Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6289

Search results for: health burden

6289 The Influence of Married Women's Adult Children Care Burden and Stress on Depression: Testing the Moderated Mediating Effect of Satisfaction with Husbands’ Sharing of the Care

Authors: Soo-Bi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, Zehgn Lin, Chenminxi

Abstract:

Background: In South Korea, a problematic phenomenon has recently arisen whereby adult children continue to receive parentalcaregivingin some cases. These phenomena has been shown to affect the mental health of mothers. Study Goals: The purposes of this study are to verify whether the mediating effects of stress on the relationship between a woman’s care burden for their adult children and depression are moderated by their satisfaction about their husbands’ sharing of the caregiving. Methodology: This study analyzed 3,053 married women with adult children using the most recent data from the “Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women & Families 7th(2018)" conducted at the national level. The analysis was conducted using the SPSS Process Macro Model 7 to verify the moderated mediating effects and subsequently confirm their significance based on the bootstrapping method. Results and Implications: (1) Stress was identified a mediating factor in the relationship between the care burden for adult children and depression; and (2) the mediating effects of stress on depression from the burden of caring for adult children are modulated by the woman's satisfaction with her husband’s sharing of the care burden. In other words, the higher the caring burden of adult children, the higher the mother's stress, which increases depression. At this time, the higher the their satisfaction with the husband's share of care in the path of mother's care burden and stress, the lower the mother's stress and, ultimately, the depression be alleviated. Conclusion: Programs that promote the mental health of married women heavily with the caring burden for their adult children, as well as those that improve social awareness regarding husbands' sharing of the care burden, should be implemented. Also, social welfare policy alternatives are needed at the national level to reduce the caring burden caused by adult children.

Keywords: married women, adult children care burden, stress, depression, satisfaction with husbands sharing of the care

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6288 The Cost of Non-Communicable Diseases in the European Union: A Projection towards the Future

Authors: Desiree Vandenberghe, Johan Albrecht

Abstract:

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for the vast majority of deaths in the European Union (EU) and represent a large share of total health care spending. A future increase in this health and financial burden is likely to be driven by population ageing, lifestyle changes and technological advances in medicine. Without adequate prevention measures, this burden can severely threaten population health and economic development. To tackle this challenge, a correct assessment of the current burden of NCDs is required, as well as a projection of potential increases of this burden. The contribution of this paper is to offer perspective on the evolution of the NCD burden towards the future and to give an indication of the potential of prevention policy. A Non-Homogenous, Semi-Markov model for the EU was constructed, which allowed for a projection of the cost burden for the four main NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus) towards 2030 and 2050. This simulation is done based on multiple baseline scenarios that vary in demand and supply factors such as health status, population structure, and technological advances. Finally, in order to assess the potential of preventive measures to curb the cost explosion of NCDs, a simulation is executed which includes increased efforts for preventive health care measures. According to the Markov model, by 2030 and 2050, total costs (direct and indirect costs) in the EU could increase by 30.1% and 44.1% respectively, compared to 2015 levels. An ambitious prevention policy framework for NCDs will be required if the EU wants to meet this challenge of rising costs. To conclude, significant cost increases due to Non-Communicable Diseases are likely to occur due to demographic and lifestyle changes. Nevertheless, an ambitious prevention program throughout the EU can aid in making this cost burden manageable for future generations.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, preventive health care, health policy, Markov model, scenario analysis

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6287 Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease in India: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Yadav, F. Ram

Abstract:

In present study is an effort to analyse the burden of diseases in the state. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is estimated non-communicable diseases. Multi-rounds (52nd, 60th and 71st round) of the National Sample Surveys (NSSO), conducted in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 respectively, and Million Deaths Study (MDS) of 2001-03, 2006 and 2013-14 datasets are used. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are carried out to identify the determinants of different types of self-reported morbidity and DALY. The prevalence was higher for population aged 60 and above, among females, illiterates, and rich across the time period and for all the selected morbidities. The results were found to be significant at P<0.001. The estimation of DALY revealed that, the burden of communicable diseases was higher during infancy, noticeably among males than females in 2002. However, females aged 1-5 years were more vulnerable to report communicable diseases than the corresponding males. The age distribution of DALY indicates that individuals aged below 5 years and above 60 year were more susceptible to ill health. The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases especially among the older generations put additional burden on the health system in the state. The state has to grapple with the unsettled preventable infectious diseases in one hand and growing non-communicable in other hand.

Keywords: disease burden, non-communicable, communicable, India and region

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
6286 Family Caregivers' Burden in Providing Care to the Hospitalized Elderly: Findings from Two Hospitals in Kolkata, India

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharyya, Suhita Chopra Chatterjee

Abstract:

Family caregivers are vital in providing physical and emotional care to the aged. Providing care to aged involves physical as well as psycho-socio-economic challenges, compels the caregiver to fit in manifold roles, feel overburdened; which in turn requires them to change their priorities in life. The study conducted on family caregivers of the hospitalized elderly explores caregiver’s burden using Zarit Burden Scale (ZBS). The data has been collected from two randomly selected Multispecialty Hospitals in Kolkata (India), after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board of both the hospitals. The predictors of burden were also assessed using interview schedules. Among fifty-seven caregivers who participated in the study, caregiver’s burden was identified among thirty respondents with twenty-six having mild to moderate burden and four having moderate to severe burden. Majority of the caregivers were found to be female, reflecting the gendered nature of caregiving. Family caregivers spent more than six hours per day on caregiving, which severely disturbed their work-life including loss of job. The study revealed that the caregivers’ marital status, family structure, academic qualification, occupation and time spent on caregiving are related to family caregivers’ burden. The burden of care giving was accentuated by poor access to information, counseling, and lack of supportive services. The paper concludes by indicating the need for greater state interventions for caregivers.

Keywords: caregivers burden, family caregiving, hospitalized elderly, elderly in Kolkata, India, Zarit Burden Scale

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6285 Level of Caregiver Burden: A Study of Caregivers of Stroke Survivors at CRP in Bangladesh

Authors: Yeasir Arafat Alve, Nazmun Nahar, Salma BeguM

Abstract:

Introduction / Rationale: Caregivers of stroke survivors have experienced financial, emotional, physical and mental anxiety and have influence of family bonding and social customs, where 80% of caregivers were women and majority of the patients were cared for by immediate family members for example a spouse, son/daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, siblings and they are significantly feel burden as a caregiver. In Bangladeshi context, there has a limitation of knowledge about the level of caregiver burden. This study could be suggested the health professional to focus on the care giving stress to provide a better support to them and also it will be advisable to provide equivalent services for caregivers and their families. Objectives: The study finds out the socio-demographic image of caregivers of stroke survivors in Bangladesh as well as discovers the level of burden of caregiver of stroke survivor in relation to general strain, isolation, disappointment, emotional involvement and environment. The study will find out the association between level of burden among caregivers and onset of stroke of survivors & duration of care giving. As well as to determine the association between level of burden among caregivers and caregiver’s age, gender, occupation and caregiver’s relationship with stroke survivors. Method / Approach: The study is a non experimental cross-sectional study design where 151 participants were selected through purposive comprehensive sampling. Data were selected from occupational therapy outdoor and stroke rehab unit, CRP (Savar & Mirpur) where using the Caregiver Burden Scale (a structured questionnaire) with face to face interview. Results: Most of the caregivers (78.8%) of stroke survivors faced moderate level of burden in general strain (37.7%), isolation (27.2%) but in case of disappointment (60.3%) feel higher burden and lower burden in emotional involvement (9.9%) and environment (0.7%). Caregiver burden level was significantly associated with caregivers’ age (P=0.006), sex (P=0.002), occupation (p= 0.04), relationship with stroke survivors (P=0.02), care giving duration (P=0.000), care giving hours (P=0.009), and onset of stroke (P=0.000) of stroke survivors. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that most of the caregivers faced moderate burden where no environmental burden for them, this is possibly in case of Bangladeshi culture where people hospitable. Through this study, it was also found that there is a possibility to have the higher burden. Finally, it is being also suggested that appropriate advice and support may preserve care giving which eventually enables the survivors to live a longer and more fulfilling life in the community.

Keywords: caregiver, level of caregiver burden, stroke survivor, stroke rehab unit

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6284 Analyzing the Effectiveness of a Bank of Parallel Resistors, as a Burden Compensation Technique for Current Transformer's Burden, Using LabVIEW™ Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: Dilson Subedi

Abstract:

Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However, due to upgradation of electromechanical relays to numerical relays and electromechanical energy meters to digital meters, the connected burden, which defines some of the CT characteristics, has drastically reduced. This has led to the system experiencing high currents damaging the connected relays and meters. Since the protection and metering equipment's are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore, during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effectiveness of a bank of parallel connected resistors, as a burden compensation technique, in compensating the burden of under-burdened CT’s. The response of the CT in the case of failure of one or more resistors at different levels of overcurrent will be captured using the LabVIEWTM data acquisition hardware (DAQ). The analysis is done on the real-time data gathered using LabVIEWTM. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy limiting factor, burden, burden compensation, current transformer

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6283 The Third World Debt Burden and the Implication for Economic Development

Authors: Odeh Ibn Iganga

Abstract:

The issue of foreign debt, debt crisis or the concept of Third World debt burden generally gained prominence after the end of the cold war which pitched the United States and the former Soviet Union against each other in an ideological supremacy tussle. Before then however, Third World Countries (TWCs) enjoyed a relative economic resilience and stability and ostensibly friendly relations with the leaders of the polarized blocks in a way to garner supports for, and as an instrument of strengthening and expanding influence and power of the leaders of the two blocs, and achieve their goals. Consequently, the Third World concept lost its political relevance and usage perhaps, too, its economic comportment, and eventually became phraseology synonymous with developing countries bedeviled with debt crisis and struggling to emerge from debt burden, economic underdevelopment and poverty. Since then, also, particularly during the last two decades, the issue of Third World debt burden, which is currently posing significant problems, has a considerable attracted public policy and academic scrutiny. Third World debt burden thus is not a recent phenomenon but is a result of, and due to, pursuance of foreign aid from countries of the North which had, from the start, created the condition of economic subservience and master-servant relationship that could generate persistent seeking and lobbing for foreign aids through borrowing, thus tying down in a perpetual manner, most of the Third World Countries to underdevelopment, dependency and poverty. The interest of this paper, therefore, is to examine the causes, costs and or the implications of the debt burden on the economies of the Third World Countries, review some general solutions to the debt burden as well as offering suggestions as a way out of the doldrums.

Keywords: third world, debt burden, debt crisis, economic development and underdevelopment

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
6282 Judicial Analysis of the Burden of Proof on the Perpetrator of Corruption Criminal Act

Authors: Rahmayanti, Theresia Simatupang, Ronald H. Sianturi

Abstract:

Corruption criminal act develops rapidly since in the transition era there is weakness in law. Consequently, there is an opportunity for a few people to do fraud and illegal acts and to misuse their positions and formal functions in order to make them rich, and the criminal acts are done systematically and sophisticatedly. Some people believe that legal provisions which specifically regulate the corruption criminal act; namely, Law No. 31/1999 in conjunction with Law No. 20/2001 on the Eradication of Corruption Criminal Act are not effective any more, especially in onus probandi (the burden of proof) on corruptors. The research was a descriptive analysis, a research method which is used to obtain description on a certain situation or condition by explaining the data, and the conclusion is drawn through some analyses. The research used judicial normative approach since it used secondary data as the main data by conducting library research. The system of the burden of proof, which follows the principles of reversal of the burden of proof stipulated in Article 12B, paragraph 1 a and b, Article 37A, and Article 38B of Law No. 20/2001 on the Amendment of Law No. 31/1999, is used only as supporting evidence when the principal case is proved. Meanwhile, how to maximize the implementation of the burden of proof on the perpetrators of corruption criminal act in which the public prosecutor brings a corruption case to Court, depends upon the nature of the case and the type of indictment. The system of burden of proof can be used to eradicate corruption in the Court if some policies and general principles of justice such as independency, impartiality, and legal certainty, are applied.

Keywords: burden of proof, perpetrator, corruption criminal act

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6281 Equity in Public Health: Perception from the Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) Program for HIV- Patients in India

Authors: Koko Wangjam, Naresh Kumar Sharma

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The concern for most public health policies and decision- makers is the equitable distribution of health care resource of the nation. Also, in public health care system, the primary aim is assuaging the burden of the disease. Objective: This paper captures and evaluates some important theories in equity in health with its relevance with the ART program in India. Methodology: The paper is exploratory and descriptive study based on secondary data. The sources of secondary data are published official reports from NACO (National AIDS Control Organisation), United Nations AIDS Program (UNAIDS), World Health Organisation (WHO) etc. Observation: The roll-out of the ART program in 2004 by the Govt. of India made a paradigm shift in HIV/AIDS scenario in the country. Conclusion: There are many theoretical injunctions in most of the principles and approaches in existing theories of health equity. The enervation of HIV infection by taking ART drugs had helped in curbing the prevalence and the fact that it is provided at free of cost has proven this program to be an epitome in distributive justice in public health.

Keywords: art program, burden of the disease, health equity, hiv/aids

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6280 The Global Relationship between the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Incidence of Tuberculosis: 2000-2012

Authors: Alaa Badawi, Suzan Sayegh, Mohamed Sallam, Eman Sadoun, Mohamed Al-Thani, Muhammad W. Alam, Paul Arora

Abstract:

Background: The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased over the past decade with DM prevalence increasing in countries already afflicted with a high burden of TB. The coexistence of the two conditions presents a serious threat to global public health. Objective: The present study examines the global relationship between the prevalence of DM and the incidence of TB to evaluate their coexistence worldwide and their contribution to one another. Methods: This is an ecological longitudinal study covering the period between years 2000 to 2012. We utilized data from the WHO and World Bank sources and International Diabetes Federation to estimate prevalence of DM (%) and the incidence of TB (per 100,000). Measures of central tendency and dispersion as well as the harmonic mean and linear regression were used for different WHO regions. The association between DM prevalence and TB incidence was examined by quartile of DM prevalence. Results: The worldwide average (±S.D.) prevalence of DM within the study period was 6.6±3.8% whereas TB incidence was 135.0±190.5 per 100,000. DM prevalence was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean (8.3±4.1) and West Pacific (8.2±5.6) regions and lowest in the Africa (3.5±2.6). TB incidence was highest in Africa (313.1±275.9 per 100,000) and South-East Asia (216.7±124.9) and lowest in the European (46.5±68.6) and American (47.2±52.9) regions. Only countries with high DM prevalence (>7.6%) showed a significant positive association with TB incidence (r=0.17, p=0.013). Conclusion: A positive association between DM and TB may exist in some – but not all – world regions, a dual burden that necessitates identifying the nature of this coexistence to assist in developing public health approaches that curb their rising burden.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, disease burden, global association

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6279 The Influence of Caregivers’ Preparedness and Role Burden on Quality of Life among Stroke Patients

Authors: Yeaji Seok, Myung Kyung Lee

Abstract:

Background: Even if patients survive after a stroke, stroke patients may experience disability in mobility, sensation, cognition, and speech and language. Stroke patients require rehabilitation for functional recovery and daily life for a considerable time. During rehabilitation, the role of caregivers is important. However, the stroke patients’ quality of life may deteriorate due to family caregivers’ non-preparedness and increased role burden. Purpose: To investigate the prediction of caregivers' preparedness and role burden on stroke patients’ quality of life. Methods: The target population was stroke patients who were hospitalized for rehabilitation and their family care providers. A total of 153 patient-family caregiver dyads were recruited from June to August 2021. Data were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and multiple regression with SPSS statistics 28 programs. Results: Family caregivers’ preparedness affected stroke patients’ mobility (β = .20, p < 0.05) and character (β = -.084, p < 0.05) and production activities (β = -.197, p < 0.05) in quality of life. The role burden of family caregivers affected language skills (β = .310, p<0.05), visual functions (β=-.357, p < 0.05), thinking skills (β = 0.443, p = 0.05), mood conditions (β = 0.565, p < 0.001), family roles (β = -0.361, p < 0.001), and social roles (β = -0.304, p < 0.001), while the caregivers’ burden of performing self-protection negatively affected patients’ social roles (β = .180, p=.048). In addition, caregivers’ role burden of personal life sacrifice affected patients’ mobility (β = .311, p < 0.05), self-care (β =.232, p < 0.05) and energy (β = .239, p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that family caregivers' preparedness and role burden affected stroke patients’ quality of life. The results of this study suggested that intervention to improve family caregivers’ preparedness and to reduce role burden should be required for quality of life in stroke patients.

Keywords: quality of life, preparedness, role burden, caregivers, stroke

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6278 Real-World Economic Burden of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSPD), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and post immobilization stiffness (PIS) have a major impact on individuals, health systems and society in terms of morbidity, long-term disability, and economics. This study estimated the direct and indirect costs of common MSDs in Osun State, Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out. The occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). The direct and indirect costs were estimated using a cost-of-illness approach. Physiotherapy related health resource use, and costs of the common MSDs, including consultation fee, total fee charge per session, costs of consumables were estimated. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation (SD). Overall, 1582 (Male = 47.5%, Female = 52.5%) patients with MSDs population with a mean age of 47.8 ± 25.7 years participated in this study. The mean (SD) direct costs estimate for LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions were $18.35 ($17.33), $34.76 ($17.33), $32.13 ($28.37), $35.14 ($44.16), $37.19 ($41.68), and $15.74 ($13.96), respectively. The mean (SD) indirect costs estimate of LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other MSD conditions were $73.42 ($43.54), $140.57 ($69.31), $128.52 ($113.46), sprain $140.57 ($69.31), $148.77 ($166.71), and $62.98 ($55.84), respectively. Musculoskeletal disorders contribute a substantial economic burden to individuals with the condition and society. The unacceptable economic loss of MSDs should be reduced using appropriate strategies. Further research is required to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of strategies to improve health outcomes of patients with MSDs. The findings of the present study may assist health policy and decision makers to understand the economic burden of MSDs and facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources to alleviate the burden associated with these conditions in Nigeria.

Keywords: economic burden, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders, real-world

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6277 The Connection between Social Support, Caregiver Burden, and Life Satisfaction of the Parents Whose Children Have Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: A. Uludağ, F. G. Tufekci, N. Ceviz

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Aim: The research has been carried out in order to evaluate caregiver burden, life satisfaction and received social support level of the parents whose children have congenital heart disease; to examine the relationship between the social supports received by them and caregiver burden and life satisfaction. Material and Method: The research which is descriptive and which is searching a relationship has been carried out between the dates June 7, 2012- June 30, 2014, in Erzurum Ataturk University Research and Application Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Children Cardiology Polyclinic. In the research, it was collaborated with the parents (N = 157) who accepted to participate in, of children who were between the ages of 3 months- 12 years. While gathering the data, a questionnaire, Zarit Caregiver Burden, Life Satisfaction and Social Support Scales have been used. The statistics of the data acquired has been produced by using percentage distribution, mean, and variance and correlation analysis. Ethical principles are followed in the research. Results: In the research, caregiver burden, life satisfaction and social support level received from family (p < 0.05), have been determined higher in the parents whose children have serious congenital heart disease than that of parents whose children have slight disease and social support received from friends has been found lower. It has been determined that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through negative direction between both social support levels and caregiver burden of parents; and that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through positive direction between both support levels and life satisfaction. Conclusion: That Social Support is in a strong relation with Caregiver Burden through a negative direction and a strong relation with Life Satisfaction through positive direction in parents of all the children who have congenital heart disease requires social support systems to be reinforced. Parents can be led or guided so as to prompt social support systems more.

Keywords: congenital heart disease, child, parents, caregiver burden, life satisfaction, social support

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
6276 Analyzing Current Transformers Saturation Characteristics for Different Connected Burden Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However when the power system experiences an abnormal situation leading to huge current flow, then this huge current is proportionally injected to the protection and metering circuit. Since the protection and metering equipment’s are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and also on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effect of burden on the Accuracy Limiting factor/ Instrument security factor of current transformers and also the change in saturation characteristics of the CT’s. The response of the CT to varying levels of overcurrent at different connected burden will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor, saturation characteristics

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6275 Zarit Burden Interview among Informal Caregiver of Person with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nuraisyah H. Zulkifley, Suriani Ismail, Rosliza Abdul Manaf, Poh Y. Lim

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Taking care of a person with dementia (PWD) is one of the most problematic and challenging caregiving situations. Without proper support, caregiver would need to deal with the impact of caregiving that would lead to caregiver burden. One of the most common tools used to measure caregiver burden among caregivers of PWD is Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). A systematic review has been conducted through searching Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and Scopus databases to identify relevant articles that elaborate on intervention and outcomes on ZBI among informal caregiver of PWD. The articles were searched in October 2019 with no restriction on language or publication status. Inclusion criteria are randomized control trial (RCT) studies, participants were informal caregivers of PWD, ZBI measured as outcomes, and intervention group was compared with no intervention control or usual care control. Two authors reviewed and extracted the data from the full-text articles. From a total of 344 records, nine studies were selected and included in this narrative review, and eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The types of interventions that were implemented to ease caregiver burden are psychoeducation, physical activity, psychosocial, and computer-based intervention. The meta-analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the mean score of ZBI (p = 0.006) in the intervention group compared to the control group after implementation of intervention. In conclusion, interventions such as psychoeducation, psychosocial, and physical activity can help to reduce the burden experiencing by the caregivers of PWD.

Keywords: dementia, informal caregiver, randomized control trial, Zarit burden interview

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6274 Sports and Exercise Medicine: A Public Health Tool in Combating and Preventing the Side Effects of a Sedentary Lifestyle

Authors: Shireen Ibish

Abstract:

Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets have contributed to a global burden of disease with increased relation to non-communicable diseases, increased risk of colon and breast cancer, high prevalence of depression, reduced quality of life and early death. The World Health Organisation’s facts on Obesity show a tripling in prevalence across the European Region since the 1980s. This has lead to a huge public health burden, being responsible for and 10-13% of deaths (fourth largest cause of global mortality) and 2-8% of health costs in the Region. In the UK alone, the present cost of physical inactivity has been estimated to be £8.2 billion. In 2002 a paper published in the International Journal of Epidemiology on ‘sedentary’ lifestyle, put into figures the increasingly worrying statistics across European countries. “Percentages of sedentary lifestyles across European countries ranged between 43.3% (Sweden) and 87.8% (Portugal)”. This was especially so amongst obese subjects, less- educated people, and smokers. While in the UK’s “50% of adult population in the UK is predicted to be obese by 2050.” Sports and Exercise Medicine, as a specialty, has a lot to offer in targeting this globally increasing epidemic. The worrying figures and the increasing knowledge of combating and preventing this issue have lead to increased awareness amongst the medical profession and more targeted interventions to reduce the burden of disease. “The public health element of the specialty is critical – this is not simply a specialty for the management of elite athletes’ medical conditions – it is central to the promotion of exercise as a means of disease prevention, to enhance well-being and in the management of disease.” WHO advised on creating National policies, encouraging and providing opportunities for greater physical activity, and improve the affordability, availability and accessibility of healthy foods. In the UK various different movements have been established to target this problem. The Motivate2Move, Move Eat Treat and guidelines advising specialties on targeting and encouraging exercise in the population (Sport and Exercise Medicine A Fresh Approach).

Keywords: sedentary lifestyle, obesity, public health burden, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
6273 Analyzing Current Transformer’s Transient and Steady State Behavior for Different Burden’s Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, D. Sharma

Abstract:

Current transformers (CTs) are used to transform large primary currents to a small secondary current. Since most standard equipment’s are not designed to handle large primary currents the CTs have an important part in any electrical system for the purpose of Metering and Protection both of which are integral in Power system. Now a days due to advancement in solid state technology, the operation times of the protective relays have come to a few cycles from few seconds. Thus, in such a scenario it becomes important to study the transient response of the current transformers as it will play a vital role in the operating of the protective devices. This paper shows the steady state and transient behavior of current transformers and how it changes with change in connected burden. The transient and steady state response will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy, accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor

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6272 Benefits of Shaping a Balance on Environmental and Economic Sustainability for Population Health

Authors: Edna Negron-Martinez

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Our time's global challenges and trends —like those associated with climate change, demographics displacements, growing health inequalities, and increasing burden of diseases— have complex connections to the determinants of health. Information on the burden of disease causes and prevention is fundamental for public health actions, like preparedness and responses for disasters, and recovery resources after the event. For instance, there is an increasing consensus about key findings of the effects and connections of the global burden of disease, as it generates substantial healthcare costs, consumes essential resources and prevents the attainment of optimal health and well-being. The goal of this research endeavor is to promote a comprehensive understanding of the connections between social, environmental, and economic influences on health. These connections are illustrated by pulling from clearly the core curriculum of multidisciplinary areas —as urban design, energy, housing, and economy— as well as in the health system itself. A systematic review of primary and secondary data included a variety of issues as global health, natural disasters, and critical pollution impacts on people's health and the ecosystems. Environmental health is challenged by the unsustainable consumption patterns and the resulting contaminants that abound in many cities and urban settings around the world. Poverty, inadequate housing, and poor health are usually linked. The house is a primary environmental health context for any individual and especially for more vulnerable groups; such as children, older adults and those who are sick. Nevertheless, very few countries show strong decoupling of environmental degradation from economic growth, as indicated by a recent 2017 Report of the World Bank. Worth noting, the environmental fraction of the global burden of disease in a 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) report estimated that 12.6 million global deaths, accounting for 23% (95% CI: 13-34%) of all deaths were attributable to the environment. Among the environmental contaminants include heavy metals, noise pollution, light pollution, and urban sprawl. Those key findings make a call to the significance to urgently adopt in a global scale the United Nations post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs address the social, environmental, and economic factors that influence health and health inequalities, advising how these sectors, in turn, benefit from a healthy population. Consequently, more actions are necessary from an inter-sectoral and systemic paradigm to enforce an integrated sustainability policy implementation aimed at the environmental, social, and economic determinants of health.

Keywords: building capacity for workforce development, ecological and environmental health effects of pollution, public health education, sustainability

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6271 Correlation between Early Government Interventions in the Northeastern United States and COVID-19 Outcomes

Authors: Joel Mintz, Kyle Huntley, Waseem Wahood, Samuel Raine, Farzanna Haffizulla

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The effect of different state government interventions on COVID-19 health outcomes is currently unknown. Stay at home (SAH) orders, all non-essential business closures and school closures in the Northeastern US were examined. A linear correlation between the peak number of new daily COVID-19 positive tests, hospitalizations and deaths per capita and the elapsed time between government issued guidance and a fixed number of COVID-19 deaths in each state was performed. Earlier government interventions were correlated with lower peak healthcare burden. Statewide closures of schools and non-essential businesses showed significantly greater (p<.001) correlation to peak COVID-19 disease burden as compared to a statewide SAH. The implications of these findings require further study to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

Keywords: Coronavirus, epidemiology, government intervention, public health, social distancing

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6270 Patients' Quality of Life and Caregivers' Burden of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Si Jen Yeen, Sara Lew

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evolving layers of complexity. Both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD may affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). Life expectancy for an individual with Parkinson’s disease depends on the level of care the individual has access to, can have a direct impact on length of life. Therefore, improvement of the QoL is a significant part of therapeutic plans. Patients with PD, especially those who are in advanced stages, are in great need of assistance, mostly from their family members or caregivers in terms of medical, emotional, and social support. The role of a caregiver becomes increasingly important with the progression of PD, the severity of motor impairment and increasing age of the patient. The nature and symptoms associated with PD can place significant stresses on the caregivers’ burden. As the prevalence of PD is estimated to more than double by 2030, it is important to recognize and alleviate the burden experienced by caregivers. This study focused on the impact of the clinical features on the QoL of PD patients, and of their caregivers. This study included PD patients along with their caregivers and was undertaken at the Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Association from June 2016 to November 2016. Clinical features of PD patients were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society revised Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS); the Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson's Disease were used to assess the severity and Parkinson's disease activities of daily living scale were used to assess the disability of Parkinson’s disease patients. QoL of PD patients was measured using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The revised version of the Zarit Burden Interview assessed caregiver burden. At least one of the clinical features affected PD patients’ QoL, and at least one of the QoL domains affected the caregivers’ burden. Clinical features ‘Saliva and Drooling’, and ‘Dyskinesia’ explained 29% of variance in QoL of PD patients. The QoL domains ‘stigma’, along with ‘emotional wellbeing’ explained 48.6% of variance in caregivers’ burden. Clinical features such as saliva, drooling and dyskinesia affected the QoL of PD patients. The PD patients’ QoL domains such as ‘stigma’ and ‘emotional well-being’ influenced their caregivers’ burden.

Keywords: carers, quality of life, clinical features, Malaysia

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6269 Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Health Sector in India

Authors: Madhvi Bhayani

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Introduction: Due to the rapid pace of urbanization, the urban health issues have become one of the significant threats to future development in India. It also poses serious repercussions on the citizen’s health. As urbanization in India is increasing at an unprecedented rate and it has generated the urban health crisis among the city dwellers especially the urban poor. The increasing proportion of the urban poor and vulnerable to the health indicators worse than the rural counterparts, they face social and financial barriers in accessing healthcare services and these conditions make human health at risk. The Local as well as the State and National governments are alike tackling with the challenges of urbanization as it has become very essential for the government to provide the basic necessities and better infrastructure that make life in cities safe and healthy. Thus, the paper argues that if no major realistic steps are taken with immediate effect, the citizens will face a huge burden of health hazards. Aim: This paper attempts to analyze the current infrastructure, government planning, and its future policy, it also discusses the challenges and outcomes of urbanization on health and its impact on it and it will also predict the future trend with regard to disease burden in the urban areas. Methods: The paper analyzes on the basis of the secondary data by taking into consideration the connection between the Rapid Urbanization and Public Health Challenges, health and health care system and its services delivery to the citizens especially to the urban poor. Extensive analyses of government census reports, health information and policy, the government health-related schemes, urban development and based on the past trends, the future status of urban infrastructure and health outcomes are predicted. The social-economic and political dimensions are also taken into consideration from regional, national and global perspectives, which are incorporated in the paper to make realistic predictions for the future. Findings and Conclusion: The findings of the paper show that India suffers a lot due to the double burden of rapidly increasing in diseases and also growing health inequalities and disparities in health outcomes. Existing tools of governance of urban health are falling short to provide the better health care services. They need to strengthen the collaboration and communication among the state, national and local governments and also with the non-governmental partners. Based on the findings the policy implications are then described and areas for future research are defined.

Keywords: health care, urbanization, urban health, service delivery

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6268 Comprehensive Literature Review of the Humanistic Burden of Clostridium (Clostridiodes) difficile Infection

Authors: Caroline Seo, Jennifer Stephens, Kirstin H. Heinrich

Abstract:

Background: Clostridiodes (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium with manifestations including diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Despite general understanding that CDI may be associated with marked burden on patients’ health, there has been limited information available on the humanistic burden of CDI. The objective of this literature review was to summarize the published data on the humanistic burden of CDI globally, in order to better inform future research efforts and increase awareness of the patient perspective in this disease. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of the past 15 years (2002-2017) was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Additional searches were conducted from conference proceedings (2015-2017). Articles selected were studies specifically designed to examine the humanistic burden of illness associated with adult patients with CDI. Results: Of 3,325 articles or abstracts identified, 33 remained after screening and full text review. Sixty percent (60%) were published in 2016 or 2017. Data from the United States or Western Europe were most common. Data from Brazil, Canada, China and Spain also exist. Thirteen (13) studies used validated patient-reported outcomes instruments, mostly EQ-5D utility and SF-36 generic instruments. Three (3) studies used CDI-specific instruments (CDiff32, CDI-DaySyms). The burden of CDI impacts patients in multiple health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains. SF-36 domains with the largest decrements compared to other GI diarrheal diseases (IBS-D and Crohn’s) were role physical, physical functioning, vitality, social functioning, and role emotional. Reported EQ-5D utilities for CDI ranged from 0.35-0.42 compared to 0.65 in Crohn’s and 0.72 in IBS-D. The majority of papers addressed physical functioning and mental health domains (67% for both). Across various studies patients reported weakness, lack of appetite, sleep disturbance, functional dependence, and decreased activities of daily lives due to the continuous diarrhea. Due to lack of control over this infection, CDI also impacts the psychological and emotional quality of life of the patients. Patients reported feelings of fear, anxiety, frustration, depression, and embarrassment. Additionally, the type of disease (primary vs. recurrent) may impact mental health. One study indicated that there is a decrement in SF-36 mental scores in patients with recurrent CDI, in comparison to patients with primary CDI. Other domains highlighted by these studies include pain (27%), social isolation (27%), vitality and fatigue (24%), self-care (9%), and caregiver burden (0%). Two studies addressed work productivity, with 1 of these studies reporting that CDI patients had the highest work productivity and activity impairment scores among the gastrointestinal diseases. No study specifically included caregiver self-report. However, 3 studies did provide mention of patients’ worry on how their diagnosis of CDI would impact family, caregivers, and/or friends. Conclusions: Despite being a serious public health issue there has been a paucity of research on the HRQOL among those with CDI. While progress is being made, gaps exist in understanding the burden on patients, caregivers, and families. Future research is warranted to aid understanding of the CDI patient perspective.

Keywords: burden, Clostridiodes, difficile, humanistic, infection

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6267 Financial Burden of Family for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: M. R. Bhuiyan, S. M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Islam

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing serious developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communicative difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. ASD is an emerging public health issue globally which is associated with huge financial burden to the family, community and the nation. The aim of this study was to assess the financial burden of family for the children with Autism spectrum Disorder. This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2015 to June 2016 among 154 children with ASD to assess the financial burden of family. Data were collected by face-to-face interview with semi-structured questionnaire following systematic random sampling technique. Majority (73.4%) children were male and mean (±SD) age was 6.66 ± 2.97 years. Most (88.8%) of the children were from urban areas with average monthly family income Tk. 41785.71±23936.45. Average monthly direct cost of the children was Tk.17656.49 ± 9984.35, while indirect cost was Tk. 13462.90 ± 9713.54 and total treatment cost was Tk. 23076.62 ± 15341.09. Special education cost (Tk. 4871.00), cost of therapy (Tk. 4124.07) and travel cost (Tk. 3988.31) were the major types of direct cost, while loss of income (Tk.14570.18) was the chief indirect cost incurred by the families. The study found that majority (59.8%) of the children attended special schools were incurred Tk.20001-78700 as total treatment cost, which were statistically significant (p<0.001). Again, families with higher monthly family income incurred higher treatment cost (r=0.526, p<0.05). Difference between mean direct and indirect cost was found significant (t=4.190, df=61, p<0.001). According to the analysis of variance, mean difference of father’s educational status among direct cost (F=10.337, p<0.001) and total treatment cost (F=7.841, p<0.001), which were statistically significant. The study revealed that maximum children with ASD were under five years, three-fourth were male. According to monthly family income, maximum family were in middle class. The study recommends cost effective interventions and financial safety-net measures to reduce the financial burden of families for the children with ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, financial burden, direct cost, indirect cost, special education

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6266 Perceived Stigma, Perception of Burden and Psychological Distress among Parents of Intellectually Disable Children: Role of Perceived Social Support

Authors: Saima Shafiq, Najma Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the relationship of perceived stigma, perception of burden and psychological distress among parents of intellectually disabled children. The study also aimed to explore the moderating role of perceived social support on all the variables of the study. The sample of the study comprised of (N = 250) parents of intellectually disabled children. The present study utilized the co-relational research design. It consists of two phases. Phase-I consisted of two steps which contained the translation of two scales that were used in the present study and tried out on the sample of parents (N = 70). The Affiliated Stigma Scale and Care Giver Burden Inventory were translated into Urdu for the present study. Phase-1 revealed that translated scaled entailed satisfactory psychometric properties. Phase -II of the study was carried out in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation, linear regression analysis, and t-test were computed for hypothesis testing. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to study the moderating effect of perceived social support. Findings revealed that there was a positive relationship between perceived stigma and psychological distress, perception of burden and psychological distress. Linear regression analysis showed that perceived stigma and perception of burden were positive predictors of psychological distress. The study did not show the moderating role of perceived social support among variables of the present study. The major limitation of the study is the sample size and the major implication is awareness regarding problems of parents of intellectually disabled children.

Keywords: perceived stigma, perception of burden, psychological distress, perceived social support

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6265 Symptom Burden and Quality of Life in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

Authors: Ammar Asma, Bouafia Nabiha, Dhahri Meriem, Ben Cheikh Asma, Ezzi Olfa, Chafai Rim, Njah Mansour

Abstract:

Despite recent advances in treatment of the lung cancer patients, the prognosis remains poor. Information is limited regarding health related quality of life (QOL) status of advanced lung cancer patients. The purposes of this study were: to assess patient reported symptom burden, to measure their QOL, and to identify determinant factors associated with QOL. Materials/Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 patients was carried out from over the period of 03 months from February 1st to 30 April 2016. Patients were recruited in two department of health care: Pneumology department in a university hospital in Sousse and an oncology unit in a University Hospital in Kairouan. Patients with advanced stage (III and IV) of lung cancer who were hospitalized or admitted in the day hospital were recruited by convenience sampling. We used a questionnaire administrated and completed by a trained interviewer. This questionnaire is composed of three parts: demographic, clinical and therapeutic information’s, QOL measurements: based on the SF-36 questionnaire, Symptom’s burden measurement using the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). To assess Correlation between symptoms burden and QOL, we compared the scores of two scales two by two using the Pearson correlation. To identify factors influencing QOL in Lung cancer, a univariate statistical analysis then, a stepwise backward approach, wherein the variables with p< 0.2, were carried out to determine the association between SF-36 scores and different variables. Results: During the study period, 60 patients consented to complete symptom and quality of life questionnaires at a single point time (72% were recruited from day hospital). The majority of patients were male (88%), age ranged from 21 to 79 years with a mean of 60.5 years. Among patients, 48 (80%) were diagnosed as having non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Approximately, 60 % (n=36) of patients were in stage IV, 25 % in stage IIIa and 15 % in stage IIIb. For symptom burden, the symptom burden index was 43.07 (Standard Deviation, 21.45). Loss of appetite and fatigue were rated as the most severe symptoms with mean scores (SD): 49.6 (25.7) and 58.2 (15.5). The average overall score of SF36 was 39.3 (SD, 15.4). The physical and emotional limitations had the lowest scores. Univariate analysis showed that factors which influence negatively QOL were: married status (p<0.03), smoking cessation after diagnosis (p<0.024), LCSS total score (p<0.001), LCSS symptom burden index (p<0.001), fatigue (p<0.001), loss of appetite (p<0.001), dyspnea (p<0.001), pain (p<0.002), and metastatic stage (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, unemployment (p<0.014), smoking cessation after diagnosis (p<0.013), consumption of analgesic (p<0.002) and the indication of an analgesic radiotherapy (p<0.001) are revealed as independent determinants of QOL. The result of the correlation analyses between total LCSS scores and the total and individual domain SF36 scores was significant (p<0.001); the higher total LCSS score is, the poorer QOL is. Conclusion: A built in support of lung cancer patients would better control the symptoms and promote the QOL of these patients.

Keywords: quality of life, lung cancer, metastasis, symptoms burden

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6264 Burden of Severe COVID-19 in Center of Iran: Results of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)

Authors: Moslem Taheri Soodejani, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

Abstract:

Introduction: The outbreak of Covid-19 disease is an international public health concern. Therefore, the analysis of information related to mortality and disability due to COVID-19 is considered important, so the present study was designed and conducted with the aim of assessing COVID-19 Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in Yazd. Methods: In Yazd province, all suspected cases of Covid-19 that would be referred to central hospitals in order to get confirmed through PCR or CT scan tests were recruited to our study. The fatality data of Covid- 19 was gathered from the forensic medicine organization. The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) combines in one measure years of life lost (YLL), the loss of healthy life due to premature mortality and years of life lived with disability (YLD), the loss of healthy life because of disease and disability. Results: The total burden of COVID-19 was 23,472 years. The number of years lost due to premature death was 23385 and the number of years of life with disability due to COVID-19 was estimated to be 87 years. The disease burden was 12992 years for men and 10480 years for women. The overall incidence of COVID-19 was 1411 per 100,000, of which 1419 in men and 1402 in women per 100,000. Conclusion: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic affected a large population and the residents of Yazd Province lost many years of their lives due to this disease.

Keywords: DALY, covid- 19, Yazd, Iran

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6263 The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer on Women in Nigeria: Implication for Socio-Economic Development

Authors: Tolulope Allo, Mofoluwake P. Ajayi, Adenike E. Idowu, Emmanuel O. Amoo, Fadeke Esther Olu-Owolabi

Abstract:

Breast cancer which was more prevalent in Europe and America in the past is gradually being mirrored across the world today with greater economic burden on low and middle income countries (LMCs). Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally and current studies have shown that a woman dies with the diagnosis of breast cancer every thirteen minutes. The economic cost of breast cancer is overwhelming particularly for developing economies. While it causes billion of dollar in losses of national income, it pushes millions of people below poverty line. This study examined the economic burden of breast cancer on Nigerian women, its impacts on their standard of living and its effects on Nigeria’s socio economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research approach using the in-depth interview technique to elicit valuable information from respondents with cancer experience from the Southern part of Nigeria. Respondents constituted women in their reproductive age (15-49 years) that have experienced and survived cancer and also those that are currently receiving treatment. Excerpts from the interviews revealed that the cost of treatment is one of the major factors contributing to the late presentation of breast cancer incidences among women as many of them could not afford to pay for their own treatment. The study also revealed that many women prefer to explore other options such as herbal treatments and spiritual consultations which is less expensive and affordable. The study therefore concludes that breast cancer diagnosis and treatment should be subsidized by the government in order to facilitate easy access and affordability thereby promoting early detection and reducing the economic burden of treatment on women.

Keywords: breast cancer, development, economic burden, women

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6262 Socioeconomic Burden of Life Long Disease: A Case of Diabetes Care in Bangladesh

Authors: Samira Humaira Habib

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Diabetes has profound effects on individuals and their families. If diabetes is not well monitored and managed, then it leads to long-term complications and a large and growing cost to the health care system. Prevalence and socioeconomic burden of diabetes and relative return of investment for the elimination or the reduction of the burden are much more important regarding its cost burden. Various studies regarding the socioeconomic cost burden of diabetes are well explored in developed countries but almost absent in developing countries like Bangladesh. The main objective of the study is to estimate the total socioeconomic burden of diabetes. It is a prospective longitudinal follow up study which is analytical in nature. Primary and secondary data are collected from patients who are undergoing treatment for diabetes at the out-patient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research & Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM). Of the 2115 diabetic subjects, females constitute around 50.35% of the study subject, and the rest are male (49.65%). Among the subjects, 1323 are controlled, and 792 are uncontrolled diabetes. Cost analysis of 2115 diabetic patients shows that the total cost of diabetes management and treatment is US$ 903018 with an average of US$ 426.95 per patient. In direct cost, the investigation and medical treatment at hospital along with investigation constitute most of the cost in diabetes. The average cost of a hospital is US$ 311.79, which indicates an alarming warn for diabetic patients. The indirect cost shows that cost of productivity loss (US$ 51110.1) is higher among the all indirect item. All constitute total indirect cost as US$ 69215.7. The incremental cost of intensive management of uncontrolled diabetes is US$ 101.54 per patient and event-free time gained in this group is 0.55 years and the life years gain is 1.19 years. The incremental cost per event-free year gained is US$ 198.12. The incremental cost of intensive management of the controlled group is US$ 89.54 per patient and event-free time gained is 0.68 years, and the life year gain is 1.12 years. The incremental cost per event-free year gained is US$ 223.34. The EuroQoL difference between the groups is found to be 64.04. The cost-effective ratio is found to be US$ 1.64 cost per effect in case of controlled diabetes and US$ 1.69 cost per effect in case of uncontrolled diabetes. So management of diabetes is much more cost-effective. Cost of young type 1 diabetic patient showed upper socioeconomic class, and with the increase of the duration of diabetes, the cost increased also. The dietary pattern showed macronutrients intake and cost are significantly higher in the uncontrolled group than their counterparts. Proper management and control of diabetes can decrease the cost of care for the long term.

Keywords: cost, cost-effective, chronic diseases, diabetes care, burden, Bangladesh

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6261 Achieving Process Stability through Automation and Process Optimization at H Blast Furnace Tata Steel, Jamshedpur

Authors: Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Subhashis Kundu, Mayank Tiwari, Sameeran Pani, Padmapal, Uttam Singh

Abstract:

Blast Furnace is a counter current process where burden descends from top and hot gases ascend from bottom and chemically reduce iron oxides into liquid hot metal. One of the major problems of blast furnace operation is the erratic burden descent inside furnace. Sometimes this problem is so acute that burden descent stops resulting in Hanging and instability of the furnace. This problem is very frequent in blast furnaces worldwide and results in huge production losses. This situation becomes more adverse when blast furnaces are operated at low coke rate and high coal injection rate with adverse raw materials like high alumina ore and high coke ash. For last three years, H-Blast Furnace Tata Steel was able to reduce coke rate from 450 kg/thm to 350 kg/thm with an increase in coal injection to 200 kg/thm which are close to world benchmarks and expand profitability. To sustain this regime, elimination of irregularities of blast furnace like hanging, channeling, and scaffolding is very essential. In this paper, sustaining of zero hanging spell for consecutive three years with low coke rate operation by improvement in burden characteristics, burden distribution, changes in slag regime, casting practices and adequate automation of the furnace operation has been illustrated. Models have been created to comprehend and upgrade the blast furnace process understanding. A model has been developed to predict the process of maintaining slag viscosity in desired range to attain proper burden permeability. A channeling prediction model has also been developed to understand channeling symptoms so that early actions can be initiated. The models have helped to a great extent in standardizing the control decisions of operators at H-Blast Furnace of Tata Steel, Jamshedpur and thus achieving process stability for last three years.

Keywords: hanging, channelling, blast furnace, coke

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6260 A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of the Caregiving Experiences of Family Caregivers for Elderly Cancer Patients in China: Implications for Health Social Work

Authors: Longtao He, Han Wu

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Summary: As the need for elder care increases in China due to a growing aging population and, in particular, rising cancer rates, it becomes increasingly important to also support family caregivers, who are often the main source of care. We used a qualitative meta-synthesis to systematically evaluate and integrate the caregiving experiences of family caregivers of elderly cancer patients as revealed by articles published in Chinese journals. Findings: Nine studies are included in the final analysis. The caregiver experiences they describe are synthesized into three primary themes: care needs, care burden, and care gains, with numerous secondary themes. Besides the findings that seem to align with other findings across cultures, we have highlighted three main discoveries from the synthesis that may be quite specific to the Chinese context: 1. more sub-themes related to specific caregiving skills caregivers of cancer patients; 2. a call for health professionals to improve their communication skills with family caregivers; 3. the important role of filial piety. Applications: Our findings can be used to help health social workers and relevant policymakers in China support family caregivers by identifying the education and training required for caregivers, ways to make the most of potential care gains, and ways to ease care burdens.

Keywords: cancer, Chinese family caregivers, caregiving skills, care burden, care gains, health social work

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