needs to bend their finger accordingly. It will notify the user, whether they bend the right finger or not. The system is realized using Arduino, which is programmed to control all the operated circuit. The feasibility studies with six autistic children were conducted and found the child interested in using exergame and could quickly get used to it. This study provides important guidance for future investigations of the exergame potential for accessing and improving fine motor skill among autistic children.

Keywords: autism children, Arduino project, fine motor skill, finger exergame

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20 Cytotoxicity of Nano β–Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) on Human Osteoblast (hFOB1.19)

Authors: Jer Ping Ooi, Shah Rizal Bin Kasim, Nor Aini Saidin

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The objective of this study was to synthesize nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and assess its cytotoxic effects on human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) by using four cytotoxicity assays, namely, lactose dehydrogenase (LDHe), tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT), neutral red (NR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a calcium phosphate compound commonly used as an implant material. To date, bulk-sized β-TCP is reported to be readily tolerated by the osteogenic cells and body based on in vitro, in vivo experiments and clinical studies. However, to what extent of nano-sized β-TCP will react in models as compared to bulk β-TCP is yet to be investigated. Thus, in this project, the cells were treated with nano β-TCP powder within a range of concentrations from 0 to 1000 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 h. The cytotoxicity tests showed that loss of cell viability ( > 50%) was high for hFOB1.19 cells in all assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis of hFOB1.19 cells revealed that 50 μg/mL of the compound led to 30.5% of cells being apoptotic after 72 h of incubation, and the percentage was increased to 58.6% when the concentration was increased to 200 μg/mL. When the incubation time was increased from 24 to 72 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 17.3% to 58.6% when the hFOB1.19 were exposed with 200 μg/mL of nano β-TCP powder. Thus, both concentration and exposure duration affected the cytotoxicity effects of the nano β-TCP powder on hFOB1.19. We hypothesize that these cytotoxic effects on hFOB1.19 are related to the nano-scale size of the β-TCP.

Keywords: β-tricalcium phosphate, hFOB1.19, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, cytotoxicity

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19 A Study on the Performance of 2-PC-D Classification Model

Authors: Nurul Aini Abdul Wahab, Nor Syamim Halidin, Sayidatina Aisah Masnan, Nur Izzati Romli

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There are many applications of principle component method for reducing the large set of variables in various fields. Fisher’s Discriminant function is also a popular tool for classification. In this research, the researcher focuses on studying the performance of Principle Component-Fisher’s Discriminant function in helping to classify rice kernels to their defined classes. The data were collected on the smells or odour of the rice kernel using odour-detection sensor, Cyranose. 32 variables were captured by this electronic nose (e-nose). The objective of this research is to measure how well a combination model, between principle component and linear discriminant, to be as a classification model. Principle component method was used to reduce all 32 variables to a smaller and manageable set of components. Then, the reduced components were used to develop the Fisher’s Discriminant function. In this research, there are 4 defined classes of rice kernel which are Aromatic, Brown, Ordinary and Others. Based on the output from principle component method, the 32 variables were reduced to only 2 components. Based on the output of classification table from the discriminant analysis, 40.76% from the total observations were correctly classified into their classes by the PC-Discriminant function. Indirectly, it gives an idea that the classification model developed has committed to more than 50% of misclassifying the observations. As a conclusion, the Fisher’s Discriminant function that was built on a 2-component from PCA (2-PC-D) is not satisfying to classify the rice kernels into its defined classes.

Keywords: classification model, discriminant function, principle component analysis, variable reduction

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18 Heat Treatment on Malaysian Hardwood Timbers: The Effect of Heat Exposure at Different Levels of Temperature on Bending Strength Properties

Authors: Nur Ilya Farhana Md Noh, Zakiah Ahmad

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Heat treatment on timbers is a process of applying heat to modify and equip the timbers with new improvised characteristics. It is environmental friendly compared to the common practice of treating timber by chemical preservatives. Malaysian hardwood timbers; Pauh Kijang and Kapur in green condition were heat treated at 150°C, 170°C, 190°C and 210°C in a specially design electronic furnace in one hour duration. The objectives were to determine the effect of heat treatment on bending strength properties of heat treated Pauh Kijang and Kapur in term of Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and to examine the significance changes at each temperature levels applied. Untreated samples for each species were used as a control sample. The results indicated that the bending strength properties for both species of timbers were affected by the heat exposure. Both MOE and MOR values for heat treated Pauh Kijang were increased when subjected to the specified temperature levels except at 210°C. The values were dropped compared to the control sample and sample treated at 190°C. Heat treated Kapur shows the same pattern of increment on its MOE and MOR values after exposure to heat at three temperature levels used and the values dropped at 210°C. However, differ to Pauh Kijang, even though there were decrement occurred at 210°C but the value is still higher compared to the control sample. The increments of MOE and MOR values are an indicator that heat treatment had successfully improvised the bending strength properties of these two species of hardwood timber. As the good strength of Malaysian timbers used as structural material is limited in numbers and expensive, heat treating timber with low strength properties is an alternative way to overcome this issue. Heat treatment is an alternative method need to be explored and made available in Malaysia as this country is still practicing chemical preservative treatment on the timbers.

Keywords: bending strength, hardwood timber, heat treatment, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR)

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17 Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Immunological Properties of Breast Milk

Authors: Ahmed Ali Torad

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Background: Breast feeding maintains the maternal fetal immunological link, favours the transmission of immune-competence from the mother to her infant and is considered an important contributory factor to the neo natal immune defense system. Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation techniques on immunological properties of breast milk. Subjects and Methods: Thirty breast feeding mothers with a single, mature infant without any complications participated in the study. Subjects will be recruited from outpatient clinic of obstetric department of El Kasr El-Aini university hospital in Cairo. Mothers were randomly divided into two equal groups using coin toss method: Group (A) (relaxation training group) (experimental group): It will be composed of 15 women who received relaxation training program in addition to breast feeding and nutritional advices and Group (B) (control group): It will be composed of 15 women who received breast feeding and nutritional advices only. Results: The results showed that mean mother’s age was 28.4 ± 3.68 and 28.07 ± 4.09 for group A and B respectively, there were statistically significant differences between pre and post values regarding cortisol level, IgA level, leucocyte count and infant’s weight and height and there is only statistically significant differences between both groups regarding post values of all immunological variables (cortisol – IgA – leucocyte count). Conclusion: We could conclude that there is a statistically significant effect of relaxation techniques on immunological properties of breast milk.

Keywords: relaxation, breast, milk, immunology, lactation

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16 Response of Diaphragmatic Excursion to Inspiratory Muscle Trainer Post Thoracotomy

Authors: H. M. Haytham, E. A. Azza, E.S. Mohamed, E. G. Nesreen

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Thoracotomy is a great surgery that has serious pulmonary complications, so purpose of this study was to determine the response of diaphragmatic excursion to inspiratory muscle trainer post thoracotomy. Thirty patients of both sexes (16 men and 14 women) with age ranged from 20 to 40 years old had done thoracotomy participated in this study. The practical work was done in cardiothoracic department, Kasr-El-Aini hospital at faculty of medicine for individuals 3 days Post operatively. Patients were assigned into two groups: group A (study group) included 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) who received inspiratory muscle training by using inspiratory muscle trainer for 20 minutes and routine chest physiotherapy (deep breathing, cough and early ambulation) twice daily, 3 days per week for one month. Group B (control group) included 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) who received the routine chest physiotherapy only (deep breathing, cough and early ambulation) twice daily, 3 days per week for one month. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the changes in diaphragmatic excursion before and after training program. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in diaphragmatic excursion in the study group (59.52%) more than control group (18.66%) after using inspiratory muscle trainer post operatively in patients post thoracotomy. It was concluded that the inspiratory muscle training device increases diaphragmatic excursion in patients post thoracotomy through improving inspiratory muscle strength and improving mechanics of breathing and using of inspiratory muscle trainer as a method of physical therapy rehabilitation to reduce post-operative pulmonary complications post thoracotomy.

Keywords: diaphragmatic excursion, inspiratory muscle trainer, ultrasonography, thoracotomy

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15 Level of Knowledge, Attitude, Perceived Behavior Control, Subjective Norm and Behavior of Household Solid Waste towards Zero Waste Management among Malaysian Consumer

Authors: M. J. Zuroni, O. Syuhaily, M. A. Afida Mastura, M. S. Roslina, A. K. Nurul Aini

Abstract:

The impact of country development has caused an increase of solid waste. The increase in population causes of excess usage thus effecting the sustainable environment. Zero waste management involves maximizing practices of recycling and minimizing residual waste. This paper seeks to analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm and behavior of household solid waste towards household solid waste management among urban households in 8 states that have been implemented and enforced regulations under the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act 2007 (Act 672) in Malaysia. A total of respondents are 605 and we used a purposive sampling for location and simple sampling for sample size. Data collected by using self-administered questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS software. The Pearson Correlation Test is to examine the relationship between four variables. Results show that knowledge scores are high because they have an awareness of the importance of managing solid waste. For attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm and behavioral scores at a moderate level in solid waste management activities. The findings show that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior of household solid waste (r = 0.136 **, p = 0.001), there is a significant relationship between attitude and behavior (r = 0.238 **, p = 0.000), there is a significant relationship between perceived behavior control and behavior (r = 0.516 **, p = 0.000) and there is a significant relationship between subjective norm and behavior (r = 0.494 **, p = 0.000). The conclusion is that there is a relationship between knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control and subjective norm toward the behavior of household solid waste management. Therefore, in the findings of the study, all parties including the government should work together to enhance the knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control and behavior of household solid waste management in other states that have not implemented and enforced regulations under the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 (Act 672).

Keywords: solid waste management, knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, behavior

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14 An Attempt of Cost Analysis of Heart Failure Patients at Cardiology Department at Kasr Al Aini Hospitals: A Micro-Costing Study from Social Perspective

Authors: Eman Elsebaie, A. Sedrak, R. Ziada

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Introduction: In the recent decades, heart failure (HF) has become one of the most prevalent cardio-vascular disease (CVDs), especially in the elderly and the main cause of hospitalization in Egypt cardiology departments. By 2030, the prevalence of HF is expected to increase by 25%. Total direct costs will increase to $818 billion, and the total indirect cost in terms of lost productivity is close to $275 billion. The current study was conducted to estimate the economic costs of services delivered for heart failure patients at the cardiology department in Cairo University Hospitals (CUHs). Aim: To gain an understanding of the cost of heart failure disease and its main drivers aiming to minimize associated health care costs. Subjects and Methods: Economic cost analysis study was conducted for a prospective group of all cases of HF admitted to the cardiology department in CUHs from end of March till end of April 2016 and another retrospective randomized sample from patients with HF, during the first 3 months of 2016 to measure estimated average cost per patient per day. Results: The mean age of the prospective group was 48.6 ± 17.16 years versus 52.3 ± 11.5 years for the retrospective group. The median (IQR) of Length of stay was 15 (15) days in the prospective group versus 9 (16) days in the retrospective group. The average HF inpatient cost/day in the cardiology department during April 2016 was 362.32 (255.5) L.E. versus 391.2(255.9) L.E. during January and February 2016. Conclusion: Up to 70% of expenditure in the management of HF is related to hospital admission. The average cost of such an admission was 5540.03 (IQR=7507.8) L.E. and 4687.4 (IQR=7818.8) L.E. with the average cost per day estimated at 362.32 (IQR=255.5) L.E. and 386.2(IQR=255.9) L.E. in prospective and retrospective groups respectively.

Keywords: health care cost, heart failure, hospitalization, inpatient

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13 Performance Assessment of Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine with Variable Length Blades

Authors: Farhana Arzu, Roslan Hashim

Abstract:

Renewable energy is the only alternative sources of energy to meet the current energy demand, healthy environment and future growth which is considered essential for essential sustainable development. Marine renewable energy is one of the major means to meet this demand. Turbines (both horizontal and vertical) play a vital role for extraction of tidal energy. The influence of swept area on the performance improvement of tidal turbine is a vital factor to study for the reduction of relatively high power generation cost in marine industry. This study concentrates on performance investigation of variable length blade tidal turbine concept that has already been proved as an efficient way to improve energy extraction in the wind industry. The concept of variable blade length utilizes the idea of increasing swept area through the turbine blade extension when the tidal stream velocity falls below the rated condition to maximize energy capture while blade retracts above rated condition. A three bladed horizontal axis variable length blade horizontal axis tidal turbine was modelled by modifying a standard fixed length blade turbine. Classical blade element momentum theory based numerical investigation has been carried out using QBlade software to predict performance. The results obtained from QBlade were compared with the available published results and found very good agreement. Three major performance parameters (i.e., thrust, moment, and power coefficients) and power output for different blade extensions were studied and compared with a standard fixed bladed baseline turbine at certain operational conditions. Substantial improvement in performance coefficient is observed with the increase in swept area of the turbine rotor. Power generation is found to increase in great extent when operating at below rated tidal stream velocity reducing the associated cost per unit electric power generation.

Keywords: variable length blade, performance, tidal turbine, power generation

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12 Studies on the Effect of Dehydration Techniques, Treatments, Packaging Material and Methods on the Quality of Buffalo Meat during Ambient Temperature Storage

Authors: Tariq Ahmad Safapuri, Saghir Ahmad, Farhana Allai

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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect dehydration techniques (polyhouse and tray drying), different treatment (SHMP, SHMP+ salt, salt + turmeric), different packaging material (HDPE, combination film), and different packaging methods (air, vacuum, CO2 Flush) on quality of dehydrated buffalo meat during ambient temperature storage. The quality measuring parameters included physico-chemical characteristics i.e. pH, rehydration ratio, moisture content and microbiological characteristics viz total plate content. It was found that the treatment of (SHMP, SHMP + salt, salt + turmeric increased the pH. Moisture Content of dehydrated meat samples were found in between 7.20% and 5.54%.the rehydration ratio of salt+ turmeric treated sample was found to be highest and lowest for controlled meat sample. the bacterial count log TPC/g of salt + turmeric and tray dried was lowest i.e. 1.80.During ambient temperature storage ,there was no considerable change in pH of dehydrated sample till 150 days. however the moisture content of samples increased in different packaging system in different manner. The highest moisture rise was found in case of controlled meat sample HDPE/air packed while the lowest increase was reported for SHMP+ Salt treated Packed by vacuum in combination film packed sample. Rehydration ratio was found considerably affected in case of HDPE and air packed sample dehydrated in polyhouse after 150 days of ambient storage. While there was a very little change in the rehydration ratio of meat samples packed in combination film CO2 flush system. The TPC was found under safe limit even after 150 days of storage. The microbial count was found to be lowest for salt+ turmeric treated samples after 150 days of storage.

Keywords: ambient temperature, dehydration technique, rehydration ratio, SHMP (sodium hexa meta phosphate), HDPE (high density polyethelene)

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11 Tsunami Disasters Preparedness among the Coastal Residence in Penang, Malaysia

Authors: A. R. Shakura, A. B. Elistina, M. S. Aini, S. Norhasmah, A. Fakhru’l-Razi

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Tsunami 2004 was an unforeseeable event that caught Malaysia of guard resulting with 68 losses of lives and with an estimated economic loss of about 55.15billion US dollar. Scientists predict that if the earthquake epicentre originates from the Andaman-Nicobar region, the coastal population of Penang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate to safety. Thus, a study was conducted to enhance resiliency of Penang community as the area was the worst affected region during 2004 tsunami disaster. This paper is intended to examine the factors that influence intention to prepare for future tsunami among the coastal residence in Penang. The differences in the level of intention to prepare were also examined between those who experience and did not experience the 2004 tsunami. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design using a survey method. A total of 503 respondents were chosen systematically and data gathered were analysed using SPSS. Both genders, male and female were equally represented with a mean age of 44 years. Data indicated that the level of intention to prepare for tsunami disaster was moderate (M=3.72) with no significant difference in intention to prepare between those who had experienced or had not experienced the 2004 tsunami. Subsequently, results from a multiple regression analysis found that sense of community to be the most influential factor followed by subjective norm, trust, positive outcome expectancy and risk perception, explaining the 57% variance in intention to prepare. These factors reflect the influence of the collectivistic culture in Malaysia whereby households plus communities have a central role in encouraging each other. Therefore, the findings highlights the potential of adopting a community based disaster risk management as recommended by the United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) which encompasses the cooperation between the local community and relevant stakeholders in preparing for future tsunami disaster.

Keywords: disaster management, experience, intention to prepare, tsunami

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10 Migration and Human Security: An Analysis of a Neglected Ethnic Rohingya's Exodus in Myanmar and Its Regional Security Implications

Authors: Zarina Othman, Bakri Mat, Aini Fatihah Roslam

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The Burmese ethnic known as Rohingya is one of the world’s most persecuted ethnic minorities on earth. They have been massacred, discriminated, humiliated, gang-raped, trafficked, abused and neglected. More than one million Rohingyas have been displaced internally and overseas. Currently, Rohingya asylum seekers can be found in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. This forced migration is unacceptable since the Rohingya are stateless although they have been part of Myanmar for more than one century. Why the Rohingyas crisis is important to be analyse from human security perspectives? Understanding the human security of the Rohingya is important because the crisis may have implication on the regional stability in South and South-East Asia. The objectives of the research are to provide an explanation to the current human security situation in Myanmar, to analyse the regional implication of the Rohingya’s crisis and to recommend the workable solution that may help to reduce the tension. To analyze and demonstrate the case, the research has adopted the BAGHUS or Bangi Human Security Approach, a Southeast Asian human security model, designed to protect the weakest and the vital core of human life across national borders. Based on a qualitative research, and a review of literature from secondary sources of books, reports and academic journals, the research has conducted interviews with 1) Rohingya respondents in Cox’s Baza in February 2017; 2) experts and scholars in the field in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Malaysia. Preliminary findings suggest that conflicts lead to displacement and migration across borders, human insecurity is an issue where the implementation of human rights is too slow to take place even in sovereign state like Myanmar. The political and economic interests of many extraregional powers have further contributed to the current crisis. Human security perspectives is suggested as the workable solution for stability and peace in the region.

Keywords: human security, migration, Myanmar, regional security, Rohingya

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9 Sequence Analysis and Molecular Cloning of PROTEOLYSIS 6 in Tomato

Authors: Nurulhikma Md Isa, Intan Elya Suka, Nur Farhana Roslan, Chew Bee Lynn

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The evolutionarily conserved N-end rule pathway marks proteins for degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteosome System (UPS) based on the nature of their N-terminal residue. Proteins with a destabilizing N-terminal residue undergo a series of condition-dependent N-terminal modifications, resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation. Intensive research has been carried out in Arabidopsis previously. The group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFs) transcription factors are the first N-end rule pathway substrates found in Arabidopsis and their role in regulating oxygen sensing. ERFs also function as central hubs for the perception of gaseous signals in plants and control different plant developmental including germination, stomatal aperture, hypocotyl elongation and stress responses. However, nothing is known about the role of this pathway during fruit development and ripening aspect. The plant model system Arabidopsis cannot represent fleshy fruit model system therefore tomato is the best model plant to study. PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway. Two homologs of PRT6 sequences have been identified in tomato genome database using the PRT6 protein sequence from model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Homology search against Ensemble Plant database (tomato) showed Solyc09g010830.2 is the best hit with highest score of 1143, e-value of 0.0 and 61.3% identity compare to the second hit Solyc10g084760.1. Further homology search was done using NCBI Blast database to validate the data. The result showed best gene hit was XP_010325853.1 of uncharacterized protein LOC101255129 (Solanum lycopersicum) with highest score of 1601, e-value 0.0 and 48% identity. Both Solyc09g010830.2 and uncharacterized protein LOC101255129 were genes located at chromosome 9. Further validation was carried out using BLASTP program between these two sequences (Solyc09g010830.2 and uncharacterized protein LOC101255129) to investigate whether they were the same proteins represent PRT6 in tomato. Results showed that both proteins have 100 % identity, indicates that they were the same gene represents PRT6 in tomato. In addition, we used two different RNAi constructs that were driven under 35S and Polygalacturonase (PG) promoters to study the function of PRT6 during tomato developmental stages and ripening processes.

Keywords: ERFs, PRT6, tomato, ubiquitin

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8 Debunking Sexual Myths in Bangladesh through an Intervention on the Internet

Authors: E. Rommes, Els Toonen, Rahil Roodsaz, Suborna Camellia, Farhana Alam, Saad Khan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Tanveer Hassan, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, a country in which adults (both parents and teachers) find it particularly hard to speak with youth about sexuality, adolescents seem to struggle with various insecurities about their sexual feelings, thoughts, behavior and physical characteristics. On the basis of a large number of interviews and focus groups with rural and urban Bangla adolescent girls and boys of lower and middle class as part of the large-scale three-year project ‘Breaking the Shame’, we have identified ten sexual themes or ‘myths’ that youth struggle with most. These encompass amongst others beliefs and insecurities on masturbation, discharge, same-sex behavior and feelings, the effects of watching porn and gender norms. We argue that the Internet is a particularly suitable medium to ‘debunk’ those myths, as youth can consult it anonymously and privately and so avoid social shame. Moreover, amongst the myths, we have identified two kinds which may need different debunking techniques. One kind of myth concerns scientifically uncontested, generally biological related information, such as the effects of having sex with a pregnant woman, questions on the effects of a penile or vaginal discharge or questions on the effects of masturbation. The second kind of myths concerns more diverse information sources and deals with e.g. religious or culturally specific norms, such as on the meaning and existence of homosexuality or gender appropriate norms of behavior in Bangladesh. For addressing both kinds of myths, expert information including a wealth of references to information resources needs to be provided, which the Internet is very suitable for. For the second kind of myths, adolescents also need to learn how to deal with sometimes conflicting norms and information sources, and they need to develop and reflect on their own opinions as part of their identity formation. On the basis of a literature review, we thus distinguish general information needs from identity formation needs, which includes the need to be able to relate information and opinions to one’s own opinions and situation. Hence, we argue that youth not only need abstract expert information to be able to debunk sexual myths, but also the option to discuss this information with other adolescents and compare their own situation and opinions with other peers, who in that way serve as ‘warm experts’ for each other. In this paper, we will describe the outcomes of our qualitative study above. In addition, we will present our findings of an intervention by presenting youth with general, uncontested information on the Internet with additional peer discussion options to compare the debunking effects on different kinds of myths.

Keywords: peer discussion, intervention, sexual myths, shame

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7 The Use of Stroke Journey Map in Improving Patients' Perceived Knowledge in Acute Stroke Unit

Authors: C. S. Chen, F. Y. Hui, B. S. Farhana, J. De Leon

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Introduction: Stroke can lead to long-term disability, affecting one’s quality of life. Providing stroke education to patient and family members is essential to optimize stroke recovery and prevent recurrent stroke. Currently, nurses conduct stroke education by handing out pamphlets and explaining their contents to patients. However, this is not always effective as nurses have varying levels of knowledge and depth of content discussed with the patient may not be consistent. With the advancement of information technology, health education is increasingly being disseminated via electronic software and studies have shown this to have benefitted patients. Hence, a multi-disciplinary team consisting of doctors, nurses and allied health professionals was formed to create the stroke journey map software to deliver consistent and concise stroke education. Research Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of using a stroke journey map software in improving patients’ perceived knowledge in the acute stroke unit during hospitalization. Methods: Patients admitted to the acute stroke unit were given stroke journey map software during patient education. The software consists of 31 interactive slides that are brightly coloured and 4 videos, based on input provided by the multi-disciplinary team. Participants were then assessed with pre-and-post survey questionnaires before and after viewing the software. The questionnaire consists of 10 questions with a 5-point Likert scale which sums up to a total score of 50. The inclusion criteria are patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke and are cognitively alert and oriented. This study was conducted between May 2017 to October 2017. Participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 33 participants participated in the study. The results demonstrated that the use of a stroke journey map as a stroke education medium was effective in improving patients’ perceived knowledge. A comparison of pre- and post-implementation data of stroke journey map revealed an overall mean increase in patients’ perceived knowledge from 24.06 to 40.06. The data is further broken down to evaluate patients’ perceived knowledge in 3 domains: (1) Understanding of disease process; (2) Management and treatment plans; (3) Post-discharge care. Each domain saw an increase in mean score from 10.7 to 16.2, 6.9 to 11.9 and 6.6 to 11.7 respectively. Project Impact: The implementation of stroke journey map has a positive impact in terms of (1) Increasing patient’s perceived knowledge which could contribute to greater empowerment of health; (2) Reducing need for stroke education material printouts making it environmentally friendly; (3) Decreasing time nurses spent on giving education resulting in more time to attend to patients’ needs. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the benefit of using stroke journey map as a platform for stroke education. Overall, it has increased patients’ perceived knowledge in understanding their disease process, the management and treatment plans as well as the discharge process.

Keywords: acute stroke, education, ischemic stroke, knowledge, stroke

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6 Effect of 12 Weeks Pedometer-Based Workplace Program on Inflammation and Arterial Stiffness in Young Men with Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Norsuhana Omar, Amilia Aminuddina Zaiton Zakaria, Raifana Rosa Mohamad Sattar, Kalaivani Chellappan, Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali, Norizam Salamt, Zanariyah Asmawi, Norliza Saari, Aini Farzana Zulkefli, Nor Anita Megat Mohd. Nordin

Abstract:

Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction leading to arterial stiffness. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AS), as tools for the assessment of vascular damages are widely used and have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation. Several studies noted that regular exercise is associated with reduced arterial stiffness. The lack of exercise among Malaysians and the increasing CVD morbidity and mortality among young men are of concern. In Malaysia data on the workplace exercise intervention is scarce. A programme was designed to enable subjects to increase their level of walking as part of their daily work routine and self-monitored by using pedometers. The aim of this study to evaluate the reducing of inflammation by measuring CRP and improvement arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral PWV (PWVCF) and AI. A total of 70 young men (20 - 40 years) who were sedentary, achieving less than 5,000 steps/day in casual walking with 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors were recruited in Institute of Vocational Skills for Youth (IKBN Hulu Langat). Subjects were randomly assigned to a control (CG) (n=34; no change in walking) and pedometer group (PG) (n=36; minimum target: 8,000 steps/day). The CRP was measured by using immunological method while PWVCF and AI were measured using Vicorder. All parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Data for analysis was conducted using Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). At post intervention, the CG step counts were similar (4983 ± 366vs 5697 ± 407steps/day). The PG increased step count from 4996 ± 805 to 10,128 ±511 steps/day (P<0.001). The PG showed significant improvement in anthropometric variables and lipid (time and group effect p<0.001). For vascular assessment, the PG showed significantly decreased for time and effect (p<0.001) for PWV (7.21± 0.83 to 6.42 ± 0.89) m/s; AI (11.88± 6.25 to 8.83 ± 3.7) % and CRP (pre= 2.28 ± 3.09, post=1.08± 1.37mg/L). However, no changes were seen in CG. As a conclusion, a pedometer-based walking programme may be an effective strategy for promoting increased daily physical activity which reduces cardiovascular risk markers and thus improve cardiovascular health in terms of inflammation and arterial stiffness. The community intervention for health maintenance has potential to adopt walking as an exercise and adopting vascular fitness index as the performance measuring tools.

Keywords: arterial stiffness, exercise, inflammation, pedometer

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