Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5490

Search results for: clinical features

5490 Patients' Quality of Life and Caregivers' Burden of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Si Jen Yeen, Sara Lew


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evolving layers of complexity. Both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD may affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). Life expectancy for an individual with Parkinson’s disease depends on the level of care the individual has access to, can have a direct impact on length of life. Therefore, improvement of the QoL is a significant part of therapeutic plans. Patients with PD, especially those who are in advanced stages, are in great need of assistance, mostly from their family members or caregivers in terms of medical, emotional, and social support. The role of a caregiver becomes increasingly important with the progression of PD, the severity of motor impairment and increasing age of the patient. The nature and symptoms associated with PD can place significant stresses on the caregivers’ burden. As the prevalence of PD is estimated to more than double by 2030, it is important to recognize and alleviate the burden experienced by caregivers. This study focused on the impact of the clinical features on the QoL of PD patients, and of their caregivers. This study included PD patients along with their caregivers and was undertaken at the Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Association from June 2016 to November 2016. Clinical features of PD patients were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society revised Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS); the Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson's Disease were used to assess the severity and Parkinson's disease activities of daily living scale were used to assess the disability of Parkinson’s disease patients. QoL of PD patients was measured using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The revised version of the Zarit Burden Interview assessed caregiver burden. At least one of the clinical features affected PD patients’ QoL, and at least one of the QoL domains affected the caregivers’ burden. Clinical features ‘Saliva and Drooling’, and ‘Dyskinesia’ explained 29% of variance in QoL of PD patients. The QoL domains ‘stigma’, along with ‘emotional wellbeing’ explained 48.6% of variance in caregivers’ burden. Clinical features such as saliva, drooling and dyskinesia affected the QoL of PD patients. The PD patients’ QoL domains such as ‘stigma’ and ‘emotional well-being’ influenced their caregivers’ burden.

Keywords: carers, quality of life, clinical features, Malaysia

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5489 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Clinical Profile of Women Attending NPFDB Subfertility Clinic

Authors: Komathy Thiagarajan, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz, Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Abdul Wahaf Abdul Wahid


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) presents with a plethora of clinical features owing to the multifaceted underlying pathophysiology. This study was conducted to determine the clinical features unique to the sub fertile women attending the Sub fertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) so that a more holistic approach can be adopted to further enhance the pregnancy outcome in those women. This was a case-control study conducted over a span of three years (from January 2014 until December 2016), whereby women who fulfilled the Rotterdam Criteria 2004 were classified as PCOS (n=79) and women who did not fulfill the Rotterdam Criteria were classified as controls (n=88). The mean age of the women was 30.1 years and the mean duration of marriage was 3.93 years. The majority of women suffered from primary sub fertility (82.6%). The median age was lower among PCOS women (29.0 years) compared to the controls (30.0 years), p<0.05. The majority of PCOS women (43.0%) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) compared to only 19.3% who were obese in the control group, p<0.05. Hypertension was present in 59.5% of PCOS women and only in 36.4% of the control group, p<0.05. There were significantly more women who presented with hirsutism in PCOS group (27.8%) as compared to the control group (5.7%), p<0.05. The findings of this study elucidate that the clinical features of significance among sub fertile women suffering from PCOS, if detected early, are amenable to lifestyle modifications and timely interventions can potentially improve the fertility outcomes in this group of women.

Keywords: clinical features, fertility, lifestyle modification, PCOS

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5488 Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Based on Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in the Classification of Brain Tumor

Authors: Chih Jou Hsiao, Chung Ming Lo, Li Chun Hsieh


Brain tumor is not the cancer having high incidence rate, but its high mortality rate and poor prognosis still make it as a big concern. On clinical examination, the grading of brain tumors depends on pathological features. However, there are some weak points of histopathological analysis which can cause misgrading. For example, the interpretations can be various without a well-known definition. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of malignant tumors is a challenge to extract meaningful tissues under surgical biopsy. With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor grading can be accomplished by a noninvasive procedure. To improve the diagnostic accuracy further, this study proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on MRI features to provide suggestions of tumor grading. Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors (about 70%). This study collected 34 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 73 lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) from The Cancer Imaging Archive. After defining the region-of-interests in MRI images, multiple quantitative morphological features such as region perimeter, region area, compactness, the mean and standard deviation of the normalized radial length, and moment features were extracted from the tumors for classification. As results, two of five morphological features and three of four image moment features achieved p values of <0.001, and the remaining moment feature had p value <0.05. Performance of the CAD system using the combination of all features achieved the accuracy of 83.18% in classifying the gliomas into LGG and GBM. The sensitivity is 70.59% and the specificity is 89.04%. The proposed system can become a second viewer on clinical examinations for radiologists.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnosis, gliomas, magnetic resonance imaging

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5487 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen


The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

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5486 Relevant LMA Features for Human Motion Recognition

Authors: Insaf Ajili, Malik Mallem, Jean-Yves Didier


Motion recognition from videos is actually a very complex task due to the high variability of motions. This paper describes the challenges of human motion recognition, especially motion representation step with relevant features. Our descriptor vector is inspired from Laban Movement Analysis method. We propose discriminative features using the Random Forest algorithm in order to remove redundant features and make learning algorithms operate faster and more effectively. We validate our method on MSRC-12 and UTKinect datasets.

Keywords: discriminative LMA features, features reduction, human motion recognition, random forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
5485 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim


Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

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5484 Oral Examination: An Important Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Dermatological Disorders

Authors: Sanjay Saraf


The oral cavity can be the site for early manifestations of mucocutaneous disorders (MD) or the only site for occurrence of these disorders. It can also exhibit oral lesions with simultaneous associated skin lesions. The MD involving the oral mucosa commonly presents with signs such as ulcers, vesicles and bullae. The unique environment of the oral cavity may modify these signs of the disease, thereby making the clinical diagnosis an arduous task. In addition to the unique environment of oral cavity, the overlapping of the signs of various mucocutaneous disorders, also makes the clinical diagnosis more intricate. The aim of this review is to present the oral signs of dermatological disorders having common oral involvement and emphasize their importance in early detection of the systemic disorders. The aim is also to highlight the necessity of oral examination by a dermatologist while examining the skin lesions. Prior to the oral examination, it must be imperative for the dermatologists and the dental clinicians to have the knowledge of oral anatomy. It is also important to know the impact of various diseases on oral mucosa, and the characteristic features of various oral mucocutaneous lesions. An initial clinical oral examination is may help in the early diagnosis of the MD. Failure to identify the oral manifestations may reduce the likelihood of early treatment and lead to more serious problems. This paper reviews the oral manifestations of immune mediated dermatological disorders with common oral manifestations.

Keywords: dermatological investigations, genodermatosis, histological features, oral examination

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5483 Identification of Clinical Characteristics from Persistent Homology Applied to Tumor Imaging

Authors: Eashwar V. Somasundaram, Raoul R. Wadhwa, Jacob G. Scott


The use of radiomics in measuring geometric properties of tumor images such as size, surface area, and volume has been invaluable in assessing cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In addition to analyzing geometric properties, radiomics would benefit from measuring topological properties using persistent homology. Intuitively, features uncovered by persistent homology may correlate to tumor structural features. One example is necrotic cavities (corresponding to 2D topological features), which are markers of very aggressive tumors. We develop a data pipeline in R that clusters tumors images based on persistent homology is used to identify meaningful clinical distinctions between tumors and possibly new relationships not captured by established clinical categorizations. A preliminary analysis was performed on 16 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) breast tissue segments downloaded from the 'Investigation of Serial Studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging and Molecular Analysis' (I-SPY TRIAL or ISPY1) collection in The Cancer Imaging Archive. Each segment represents a patient’s breast tumor prior to treatment. The ISPY1 dataset also provided the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status data. A persistent homology matrix up to 2-dimensional features was calculated for each of the MRI segmentation. Wasserstein distances were then calculated between all pairwise tumor image persistent homology matrices to create a distance matrix for each feature dimension. Since Wasserstein distances were calculated for 0, 1, and 2-dimensional features, three hierarchal clusters were constructed. The adjusted Rand Index was used to see how well the clusters corresponded to the ER/PR/HER2 status of the tumors. Triple-negative cancers (negative status for all three receptors) significantly clustered together in the 2-dimensional features dendrogram (Adjusted Rand Index of .35, p = .031). It is known that having a triple-negative breast tumor is associated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis when compared to non-triple negative breast tumors. The aggressive tumor growth associated with triple-negative tumors may have a unique structure in an MRI segmentation, which persistent homology is able to identify. This preliminary analysis shows promising results in the use of persistent homology on tumor imaging to assess the severity of breast tumors. The next step is to apply this pipeline to other tumor segment images from The Cancer Imaging Archive at different sites such as the lung, kidney, and brain. In addition, whether other clinical parameters, such as overall survival, tumor stage, and tumor genotype data are captured well in persistent homology clusters will be assessed. If analyzing tumor MRI segments using persistent homology consistently identifies clinical relationships, this could enable clinicians to use persistent homology data as a noninvasive way to inform clinical decision making in oncology.

Keywords: cancer biology, oncology, persistent homology, radiomics, topological data analysis, tumor imaging

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5482 Tree Species Classification Using Effective Features of Polarimetric SAR and Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Milad Vahidi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Reza Mohammadi


Forest management organizations need information to perform their work effectively. Remote sensing is an effective method to acquire information from the Earth. Two datasets of remote sensing images were used to classify forested regions. Firstly, all of extractable features from hyperspectral and PolSAR images were extracted. The optical features were spectral indexes related to the chemical, water contents, structural indexes, effective bands and absorption features. Also, PolSAR features were the original data, target decomposition components, and SAR discriminators features. Secondly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithms (GA) were applied to select optimization features. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify the image. The results showed that the combination of PSO and SVM had higher overall accuracy than the other cases. This combination provided overall accuracy about 90.56%. The effective features were the spectral index, the bands in shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the visible ranges and certain PolSAR features.

Keywords: hyperspectral, PolSAR, feature selection, SVM

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5481 Integrated Machine Learning Framework for At-Home Patients Personalized Risk Prediction Using Activities, Biometric, and Demographic Features

Authors: Claire Xu, Welton Wang, Manasvi Pinnaka, Anqi Pan, Michael Han


Hospitalizations account for one-third of the total health care spending in the US. Early risk detection and intervention can reduce this high cost and increase the satisfaction of both patients and physicians. Due to the lack of awareness of the potential arising risks in home environment, the opportunities for patients to seek early actions of clinical visits are dramatically reduced. This research aims to offer a highly personalized remote patients monitoring and risk assessment AI framework to identify the potentially preventable hospitalization for both acute as well as chronic diseases. A hybrid-AI framework is trained with data from clinical setting, patients surveys, as well as online databases. 20+ risk factors are analyzed ranging from activities, biometric info, demographic info, socio-economic info, hospitalization history, medication info, lifestyle info, etc. The AI model yields high performance of 87% accuracy and 88 sensitivity with 20+ features. This hybrid-AI framework is proven to be effective in identifying the potentially preventable hospitalization. Further, the high indicative features are identified by the models which guide us to a healthy lifestyle and early intervention suggestions.

Keywords: hospitalization prevention, machine learning, remote patient monitoring, risk prediction

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5480 2D Point Clouds Features from Radar for Helicopter Classification

Authors: Danilo Habermann, Aleksander Medella, Carla Cremon, Yusef Caceres


This paper aims to analyze the ability of 2d point clouds features to classify different models of helicopters using radars. This method does not need to estimate the blade length, the number of blades of helicopters, and the period of their micro-Doppler signatures. It is also not necessary to generate spectrograms (or any other image based on time and frequency domain). This work transforms a radar return signal into a 2D point cloud and extracts features of it. Three classifiers are used to distinguish 9 different helicopter models in order to analyze the performance of the features used in this work. The high accuracy obtained with each of the classifiers demonstrates that the 2D point clouds features are very useful for classifying helicopters from radar signal.

Keywords: helicopter classification, point clouds features, radar, supervised classifiers

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5479 Dynamic Gabor Filter Facial Features-Based Recognition of Emotion in Video Sequences

Authors: T. Hari Prasath, P. Ithaya Rani


In the world of visual technology, recognizing emotions from the face images is a challenging task. Several related methods have not utilized the dynamic facial features effectively for high performance. This paper proposes a method for emotions recognition using dynamic facial features with high performance. Initially, local features are captured by Gabor filter with different scale and orientations in each frame for finding the position and scale of face part from different backgrounds. The Gabor features are sent to the ensemble classifier for detecting Gabor facial features. The region of dynamic features is captured from the Gabor facial features in the consecutive frames which represent the dynamic variations of facial appearances. In each region of dynamic features is normalized using Z-score normalization method which is further encoded into binary pattern features with the help of threshold values. The binary features are passed to Multi-class AdaBoost classifier algorithm with the well-trained database contain happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and neutral expressions to classify the discriminative dynamic features for emotions recognition. The developed method is deployed on the Ryerson Multimedia Research Lab and Cohn-Kanade databases and they show significant performance improvement owing to their dynamic features when compared with the existing methods.

Keywords: detecting face, Gabor filter, multi-class AdaBoost classifier, Z-score normalization

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5478 New Features for Copy-Move Image Forgery Detection

Authors: Michael Zimba


A novel set of features for copy-move image forgery, CMIF, detection method is proposed. The proposed set presents a new approach which relies on electrostatic field theory, EFT. Solely for the purpose of reducing the dimension of a suspicious image, firstly performs discrete wavelet transform, DWT, of the suspicious image and extracts only the approximation subband. The extracted subband is then bijectively mapped onto a virtual electrostatic field where concepts of EFT are utilised to extract robust features. The extracted features are shown to be invariant to additive noise, JPEG compression, and affine transformation. The proposed features can also be used in general object matching.

Keywords: virtual electrostatic field, features, affine transformation, copy-move image forgery

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5477 Computer-Aided Exudate Diagnosis for the Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Shu-Min Tsao, Chung-Ming Lo, Shao-Chun Chen


Most diabetes patients tend to suffer from its complication of retina diseases. Therefore, early detection and early treatment are important. In clinical examinations, using color fundus image was the most convenient and available examination method. According to the exudates appeared in the retinal image, the status of retina can be confirmed. However, the routine screening of diabetic retinopathy by color fundus images would bring time-consuming tasks to physicians. This study thus proposed a computer-aided exudate diagnosis for the screening of diabetic retinopathy. After removing vessels and optic disc in the retinal image, six quantitative features including region number, region area, and gray-scale values etc… were extracted from the remaining regions for classification. As results, all six features were evaluated to be statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). The accuracy of classifying the retinal images into normal and diabetic retinopathy achieved 82%. Based on this system, the clinical workload could be reduced. The examination procedure may also be improved to be more efficient.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy, exudate, image processing

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5476 The Importance of Clinicopathological Features for Differentiation Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghadeer F. Alharthi, Duaa A. Alhejaili, Rawan E. Hudairy, Wafaa A. Altaezi, Raghad M. Alhejaili


Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two specific gastrointestinal disorders: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Despite their distinct natures, these two diseases share many similar etiologic, clinical and pathological features, as a result, their accurate differential diagnosis may sometimes be difficult. Correct diagnosis is important because surgical treatment and long-term prognosis differ from UC and CD. Aim: This study aims to study the characteristic clinicopathological features which help in the differential diagnosis between UC and CD, and assess the disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 50 selected cases. The cases included 27 cases of UC and 23 cases of CD. All the cases were examined using H& E and immunohistochemically for bcl-2 expression. Results: Characteristic features of UC include: decrease in mucous content, irregular or villous surface, crypt distortion, and cryptitis, whereas the main cardinal histopathological features seen in CD were: epitheloid granuloma, transmural chronic inflammation, absence of mucin depletion, irregular surface, or crypt distortion. 3 cases of UC were found to be associated with dysplasia. UC mucosa contains fewer Bcl-2+ cells compared with CD mucosa. Conclusion: This study using multiple parameters such clinicopathological features and Bcl-2 expression as studied by immunohistochemical stain, helped to gain an accurate differentiation between UC and CD. Furthermore, this work spotted the light on the activity and different grades of UC which could be important for the prediction of relapse.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, dysplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis

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5475 A Network of Nouns and Their Features :A Neurocomputational Study

Authors: Skiker Kaoutar, Mounir Maouene


Neuroimaging studies indicate that a large fronto-parieto-temporal network support nouns and their features, with some areas store semantic knowledge (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory,…), other areas store lexical representation and other areas are implicated in general semantic processing. However, it is not well understood how this fronto-parieto-temporal network can be modulated by different semantic tasks and different semantic relations between nouns. In this study, we combine a behavioral semantic network, functional MRI studies involving object’s related nouns and brain network studies to explain how different semantic tasks and different semantic relations between nouns can modulate the activity within the brain network of nouns and their features. We first describe how nouns and their features form a large scale brain network. For this end, we examine the connectivities between areas recruited during the processing of nouns to know which configurations of interaction areas are possible. We can thus identify if, for example, brain areas that store semantic knowledge communicate via functional/structural links with areas that store lexical representations. Second, we examine how this network is modulated by different semantic tasks involving nouns and finally, we examine how category specific activation may result from the semantic relations among nouns. The results indicate that brain network of nouns and their features is highly modulated and flexible by different semantic tasks and semantic relations. At the end, this study can be used as a guide to help neurosientifics to interpret the pattern of fMRI activations detected in the semantic processing of nouns. Specifically; this study can help to interpret the category specific activations observed extensively in a large number of neuroimaging studies and clinical studies.

Keywords: nouns, features, network, category specificity

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5474 Using Reservoir Models for Monitoring Geothermal Surface Features

Authors: John P. O’Sullivan, Thomas M. P. Ratouis, Michael J. O’Sullivan


As the use of geothermal energy grows internationally more effort is required to monitor and protect areas with rare and important geothermal surface features. A number of approaches are presented for developing and calibrating numerical geothermal reservoir models that are capable of accurately representing geothermal surface features. The approaches are discussed in the context of cases studies of the Rotorua geothermal system and the Orakei-korako geothermal system, both of which contain important surface features. The results show that models are able to match the available field data accurately and hence can be used as valuable tools for predicting the future response of the systems to changes in use.

Keywords: geothermal reservoir models, surface features, monitoring, TOUGH2

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5473 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu


Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: chain code frequency, character recognition, feature extraction, features matching, segmentation

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5472 An Experimental Study for Assessing Email Classification Attributes Using Feature Selection Methods

Authors: Issa Qabaja, Fadi Thabtah


Email phishing classification is one of the vital problems in the online security research domain that have attracted several scholars due to its impact on the users payments performed daily online. One aspect to reach a good performance by the detection algorithms in the email phishing problem is to identify the minimal set of features that significantly have an impact on raising the phishing detection rate. This paper investigate three known feature selection methods named Information Gain (IG), Chi-square and Correlation Features Set (CFS) on the email phishing problem to separate high influential features from low influential ones in phishing detection. We measure the degree of influentially by applying four data mining algorithms on a large set of features. We compare the accuracy of these algorithms on the complete features set before feature selection has been applied and after feature selection has been applied. After conducting experiments, the results show 12 common significant features have been chosen among the considered features by the feature selection methods. Further, the average detection accuracy derived by the data mining algorithms on the reduced 12-features set was very slight affected when compared with the one derived from the 47-features set.

Keywords: data mining, email classification, phishing, online security

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5471 Preparation of Papers - Developing a Leukemia Diagnostic System Based on Hybrid Deep Learning Architectures in Actual Clinical Environments

Authors: Skyler Kim


An early diagnosis of leukemia has always been a challenge to doctors and hematologists. On a worldwide basis, it was reported that there were approximately 350,000 new cases in 2012, and diagnosing leukemia was time-consuming and inefficient because of an endemic shortage of flow cytometry equipment in current clinical practice. As the number of medical diagnosis tools increased and a large volume of high-quality data was produced, there was an urgent need for more advanced data analysis methods. One of these methods was the AI approach. This approach has become a major trend in recent years, and several research groups have been working on developing these diagnostic models. However, designing and implementing a leukemia diagnostic system in real clinical environments based on a deep learning approach with larger sets remains complex. Leukemia is a major hematological malignancy that results in mortality and morbidity throughout different ages. We decided to select acute lymphocytic leukemia to develop our diagnostic system since acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most common type of leukemia, accounting for 74% of all children diagnosed with leukemia. The results from this development work can be applied to all other types of leukemia. To develop our model, the Kaggle dataset was used, which consists of 15135 total images, 8491 of these are images of abnormal cells, and 5398 images are normal. In this paper, we design and implement a leukemia diagnostic system in a real clinical environment based on deep learning approaches with larger sets. The proposed diagnostic system has the function of detecting and classifying leukemia. Different from other AI approaches, we explore hybrid architectures to improve the current performance. First, we developed two independent convolutional neural network models: VGG19 and ResNet50. Then, using both VGG19 and ResNet50, we developed a hybrid deep learning architecture employing transfer learning techniques to extract features from each input image. In our approach, fusing the features from specific abstraction layers can be deemed as auxiliary features and lead to further improvement of the classification accuracy. In this approach, features extracted from the lower levels are combined into higher dimension feature maps to help improve the discriminative capability of intermediate features and also overcome the problem of network gradient vanishing or exploding. By comparing VGG19 and ResNet50 and the proposed hybrid model, we concluded that the hybrid model had a significant advantage in accuracy. The detailed results of each model’s performance and their pros and cons will be presented in the conference.

Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, hybrid model, leukemia diagnostic system, machine learning

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5470 Exploring Syntactic and Semantic Features for Text-Based Authorship Attribution

Authors: Haiyan Wu, Ying Liu, Shaoyun Shi


Authorship attribution is to extract features to identify authors of anonymous documents. Many previous works on authorship attribution focus on statistical style features (e.g., sentence/word length), content features (e.g., frequent words, n-grams). Modeling these features by regression or some transparent machine learning methods gives a portrait of the authors' writing style. But these methods do not capture the syntactic (e.g., dependency relationship) or semantic (e.g., topics) information. In recent years, some researchers model syntactic trees or latent semantic information by neural networks. However, few works take them together. Besides, predictions by neural networks are difficult to explain, which is vital in authorship attribution tasks. In this paper, we not only utilize the statistical style and content features but also take advantage of both syntactic and semantic features. Different from an end-to-end neural model, feature selection and prediction are two steps in our method. An attentive n-gram network is utilized to select useful features, and logistic regression is applied to give prediction and understandable representation of writing style. Experiments show that our extracted features can improve the state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark datasets.

Keywords: authorship attribution, attention mechanism, syntactic feature, feature extraction

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5469 DTI Connectome Changes in the Acute Phase of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Improve Outcome Classification

Authors: Sarah E. Nelson, Casey Weiner, Alexander Sigmon, Jun Hua, Haris I. Sair, Jose I. Suarez, Robert D. Stevens


Graph-theoretical information from structural connectomes indicated significant connectivity changes and improved acute prognostication in a Random Forest (RF) model in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality and has traditionally been fraught by poor methods to predict outcome. This study’s hypothesis was that structural connectivity changes occur in canonical brain networks of acute aSAH patients, and that these changes are associated with functional outcome at six months. In a prospective cohort of patients admitted to a single institution for management of acute aSAH, patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as part of a multimodal MRI scan. A weighted undirected structural connectome was created of each patient’s images using Constant Solid Angle (CSA) tractography, with 176 regions of interest (ROIs) defined by the Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. ROIs were sorted into four networks: Default Mode Network, Executive Control Network, Salience Network, and Whole Brain. The resulting nodes and edges were characterized using graph-theoretic features, including Node Strength (NS), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Network Degree (ND), and Connectedness (C). Clinical (including demographics and World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons scale) and graph features were used separately and in combination to train RF and Logistic Regression classifiers to predict two outcomes: dichotomized modified Rankin Score (mRS) at discharge and at six months after discharge (favorable outcome mRS 0-2, unfavorable outcome mRS 3-6). A total of 56 aSAH patients underwent DTI a median (IQR) of 7 (IQR=8.5) days after admission. The best performing model (RF) combining clinical and DTI graph features had a mean Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (AUROC) of 0.88 ± 0.00 and Area Under the Precision Recall Curve (AUPRC) of 0.95 ± 0.00 over 500 trials. The combined model performed better than the clinical model alone (AUROC 0.81 ± 0.01, AUPRC 0.91 ± 0.00). The highest-ranked graph features for prediction were NS, BC, and ND. These results indicate reorganization of the connectome early after aSAH. The performance of clinical prognostic models was increased significantly by the inclusion of DTI-derived graph connectivity metrics. This methodology could significantly improve prognostication of aSAH.

Keywords: connectomics, diffusion tensor imaging, graph theory, machine learning, subarachnoid hemorrhage

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5468 Microscopic Features Influences on Textile Fabrics Self-Cleaning Ability

Authors: Ayat Adnan Atwah


Self-cleaning ability in textile fabrics was comprehensively investigated in the last decade. Most of these investigations have used surface roughness, and low surface energy features to establish a self-cleaning mechanism. Extensive research articles and reviews have been published to describe these processes along with their microscopic features. When these reviewed with a critical eye, it has been found that a comprehensive effort is still required to compile all these previous research, emphasizing how textile fabrics' microscopic features can influence their self-cleaning ability. No research has been conducted to explore the self-cleaning potential of microscopic geometrical features of fabric at the woven structural level. Researchers used microscopic features to increase the mechanical strength of the fabric. However, they did not change the microscopic features at a woven level to evaluate the self-cleaning ability. In the existing literature, researchers have tried to develop self-cleaning textiles with the help of coatings on the fabric. These coatings are applied to the fabrics by using spray and nanoparticle processing. The coatings create a different surface on the fabric, and hence the changes in the microscopic features of this surface control the self-cleaning ability. Instead of using an additional coating, the microscopic features of the fabric itself can also influence the surface roughness and low surface energy and provide self-cleaning ability at the woven structural level. Key microscopic features like surface roughness, porosity, and wettability of a textile fabric are still not comprehensively investigated for their influence on fabric’s self-cleaning ability. Significantly, the interdependencies between these features with overall fabric geometry at the woven level have not been explored quantitatively. Qualitative observations have been made mainly in the past literature. However, fabrics with self-cleaning ability to be produced in mass production require extensive empirical studies. These studies must involve parametric analysis on varying values of the microscopic features and their quantitative influence on the desired self-cleaning feature.

Keywords: self-cleaning ability, influence, microscopic features, textile fabrics

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5467 Correlation Study between Clinical and Radiological Findings in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Nabil A. A. Mohamed, Alaa A. A. Balbaa, Khaled E. Ayad


Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of arthritis and leads to more activity limitations (e.g., disability in walking and stair climbing) than any other disease, especially in the elderly. Recently, impaired proprioceptive accuracy of the knee has been proposed as a local factor in the onset and progression of radiographic knee OA (ROA). Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological findings in healthy with that of knee OA. Also, to determine if there is a correlation between the clinical and radiological findings in patients with knee OA. Subjects: Fifty one patients diagnosed as unilateral or bilateral knee OA with age ranged between 35-70 years, from both gender without any previous history of knee trauma or surgery, and twenty one normal subjects with age ranged from 35 - 68 years. METHODS: peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from knee extensors at isokinetic isometric mode at angle of 45 degree. Also, the Absolute Angular Error was recorded at 45O and 30O to measure joint position sense (JPS). They made anteroposterior (AP) plain X-rays from standing semiflexed knee position and their average score of Timed Up and Go test(TUG) and WOMAC were recorded as a measure of knee pain, stiffness and function. Comparison between the mean values of different variables in the two groups was performed using unpaired student t test. The P value less or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were significant differences between the studied variables between the experimental and control groups except the values of AAE at 30O. Also, there were no significant correlation between the clinical findings (pain, function, muscle strength and proprioception) and the severity of arthritic changes in X-rays. CONCLUSION: From the finding of the current study we can conclude that there were a significant difference between the both groups in all studied parameters (the WOMAC, functional level, quadriceps muscle strength and the joint proprioception). Also this study did not support the dependency on radiological findings in management of knee OA as the radiological features did not necessarily indicate the level of structural damage of patients with knee OA and we should consider the clinical features in our treatment plan.

Keywords: joint position sense, peak torque, proprioception, radiological knee osteoarthritis

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5466 Using New Machine Algorithms to Classify Iranian Musical Instruments According to Temporal, Spectral and Coefficient Features

Authors: Ronak Khosravi, Mahmood Abbasi Layegh, Siamak Haghipour, Avin Esmaili


In this paper, a study on classification of musical woodwind instruments using a small set of features selected from a broad range of extracted ones by the sequential forward selection method was carried out. Firstly, we extract 42 features for each record in the music database of 402 sound files belonging to five different groups of Flutes (end blown and internal duct), Single –reed, Double –reed (exposed and capped), Triple reed and Quadruple reed. Then, the sequential forward selection method is adopted to choose the best feature set in order to achieve very high classification accuracy. Two different classification techniques of support vector machines and relevance vector machines have been tested out and an accuracy of up to 96% can be achieved by using 21 time, frequency and coefficient features and relevance vector machine with the Gaussian kernel function.

Keywords: coefficient features, relevance vector machines, spectral features, support vector machines, temporal features

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5465 Native Language Identification with Cross-Corpus Evaluation Using Social Media Data: 'Reddit'

Authors: Yasmeen Bassas, Sandra Kuebler, Allen Riddell


Native Language Identification is one of the growing subfields in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The task of Native Language Identification (NLI) is mainly concerned with predicting the native language of an author’s writing in a second language. In this paper, we investigate the performance of two types of features; content-based features vs. content independent features when they are evaluated on a different corpus (using social media data “Reddit”). In this NLI task, the predefined models are trained on one corpus (TOEFL) and then the trained models are evaluated on a different data using an external corpus (Reddit). Several features that have been proven useful for NLI tasks are used in this work (such as word n-grams, character n-grams, POS n-grams and function words). Three classifiers are used in this task; the baseline, linear SVM, and Logistic Regression. Two experiments are conducted in this paper. The first one is to explore the performance of the content-based features versus the content independent ones within one domain using TOEFL corpus. The second experiment is to examine how the trained models perform in a different data using an external corpus called Reddit. The aim is to find out which features (content-based vs content independent features) are more accurate when tested on a different corpus. Results show that content-based features are more accurate and robust than content independent ones when tested within corpus and across corpus.

Keywords: Native Language Identification, Social Media Data: Reddit, NLP, Content-based features, Content independent features

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5464 Research on Perceptual Features of Couchsurfers on New Hospitality Tourism Platform Couchsurfing

Authors: Yuanxiang Miao


This paper aims to examine the perceptual features of couchsurfers on a new hospitality tourism platform, the free homestay website couchsurfing. As a local host, the author has accepted 61 couchsurfers in Kyoto, Japan, and attempted to figure out couchsurfers' characteristics on perception by hosting them. Moreover, the methodology of this research is mainly based on in-depth interviews, by talking with couchsurfers, observing their behaviors, doing questionnaires, etc. Five dominant perceptual features of couchsurfers were identified: (1) Trusting; (2) Meeting; (3) Sharing; (4) Reciprocity; (5) Worries. The value of this research lies in figuring out a deeper understanding of the perceptual features of couchsurfers, and the author indeed hosted and stayed with 61 couchsurfers from 30 countries and areas over one year. Lastly, the author offers practical suggestions for future research.

Keywords: couchsurfing, depth interview, hospitality tourism, perceptual features

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5463 The Latent Model of Linguistic Features in Korean College Students’ L2 Argumentative Writings: Syntactic Complexity, Lexical Complexity, and Fluency

Authors: Jiyoung Bae, Gyoomi Kim


This study explores a range of linguistic features used in Korean college students’ argumentative writings for the purpose of developing a model that identifies variables which predict writing proficiencies. This study investigated the latent variable structure of L2 linguistic features, including syntactic complexity, the lexical complexity, and fluency. One hundred forty-six university students in Korea participated in this study. The results of the study’s confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that indicators of linguistic features from this study-provided a foundation for re-categorizing indicators found in extant research on L2 Korean writers depending on each latent variable of linguistic features. The CFA models indicated one measurement model of L2 syntactic complexity and L2 learners’ writing proficiency; these two latent factors were correlated with each other. Based on the overall findings of the study, integrated linguistic features of L2 writings suggested some pedagogical implications in L2 writing instructions.

Keywords: linguistic features, syntactic complexity, lexical complexity, fluency

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5462 Comparison between XGBoost, LightGBM and CatBoost Using a Home Credit Dataset

Authors: Essam Al Daoud


Gradient boosting methods have been proven to be a very important strategy. Many successful machine learning solutions were developed using the XGBoost and its derivatives. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the efficiency of three gradient methods. Home credit dataset is used in this work which contains 219 features and 356251 records. However, new features are generated and several techniques are used to rank and select the best features. The implementation indicates that the LightGBM is faster and more accurate than CatBoost and XGBoost using variant number of features and records.

Keywords: gradient boosting, XGBoost, LightGBM, CatBoost, home credit

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5461 Medical Image Classification Using Legendre Multifractal Spectrum Features

Authors: R. Korchiyne, A. Sbihi, S. M. Farssi, R. Touahni, M. Tahiri Alaoui


Trabecular bone structure is important texture in the study of osteoporosis. Legendre multifractal spectrum can reflect the complex and self-similarity characteristic of structures. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique of medical image classification based on Legendre multifractal spectrum. Novel features have been developed from basic geometrical properties of this spectrum in a supervised image classification. The proposed method has been successfully used to classify medical images of bone trabeculations, and could be a useful supplement to the clinical observations for osteoporosis diagnosis. A comparative study with existing data reveals that the results of this approach are concordant.

Keywords: multifractal analysis, medical image, osteoporosis, fractal dimension, Legendre spectrum, supervised classification

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