Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: Tamil Chelvi Vadivelu

74 Security Features for Remote Healthcare System: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Tamil Chelvi Vadivelu, Nurazean Maarop, Rasimah Che Yusoff, Farhana Aini Saludin

Abstract:

Implementing a remote healthcare system needs to consider many security features. Therefore, before any deployment of the remote healthcare system, a feasibility study from the security perspective is crucial. Remote healthcare system using WBAN technology has been used in other countries for medical purposes but in Malaysia, such projects are still not yet implemented. This study was conducted qualitatively. The interview results involving five healthcare practitioners are further elaborated. The study has addressed four important security features in order to incorporate remote healthcare system using WBAN in Malaysian government hospitals.

Keywords: remote healthcare, IT security, security features, wireless sensor application

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73 Syntactic Analyzer for Tamil Language

Authors: Franklin Thambi Jose.S

Abstract:

Computational Linguistics is a branch of linguistics, which deals with the computer and linguistic levels. It is also said, as a branch of language studies which applies computer techniques to linguistics field. In Computational Linguistics, Natural Language Processing plays an important role. This came to exist because of the invention of Information Technology. In computational syntax, the syntactic analyser breaks a sentence into phrases and clauses and identifies the sentence with the syntactic information. Tamil is one of the major Dravidian languages, which has a very long written history of more than 2000 years. It is mainly spoken in Tamilnadu (in India), Srilanka, Malaysia and Singapore. It is an official language in Tamilnadu (in India), Srilanka, Malaysia and Singapore. In Malaysia Tamil speaking people are considered as an ethnic group. In Tamil syntax, the sentences in Tamil are classified into four for this research, namely: 1. Main Sentence 2. Interrogative Sentence 3. Equational Sentence 4. Elliptical Sentence. In computational syntax, the first step is to provide required information regarding the head and its constituent of each sentence. This information will be incorporated to the system using programming languages. Now the system can easily analyse a given sentence with the criteria or mechanisms given to it. Providing needful criteria or mechanisms to the computer to identify the basic types of sentences using Syntactic parser in Tamil language is the major objective of this paper.

Keywords: tamil, syntax, criteria, sentences, parser

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72 Politicization of India Sri Lanka Fishing Dispute

Authors: Mohamed Faslan

Abstract:

This research examines the impact of the politicization of the fishing dispute on India-Sri Lanka relations, particularly the influence of internal and party politics. The maritime border is clearly demarcated between India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka signed bilateral agreements on maritime boundaries in 1974 and 1976 respectively. They signed the United Nations Law of the Sea- III as well. Despite this, fishing disputes persist between the two nations. Tamil Nadu politics is closely linked with Sri Lankan Tamil issues and Tamil Nadu has been playing a significant role in Indo-Lanka relations. This is due to the fact that many Indian trawlers involved in fishing activities in Sri Lankan waters are from Tamil Nadu. The Government of Tamil Nadu is also very concerned about the issue of fishing in Sri Lankan waters. During the ethnic war, Sri Lankan fishermen were restricted on fishing activities in the Northern sea by the Sri Lankan Government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE). This created a vacuum in the Northern sea of Sri Lanka, and Indian trawlers filled the vacuum with the support of the LTTE. After the end of the war, Northern fishermen of Sri Lanka recommenced their fishing activities and realized that the Tamil Nadu trawlers had scooped their fishing resources. The Northern fishermen started to protest the invasion of Indian trawlers and pushed the Sri Lankan Government to stop the Indian trawlers. When Sri Lanka arrested Indian fishermen and confiscated their fishing boats, the Tamil Nadu Government used this as an opportunity to accuse Sri Lanka as having a Sinhalese government, to express feelings of hatred towards Sri Lanka due to the ethnic war against Tamils and tried to increase the voting bank by selling Tamil feelings. Thus, this research finds that Tamil Nadu does not associate this fishing dispute with Tamils in Sri Lanka but with the Sinhalese despite the status quo. This research has covered the Northern fishermen and stakeholders of Sri Lanka and could not do any field research in India due to visa restrictions. However, the researcher tries to balance the gap by referring to secondary sources and a few interviews with Indian scholars.

Keywords: Indo Lanka relations, fishing dispute, maritime border, Tamil Nadu & Sri Lankan waters

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71 The Greek Root Word ‘Kos’ and the Trade of Ancient Greek with Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: D. Pugazhendhi

Abstract:

The ancient Greeks were forerunners in many fields than other societies. So, the Greeks were well connected with all the countries which were well developed during that time through trade route. In this connection, trading of goods from the ancient Greece to Tamil Nadu which is presently in India, though they are geographically far away, played an important role. In that way, the word and the goods related with kos and kare got exchanged between these two societies. So, it is necessary to compare the phonology and the morphological occurrences of these words that are found common both in the ancient Greek and Tamil literatures of the contemporary period. The results show that there were many words derived from the root kos with the basic meaning of ‘arrange’ in the ancient Greek language, but this is not the case in the usage of the word kare. In the ancient Tamil literature, the word ‘kos’ does not have any root and also had rare occurrences. But it was just the opposite in the case of the word ‘kare’. One of all the meanings of the word, which was derived from the root ‘kos’ in ancient Greek literature, is related with costly ornaments. This meaning seems to have close resemblance with the usage of word ‘kos’ in ancient Tamil literature. Also, the meaning of the word ‘kare’ in ancient Tamil literature is related with spices whereas, in the ancient Greek literature, its meaning is related to that of the cooking of meat using spices. Hence, the similarity seen in the meanings of these words ‘kos’ and ‘kare’ in both these languages provides lead for further study. More than that, the ancient literary resources which are available in both these languages ensure the export and import of gold and spices from the ancient Greek land to Tamil land.

Keywords: arrange, kare, Kos, ornament, Tamil

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70 Peace through Language Policy as a Solution to the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka

Authors: R. M. W. Rajapakshe

Abstract:

Sri Lanka, which is officially called the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island nation situated near India. It is a multi-lingual, multi- religious and multi – ethnic country, where Sinhalese form the majority and the Tamils form the largest ethnic minority. The composition of the population (ethnic basis) in Sri Lanka is as follows: Sinhalese: 74.5%, Tamil (Sri Lankan): 12.6%, Muslim: 7.5 %, Tamil (Indian): 5.5%, Malay: 0.3%, Burgher: 0.3 %, other: 0.2 %. The Tamil people use the Tamil language as their mother tongue and the Sinhala people use the Sinhala language as their mother tongue. A very few people in both communities use English as their mother tongue and however, a large number of people use English as a second language. The Sinhala Language was declared the only official language in Sri Lanka in 1959. However, it was not acceptable to Tamil politicians as well as to the common Tamil people and it was the beginning of long standing ethnic crisis which later became a military war where a lot of blood was shed. As a solution to the above ethnic crisis the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of Sri Lanka was introduced in 1987 and according to it both Sinhala and Tamil were declared official languages and English as the link language in Sri Lanka. Thus, a new programme namely, second language teaching programme under which Sinhala was taught to Tamil students and Tamil was taught to Sinhala students, was introduced at government schools. Language teaching includes knowledge of the culture of the target language. As all cultures are mixed and have common features students have reduced their enmity about the other community and learned to respect the other culture. On the other hand as all languages are mixed, students came to the understanding that there are no pure languages. Thus, they learned to respect the other language. In the case of Sri Lanka the Sinhala language is mixed with the Tamil language and vice versa. Thus, the development of second language teaching is the prominent way to solve the above ethnic problem and this study clearly shows it. However, the above programme suffers with lack of trained second language teachers, infrastructure facilities and insufficient funds and, they can be considered as the main obstacles to develop the second language teaching programme. Yet, there are no satisfactory answers to those problems. The data were collected from relevant books, articles and other documents based on research and forty five recordings, each with one hour duration, of natural conversations covering all factions of the Sinhala community.

Keywords: ethnic crisis, official language, second language teaching, Sinhala, Tami

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69 Pudhaiyal: A Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game for Tamil Words

Authors: Aarthy Anandan, Anitha Narasimhan, Madhan Karky

Abstract:

Word-based games are popular in helping people to improve their vocabulary skills. Games like ‘word search’ and crosswords provide a smart way of increasing vocabulary skills. Word search games are fun to play, but also educational which actually helps to learn a language. Finding the words from word search puzzle helps the player to remember words in an easier way, and it also helps to learn the spellings of words. In this paper, we present a tile distribution algorithm for a Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game 'Pudhaiyal’ for Tamil words, which describes how words can be distributed horizontally, vertically or diagonally in a 10 x 10 grid. Along with the tile distribution algorithm, we also present an algorithm for the scoring model of the game. The proposed game has been tested with 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Pudhaiyal, Tamil word game, word search, scoring, maze, algorithm

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68 Porul: Option Generation and Selection and Scoring Algorithms for a Tamil Flash Card Game

Authors: Anitha Narasimhan, Aarthy Anandan, Madhan Karky, C. N. Subalalitha

Abstract:

Games can be the excellent tools for teaching a language. There are few e-learning games in Indian languages like word scrabble, cross word, quiz games etc., which were developed mainly for educational purposes. This paper proposes a Tamil word game called, “Porul”, which focuses on education as well as on players’ thinking and decision-making skills. Porul is a multiple choice based quiz game, in which the players attempt to answer questions correctly from the given multiple options that are generated using a unique algorithm called the Option Selection algorithm which explores the semantics of the question in various dimensions namely, synonym, rhyme and Universal Networking Language semantic category. This kind of semantic exploration of the question not only increases the complexity of the game but also makes it more interesting. The paper also proposes a Scoring Algorithm which allots a score based on the popularity score of the question word. The proposed game has been tested using 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Porul game, Tamil word game, option selection, flash card, scoring, algorithm

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67 The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India

Authors: Jayakant Singh, Enu Anand

Abstract:

Background: Child marriage is widely prevalent in India. It is a form of gross human right violation that succumbs a child bride to be subservient to her husband within a marital relation. We investigated the relationship between age at marriage of women and her level of empowerment with physical violence experienced 12 months preceding the survey among young women aged 20-24 in two culturally distinct states- Bihar and Tamil Nadu of India. Methods: We used the information collected from 10514 young married women (20-24 years) at all India level, 373 in Bihar and 523 in Tamil Nadu from the third round of National Family Health Survey. Empowerment index was calculated using different parameters such as mobility, economic independence and decision making power of women using Principal Component Analysis method. Bivariate analysis was performed primarily using chi square for the test of significance. Logistic regression was carried out to assess the effect of age at marriage and empowerment on physical violence. Results: Lower level of women empowerment was significantly associated with physical violence in Tamil Nadu (OR=2.38, p<0.01) whereas child marriage (marriage before age 15) was associated with physical violence in Bihar (OR=3.27, p<0.001). The mean difference in age at marriage between those who experienced physical violence and those who did not experience varied by 7 months in Bihar and 10 months in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion: Culture specific intervention may be a key to reduction of violence against women as the results showed association of different factors contributing to physical violence in Bihar and Tamil Nadu. Marrying at an appropriate age perhaps is protective of abuse because it equips a woman to assert her rights effectively. It calls for an urgent consideration to curb both violence and child marriage with stricter involvement of family, civil society and the government. In the meanwhile physical violence may be recognized as a public health problem and integrate appropriate treatment to the victims within the health care institution.

Keywords: child marriage, empowerment, India, physical violence

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66 An Analysis of Fertility Decline in India: Evidences from Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Ajay Kumar

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Using data from census of India, sample registration system and national family health survey (NFHS-3), this paper traces spatial pattern, trends and the factors which have played their role differently in fertility transition in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For the purpose spatial variation analysis, trend line and binary logistic regression analysis has been carried out. There exist considerable regional disparities in terms of fertility decline in northern and southern states. The pace of fertility decline has been faster in southern and coastal regions, and at a slow pace in backward northern state. In Tamil Nadu fertility declined substantially among the women of lower and higher age groups in comparison to Uttar Pradesh characterized by low literacy, low female age at marriage, poor health infrastructure and low status of women. The Study shows that Fertility rates have been higher among the most vulnerable and deprived sections of the society like Illiterate women, women belong to scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and women residing in rural areas.

Keywords: age specific fertility rate, fertility transition, replacement level, total fertility rate

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65 Early Adolescents Motivation and Engagement Levels in Learning in Low Socio-Economic Districts in Sri Lanka (Based on T-Tests Results)

Authors: Ruwandika Perera

Abstract:

Even though the Sri Lankan government provides a reasonable level of support for students at all levels of the school system, for example, free education, textbooks, school uniforms, subsidized public transportation, and school meals, low participation in learning among secondary students is an issue warranting investigation, particularly in low socio-economic districts. This study attempted to determine the levels of motivation and engagement amongst students in a number of schools in two low socio-economic districts of Sri Lanka. This study employed quantitative research design in an attempt to determine levels of motivation and engagement amongst Sri Lankan secondary school students. Motivation and Engagement Scale-Junior School (MES-JS) was administered among 100 Sinhala-medium and 100 Tamil-medium eighth-grade students (50 students from each gender). The mean age of the students was 12.8 years. Schools were represented by type 2 government schools located in Monaragala and Nuwara Eliya districts in Sri Lanka. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to measure the construct validity of the scale. Since this did not provide a robust solution, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted. Four factors were identified; Failure Avoidance and Anxiety (FAA), Positive Motivation (PM), Uncertain Control (UC), and Positive Engagement (PE). An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare PM, PE, FAA, and UC in gender and ethnic groups. There was no significant difference identified for PE, FAA, and UC scales based upon gender. These results indicate that for the participants in this study, there were no significant differences based on gender in the levels of failure avoidance and anxiety, uncertain control, and positive engagement in the school experience. But, the result for the PM scale was close to significant, indicating there may be differences based on gender for positive motivation. A significant difference exists for all scales based on ethnicity, with the mean result for the Tamil students being significantly higher than that for the Sinhala students. These results indicate those Sinhala-medium students’ levels of positive motivation and positive engagement in learning was lower than Tamil-medium students. Also, these results indicate those Tamil-medium students’ levels of failure avoidance, anxiety, and uncertain control was higher than Sinhala-medium students. It could be concluded that male students levels of PM were significantly lower than female students. Also, Sinhala-medium students’ levels of PM and PE was lower than Tamil-medium students, and Tamil-medium students levels of FAA and UC was significantly higher than Sinhala-medium students. Thus, there might be particular school-related conditions affecting this situation, which are related to early adolescents’ motivation and engagement in learning.

Keywords: early adolescents, engagement, low socio-economic districts, motivation

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64 Tendency of Smoking, Factors Influencing and Knowledge Related to Smoking among Male Students in Tamil Primary School in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: T. Jivita, M. S. Salmiah

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking, reasons for tried smoking, factors that influence smoking, and knowledge level on health risk among male Tamil primary school students. Seven urban Tamil primary schools in Kuala Lumpur were identified based on cluster sampling. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014 and a total of 380 male children in standard 4 and 5 were selected. Survey included information on history of ever smoking even a puff, smoking a whole cigarette, smoking every day at least for 7 days, reasons for tried smoking, potential factors of smoking and knowledge related to smoking and health. Fifty seven had previously smoked, with a prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4, 18.6) and 17 had smoked a whole cigarette (4.5%, 95% CI = 2.42, 6.58) while 8 had at least smoked 7 days continuously (2.1%, 95% CI = 0.66, 3.54). The reasons for tried smoking were because of curiosity (63.2%), it is not allowed (42.6%), it is relaxing (35.2%), it is cool (33.3%), to lose weight (20.4%), style (1.8%), by mistake (0.5%), for prayers purpose (0.3%), given by uncle (0.3%), and introduced by elder brother (0.3%). None of these reasons were associated with age factors (p > 0.05). Of those who had smoked a whole cigarette, 42.9% were significantly influenced by father (χ2 (1) = 6.42, p = 0.040) and 47.8% were significantly influenced by friends (χ2 (2) = 6.27, p = 0.043). Overall 91.5% had good level of knowledge about smoking, where the majority knew that smoking was dangerous to their health. However only 61.7% and 63.1% of them knew that smoking can cause high blood pressure and stroke, respectively. There is no significant different in mean rank between 10 years old and 11 years old students (p=0.987 < 0.05) for level of knowledge, tested by Mann-Whitney U Test. Odds of smoking increased 1.37 times having seen actors smoking (95% CI= 1.01, 1.86), 1.55 times having a father who smokes (95% CI= 1.26, 1.92), 1.64 times having siblings who smokes (95% CI= 1.32, 2.04), and 10.55 times having friends who offered cigarette (95% CI= 4.17, 26.68). As a conclusion, cessation of smoking in family members, who are role models, so as to reduce rates to taking up smoking among children.

Keywords: factors influence, knowledge on smoking, prevalence on smoking, reasons

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63 Holistic Development of Children through Performing Classical Art Forms: A Study in Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: Meera Rajeev Kumar

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An overall social, emotional, and cultural development in a child is what a parent expects. There is no point in comparing the generations of 70’s or 80’s with that of the children of today as the trends are changing drastically. Technology has enabled them to become smart as well as over smart in one way or the other. Children today are quite ignorant of today’s values or ethics and are imbibing different cultures around them and ultimately confused on what to follow. The researcher has gained experience in transmitting or imparting the traditional culture through performing arts. It is understood that the children undergo a transformation from what they knew to what the truth is, through learning and experience. Through performing arts, the child develops an emotional, quick learning, abundant creativity, and ultimately self-realisation on what is right and wrong. The child also gains good organising skills, good decision making skills, therefore summing up to a holistic development. The sample study is 50, and a random sampling technique is adopted to differentiate between a normal child and a child learning an art. The study is conducted in Tamil Nadu, in India.

Keywords: creativity, cultural, emotional, empower

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62 Optimization of Line Loss Minimization Using Distributed Generation

Authors: S. Sambath, P. Palanivel

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Research conducted in the last few decades has proven that an inclusion of Distributed Genaration (DG) into distribution systems considerably lowers the level of power losses and the power quality improved. Moreover, the choice of DG is even more attractive since it provides not only benefits in power loss minimisation, but also a wide range of other advantages including environment, economic, power qualities and technical issues. This paper is an intent to quantify and analyse the impact of distributed generation (DG) in Tamil Nadu, India to examine what the benefits of decentralized generation would be for meeting rural loads. We used load flow analysis to simulate and quantify the loss reduction and power quality enhancement by having decentralized generation available line conditions for actual rural feeders in Tamil Nadu, India. Reactive and voltage profile was considered. This helps utilities to better plan their system in rural areas to meet dispersed loads, while optimizing the renewable and decentralised generation sources.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution system, load flow analysis, optimal location, power quality

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61 Preferred Teaching Styles of University Level Young Assistant Professors in the Faculty of Agriculture

Authors: Jaisridhar P.

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate preferred teaching styles of young faculties in agricultural education among 23 constituent colleges of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) using Staffordshire Evaluation of Teaching Styles (SETS). An onlinesurvey was conducted among 156 young faculties of 2014 Batch working in different constituent colleges of TNAU and 73 faculties respondent to the survey. The results showed that 62.53 percent preferred “The one-off teacher” stylefollowed by62.26 percent preferring “The student centered, sensitive teacher” style.“The all-round flexible and adaptable teaching style” was preferred by 61.64 percent. The Official Curriculum Teacher” with 61.23 per cent preferring this style.58.97 per cent preferred “The Big Conference Teacher” followed by 58.08 percent of the faculties preferring “The Straight Fact no Non-sense Teacher” type of teaching style. From the results, it wasconcluded that blended teaching approach can balance a teacher’s personal strengths and interest with student’s needs, and curricular requirements enables a teacher to tailor their teaching according to the student’s needs and as per subject matter.

Keywords: teaching styles, assistant professors, agriculture, tamil nadu

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60 A Qualitative Analysis on Historicizing Nationalist Discourse of the Origins of the Communities of Sri Lanka among the Contemporary Sinhalese

Authors: Jeyaseelan Gnanaseelan

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In the post-war reconciliation context, the Sri Lankans need to develop constructive discourse on political harmony, cohesion, and co-habitation to make a positive impact on legislative changes towards post-conflict reconciliation, sustainable peace, and justice. Ideological discourse constitutes power in constructing ideational, textual and interpersonal constructs for legitimizing power in society. This paper qualitatively analyses the exemplified discourse extracts of some prominent contemporary Sinhalese, which represent majoritarianism and ethno-nationalism regarding the origins of the Sinhala and Tamil communities and the consequent status availed to their existence in Sri Lanka. The study focuses, with the historiographical evidence, on whether such discourse has been a part of the problem or a part of the solution to the protracted, historically constructed Sri Lankan conflict. It finds out the continuation of such persistent and reiterated linguistically embedded ethno-centric ideological and attitudinal positions even now, which need to be addressed. This paper recommends awareness creation among the public about the true, scientifically derived historical information on the origins, evolution and inter-community co-existence and conflict of the two communities so that a durable solution can be reached in the long run.

Keywords: conflict, discourse, ethno-nationalism, ideology, legitimization, Sinhalese, Tamil

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59 Analysis of Linguistic Disfluencies in Bilingual Children’s Discourse

Authors: Sheena Christabel Pravin, M. Palanivelan

Abstract:

Speech disfluencies are common in spontaneous speech. The primary purpose of this study was to distinguish linguistic disfluencies from stuttering disfluencies in bilingual Tamil–English (TE) speaking children. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluencies are mediated by native language dominance and/or on an early onset of developmental stuttering at childhood. A detailed study was carried out to identify the prosodic and acoustic features that uniquely represent the disfluent regions of speech. This paper focuses on statistical modeling of repetitions, prolongations, pauses and interjections in the speech corpus encompassing bilingual spontaneous utterances from school going children – English and Tamil. Two classifiers including Hidden Markov Models (HMM) and the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), which is a class of feed-forward artificial neural network, were compared in the classification of disfluencies. The results of the classifiers document the patterns of disfluency in spontaneous speech samples of school-aged children to distinguish between Children Who Stutter (CWS) and Children with Language Impairment CLI). The ability of the models in classifying the disfluencies was measured in terms of F-measure, Recall, and Precision.

Keywords: bi-lingual, children who stutter, children with language impairment, hidden markov models, multi-layer perceptron, linguistic disfluencies, stuttering disfluencies

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58 Structural Anatomy and Deformation Pattern of the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone in the Central Sector, Tamil Nadu, Southern India

Authors: Mrinal Mukherjee, Gargi Seal, Bitopan Mazumdar, Prakhar Agarwal

Abstract:

The central sector of Palghat-Cauvery Shear zone Tamil Nadu, India, had been studied with reference to development, mode of occurrence, interrelationship and variation of structural elements. The litho assemblages of the study area include gneisses migmatites granites and bear signature of multistage deformation patterns. The early deformation D1 is characterized in migmatites and gneisses by the development of tight to isoclinal, recumbent to reclined folds within the compositional bands that are refolded subsequently to produce D2 deformation structures ranging from type-II to type-III superposed geometry. The granite, in general, is undeformed, save a few places where strong mylonitic foliation developed with stretching lineation on it. The D1-D2 structures of gneisses and migmatites were affected by a D3 stage- E-W trending shear zone (Palghat-Cauvery Shear zone) that dips steeply towards north. The shear zone is characterized by the development of mylonite zone with stretching lineation on foliation, shear band structures, modification of geometry and orientation of earlier folds and foliations within the shear zone and development of shear induced folds and foliations. Several anastomosing lenses of shear zones define the larger Palghat-Cauvery Shear zone. The orientation of the shear induced folds and foliations and deflections of earlier foliation and folds within the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone indicate an oblique-slip thrust-shear with north-towards-east sense of displacement. The E-W trending shear zone is further openly folded along N-S in the D4 stage of deformation.

Keywords: deformation, migmatites, mylonites, shear zones

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57 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: cage aquaculture, water depth, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

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56 Genetic Diversity of Termite (Isoptera) Fauna of Western Ghats of India

Authors: A. S. Vidyashree, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, R. Asokan, H. M. Mahadevaswamy

Abstract:

Termites are very vital ecological thespians in tropical ecosystem, having been designated as “ecosystem engineers”, due to their significant role in providing soil ecosystem services. Despite their importance, our understanding of a number of their basic biological processes in termites is extremely limited. Developing a better understanding of termite biology is closely dependent upon consistent species identification. At present, identification of termites is relied on soldier castes. But for many species, soldier caste is not reported, that creates confusion in identification. The use of molecular markers may be helpful in estimating phylogenetic relatedness between the termite species and estimating genetic differentiation among local populations within each species. To understand this, termites samples were collected from various places of Western Ghats covering four states namely Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra during 2013-15. Termite samples were identified based on their morphological characteristics, molecular characteristics, or both. Survey on the termite fauna in Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu indicated the presence of a 16 species belongs to 4 subfamilies under two families viz., Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae. Termititidae was the dominant family which was belonging to 4 genera and four subfamilies viz., Macrotermitinae, Amitermitinae, Nasutitermitinae and Termitinae. Amitermitinae had three species namely, Microcerotermes fletcheri, M. pakistanicus and Speculitermes sinhalensis. Macrotermitinae had the highest number of species belonging two genera, namely Microtermes and Odontotermes. Microtermes genus was with only one species i.e., Microtermes obesi. The genus Odontotermes was represented by the highest number of species (07), namely, O. obesus was the dominant (41 per cent) and the most widely distributed species in Karnataka, Karala, Maharashtra and Tamil nadu followed by O. feae (19 per cent), O.assmuthi (11 per cent) and others like O. bellahunisensis O. horni O. redemanni, O. yadevi. Nasutitermitinae was represented by two genera namely Nasutitermes anamalaiensis and Trinervitermes biformis. Termitinae subfamily was represented by Labiocapritermes distortus. Rhinotermitidae was represented by single subfamily Heterotermetinae. In Heterotermetinae, two species namely Heterotermes balwanthi and H. malabaricus were recorded. Genetic relationship among termites collected from various locations of Western Ghats of India was characterized based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (12S, 16S, and COII). Sequence analysis and divergence among the species was assessed. These results suggest that the use of both molecular and morphological approaches is crucial in ensuring accurate species identification. Efforts were made to understand their evolution and to address the ambiguities in morphological taxonomy. The implication of the study in revising the taxonomy of Indian termites, their characterization and molecular comparisons between the sequences are discussed.

Keywords: isoptera, mitochondrial DNA sequences, rhinotermitidae, termitidae, Western ghats

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55 Analysis and Design of Offshore Met Mast Supported on Jacket Substructure

Authors: Manu Manu, Pardha J. Saradhi, Ramana M. V. Murthy

Abstract:

Wind Energy is accepted as one of the most developed, cost effective and proven renewable energy technologies to meet increasing electricity demands in a sustainable manner. Preliminary assessment studies along Indian Coastline by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have indicated prospects for development of offshore wind power along Tamil Nadu Coast, India. The commercial viability of a wind project mainly depends on wind characteristics on site. Hence, it is internationally recommended to perform site-specific wind resource assessment based on two years’ wind profile as a part of the feasibility study. Conventionally, guy wire met mast are used onshore for the collection of wind profile. Installation of similar structure in offshore requires complex marine spread and are very expensive. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop 120 m long lattice tower supported on the jacket, piled to the seabed at Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, India. Offshore met-masts are subjected to combined wind and hydrodynamic loads, and these lateral loads should be safely transferred to soil. The wind loads are estimated based on gust factor method, and the hydrodynamic loads are estimated by Morison’s equation along with suitable wave theory. The soil is modeled as three nonlinear orthogonal springs based on API standards. The structure configuration and optimum member sizes are obtained for extreme cyclone events. The dynamic behavior of mast under coupled wind and wave loads is also studied. The static responses of a mast with jacket type offshore platform have been studied using a frame model in SESAM. It is found from the study that the maximum displacement at the top of the mast for the random wave is 0.003 m and that of the tower for wind is 0.08 m during the steady state. The dynamic analysis results indicate that the structure is safe against coupled wind and wave loading.

Keywords: offshore wind, mast, static, aerodynamic load, hydrodynamic load

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54 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Recommended for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Western Ghats, India

Authors: Mukesh Lal Das, Muthukumar Muthuchamy

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Climate change Adaptation strategy (AS) is a scientific approach to dealing with the impacts of climate change (CC). Efforts are being made to contain the global emission of greenhouse gas within threshold limits, thereby limiting the rise of global temperature to an optimal level. Global Climate change is a spontaneous process; therefore, reversing the damage would take decades. The climate change adaptation strategy recommended by various stakeholders could be a key to resilience for biodiversity. The Indian Government has constituted the panel to synthesize the climate change action report at the federal and state levels. This review scavenged the published literature on the Western Ghats hotspots. And highlight the adaptation strategy recommended by diverse scientific actors to conserve biodiversity. It also reviews the grey literature adopted by state and federal governments and its effectiveness in mitigating the impacts on biodiversity. We have narrowed the scope of interest to the state action report by 6 Indian states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which host Western Ghats global biodiversity hotspot. Western Ghats(WGs) act as the water tower to the peninsular part of India, and its extensive watershed caters to the water demand of the Industry sector, Agriculture and urban community. Conservation of WGs is the key to the prosperity of Peninsular India. The global scientific community suggested more than 600+ Climate change adaptation strategies for the policymakers, stakeholders, and other state actors to take proactive actions. The preliminary analysis of the federal and the state action plan on climate change in the wake of CC indicate inadequacy in motion as per recommended scientific adaptation strategies. Tamil Nadu and Kerala state constitute nine effective adaptation strategies out of the 40+ recommended for Western Ghats conservation. And other four states' adaptation strategies are deficient, confusing and vague. Western Ghats' resilience capacity will soon or might have reached its threshold, and the frequency of severe drought and flash floods might upsurge manifold in the decades to come. The lack of a clear roadmap to climate change adaptation strategies in the federal and state action stirred us to identify the gap and address it by offering a holistic approach to WGs biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: adaptation strategy, biodiversity conservation, climate change, resilience, Western Ghats

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53 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Graphene Oxide Co-Decorated TiO2 Nanotubular Arrays for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Alireza Rafieerad, Bushroa Abd Razak, Bahman Nasiri Tabrizi, Jamunarani Vadivelu

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Recently, reports on the fabrication of nanotubular arrays have generated considerable scientific interest, owing to the broad range of applications of the oxide nanotubes in solar cells, orthopedic and dental implants, photocatalytic devices as well as lithium-ion batteries. A more attractive approach for the fabrication of oxide nanotubes with controllable morphology is the electrochemical anodization of substrate in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. Consequently, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) have been highly considered as an applicable material particularly in the district of artificial implants. In addition, regarding long-term efficacy and reasons of failing and infection after surgery of currently used dental implants required to enhance the cytocompatibility properties of Ti-based bone-like tissue. As well, graphene oxide (GO) with relevant biocompatibility features in tissue sites, osseointegration and drug delivery functionalization was fully understood. Besides, the boasting antibacterial ability of silver (Ag) remarkably provided for implantable devices without infection symptoms. Here, surface modification of Ti–6Al–7Nb implants (Ti67IMP) by the development of Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs was examined. Initially, the anodic TiO2 nanotubes obtained at a constant potential of 60 V were annealed at 600 degree centigrade for 2 h to improve the adhesion of the coating. Afterward, the Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs were developed by spin coating on Ti67IM. The microstructural features, phase composition and wettability behavior of the nanostructured coating were characterized comparably. In a nutshell, the results of the present study may contribute to the development of the nanostructured Ti67IMP with improved surface properties.

Keywords: anodic tio2 nanotube, biomedical applications, graphene oxide, silver, spin coating

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52 Understanding the Dynamics of Human-Snake Negative Interactions: A Study of Indigenous Perceptions in Tamil Nadu, Southern India

Authors: Ramesh Chinnasamy, Srishti Semalty, Vishnu S. Nair, Thirumurugan Vedagiri, Mahesh Ganeshan, Gautam Talukdar, Karthy Sivapushanam, Abhijit Das

Abstract:

Snakes form an integral component of ecological systems. Human population explosion and associated acceleration of habitat destruction and degradation, has led to a rapid increase in human-snake encounters. The study aims at understanding the level of awareness, knowledge, and attitude of the people towards human-snake negative interaction and role of awareness programmes in the Moyar river valley, Tamil Nadu. The study area is part of the Mudumalai and the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserves, which are significant wildlife corridors between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The data was collected using questionnaire covering 644 respondents spread across 18 villages between 2018 and 2019. The study revealed that 86.5% of respondents had strong negative perceptions towards snakes which were propelled by fear, superstitions, and threat of snakebite which was common and did not vary among different villages (F=4.48; p = <0.05) and age groups (X2 = 1.946; p = 0.962). Cobra 27.8% (n = 294) and rat snake 21.3% (n = 225) were the most sighted species and most snake encounter occurred during the monsoon season i.e., July 35.6 (n = 218), June 19.1% (n = 117) and August 18.4% (n = 113). At least 1 out of 5 respondents was reportedly bitten by snakes during their lifetime. The most common species of snakes that were the cause of snakebite were Saw scaled viper (32.6%, n = 42) followed by Cobra 17.1% (n = 22). About 21.3% (n = 137) people reported livestock loss due to pythons and other snakes 21.3% (n = 137). Most people, preferred medical treatment for snakebite (87.3%), whereas 12.7%, still believed in traditional methods. The majority (82.3%) used precautionary measure by keeping traditional items such as garlic, kerosene, and snake plant to avoid snakes. About 30% of the respondents expressed need for technical and monetary support from the forest department that could aid in reducing the human-snake conflict. It is concluded that the general perception in the study area is driven by fear and negative attitude towards snakes. Though snakes such as Cobra were widely worshiped in the region, there are still widespread myths and misconceptions that have led to the irrational killing of snakes. Awareness and innovative education programs rooted in the local context and language should be integrated at the village level, to minimize risk and the associated threat of snakebite among the people. Results from this study shall help policy makers to devise appropriate conservation measures to reduce human-snake conflicts in India.

Keywords: Envenomation, Health-Education, Human-Wildlife Conflict, Neglected Tropical Disease, Snakebite Mitigation, Traditional Practitioners

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51 Validating the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CPQOL-Child) Questionnaire for Use in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi, Gopi Kitnasamy

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Background: The potentially high level of physical need and dependency experienced by children with cerebral palsy could affect the quality of life (QOL) of the child, the caregiver and his/her family. Poor QOL in children with cerebral palsy is associated with the parent-child relationship, limited opportunities for social participation, limited access to healthcare services, psychological well-being and the child's physical functioning. Given that children experiencing disabilities have little access to remedial support with an inequitable service across districts in Sri Lanka, and given the impact of culture and societal stigma, there may be differing viewpoints across respondents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Tamil version of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CPQOL-Child) Questionnaire. Design: An instrument development and validation study. Methods: Forward and backward translations of the CPQOL-Child were undertaken by a team comprised of a physiotherapist, speech and language therapist and two linguists for the primary caregiver form and the child self-report form. As part of a pilot phase, the Tamil version of the CPQOL was completed by 45 primary caregivers with children with cerebral palsy and 15 children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS level 3-4). In addition, the primary caregivers commented on the process of filling in the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity were undertaken. Results: The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were high. A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between limited motor skills and poor QOL. The Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire was at 0.95.Similarities and divergences were found between the two groups of respondents. The child respondents identified limited motor skills as associated with physical well-being and autonomy. Akin to this, the primary caregivers associated the severity of motor function with limitations of physical well-being and autonomy. The trend observed was that QOL was not related to the level of impairment but connected to environmental factors by the child respondents. In addition to this, the main concern among primary caregivers about the child's future and on the child's lack of independence was not fully captured by the QOL questionnaire employed. Conclusions: Although the initial results of the CPQOL questionnaire show high test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the instrument, it does not fully reflect the socio-cultural realities and primary concerns of the caregivers. The current findings highlight the need to take child and caregiver perceptions of QOL into account in clinical practice and research. It strongly indicates the need for culture-specific measures of QOL.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, CPQOL, culture, quality of life

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50 Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction

Authors: V. K. Arora, V. G. Havanagi, A. K. Sinha

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Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.

Keywords: copper slag, Jarofix waste, material, road construction

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49 Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug

Authors: U. Umadevi, T. Umakanthan

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Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.

Keywords: allopathic drugs, dermatitis, domestic animals, poly herbal formulation

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48 Health and Wellbeing: Measuring and Mapping Diversity in India

Authors: Swati Rajput

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Wellbeing is a multifaceted concept. Its definition has evolved to become more holistic over the years. The paper attempts to build up the understanding of the concept of wellbeing and marks the trajectory of its conceptual evolution. The paper will also elaborate and analyse various indicators of socio-economic wellbeing in India at state level. Ranking method has been applied to assess the situation of each state in context to the variable selected and wellbeing as a whole. Maps have been used to depict and illustrate the same. The data shows that the socio-economic wellbeing level is higher in states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Lakshadweep. The level of wellbeing is very lower in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Environment plays an important role in maintaining health. Environment and health are important indicators of wellbeing. The paper would further analyse some indicators of environment and health and find the change in the result of wellbeing levels of different states.

Keywords: socio economic factors, wellbeing index, health, mapping

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47 Living Arrangement of Elderly in India: An Exploration from BKPAI Study

Authors: Jitendra Gouda, Chander Shekhar

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With the addition of 27 million elderly in India in past census decade from 2001 to 2011, it is imperative to work towards exploring the issues and concerns of this increasingly aged population. In Indian society, the elderly person is assumed to be looked after by the family members, especially by children but with changing economy, society, and lifestyle, this assumption demands examining. This paper is an attempt to explore the living arrangement of the elderly and their perceptions about this in India. The findings are based on the BKPAI dataset of 2011, which was conducted in seven states – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. The result shows that three fourth of elderly lives with their children. Having son and staying with children is positively associated among elderly. More than 40 percent as compared to 37 percent of elderly feels comfortable living with sons and daughters respectively. Half of elderly across sexes viewed that sons are the best person to live with. The result of discriminant analysis suggest that health status and living arrangement of elderly are the good discriminators to ensure their importance in the family.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, elderly, India, living arrangment

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46 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar

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An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: corrosion, calcium nitrite, concrete, fly ash

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45 Inferring Human Mobility in India Using Machine Learning

Authors: Asra Yousuf, Ajaykumar Tannirkulum

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Inferring rural-urban migration trends can help design effective policies that promote better urban planning and rural development. In this paper, we describe how machine learning algorithms can be applied to predict internal migration decisions of people. We consider data collected from household surveys in Tamil Nadu to train our model. To measure the performance of the model, we use data on past migration from National Sample Survey Organisation of India. The factors for training the model include socioeconomic characteristic of each individual like age, gender, place of residence, outstanding loans, strength of the household, etc. and his past migration history. We perform a comparative analysis of the performance of a number of machine learning algorithm to determine their prediction accuracy. Our results show that machine learning algorithms provide a stronger prediction accuracy as compared to statistical models. Our goal through this research is to propose the use of data science techniques in understanding human decisions and behaviour in developing countries.

Keywords: development, migration, internal migration, machine learning, prediction

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