Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5715

Search results for: grain growth exponent

5715 2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Grain Growth under Transient Conditions

Authors: K. R. Phaneesh, Anirudh Bhat, G. Mukherjee, K. T. Kashyap


Extensive Monte Carlo Potts model simulations were performed on 2D square lattice to investigate the effects of simulated higher temperatures effects on grain growth kinetics. A range of simulation temperatures (KTs) were applied on a matrix of size 10002 with Q-state 64, dispersed with a wide range of second phase particles, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1, and then run to 100,000 Monte Carlo steps. The average grain size, the largest grain size and the grain growth exponent were evaluated for all particle fractions and simulated temperatures. After evaluating several growth parameters, the critical temperature for a square lattice, with eight nearest neighbors, was found to be KTs = 0.4.

Keywords: average grain size, critical temperature, grain growth exponent, Monte Carlo steps

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5714 Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline and Ultra-Fine Grained Materials

Authors: Haiming Wen


Grain growth is an important and consequential phenomenon that generally occurs in the presence of thermal and/or stress/strain fields. Thermally activated grain growth has been extensively studied and similarly, there are numerous experimental and theoretical studies published describing stress-induced grain growth in single-phase materials. However, studies on grain growth during the simultaneous presence of an elevated temperature and an external stress are very limited, and moreover, grain growth phenomena in materials containing second-phase particles and solute segregation at GBs have received limited attention. This lecture reports on a study of grain growth in the presence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) during high-temperature deformation of an ultra-fine grained (UFG) Al alloy synthesized via consolidation of mechanically milled powders. The mechanisms underlying the grain growth were identified as GB migration and grain rotation, which were accompanied by dynamic recovery and geometric dynamic recrystallization, while discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was not operative. A theoretical framework that incorporates the influence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on grain growth in presence of both elevated temperature and external stress is formulated and discussed. The effect of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on GB migration and grain rotation was quantified using the proposed theoretical framework, indicating that both second-phase particles and solutes/impurities segregated GBs reduce the velocities of GB migration and grain rotation as compared to those in commercially pure Al. Our results suggest that grain growth predicted by the proposed theoretical framework is in agreement with experimental results. Hence, the developed theoretical framework can be applied to quantify grain growth in simultaneous presence of external stress, elevated temperature, GB segregation and second-phase particles, or in presence of one or more of the aforementioned factors.

Keywords: nanocrystalline materials, ultra-fine grained materials, grain growth, grain boundary migration, grain rotation

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5713 Behavior of Clay effect on Electrical Parameter of Reservoir Rock Using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) Approach

Authors: Noreddin Mousa


The main objective of this study is to estimate which type of clay minerals that more effect on saturation exponent using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) approach to estimating the distribution of saturation exponent factor. Two wells and seven core samples have been selected from various (GHEs) for detailed study. There are many factors affecting saturation exponent such as wettability, grain pattern pressure of certain authigenic clays, which may promote oil wet characteristics of history of fluid displacement. The saturation exponent is related to the texture and affected by wettability and clay minerals. Capillary pressure (mercury injection) has been used to confirm GHEs which are selected to define rock types; the porous plate method is used to derive the saturation exponent in the laboratory. The petrography is very important in order to study the mineralogy and texture. In this study the results showing excellent relation between saturation exponent and the type of clay minerals which was observed that the Global Hydraulic Elements GHE-2 and GHE-5 which are containing Chlorite is more affect on saturation exponent comparing with the other GHE’s.

Keywords: GHEs, wettability, global hydraulic elements, petrography

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5712 Phase Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Oxide Dispersed CoCrFeMnNi

Authors: Prangya P. Sahoo, B. S. Murty


The present study deals with phase evolution of oxide dispersed CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy as a function of amount of added Y2O3 during mechanical alloying and analysis of grain growth kinetics of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy without and with oxide dispersion. Mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi resulted in a single FCC phase. However, evolution of chromium carbide was observed after heat treatment between 1073 and 1473 K. Comparison of grain growth time exponents and activation energy barrier is also reported. Micro structural investigations, using electron microscopy and EBSD techniques, were carried out to confirm the enhanced grain growth resistance which is attributed to the presence oxide dispersoids.

Keywords: grain growth kinetics, mechanical alloying, oxide dispersion, phase evolution

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5711 Grain Growth Behavior of High Carbon Microalloyed Steels Containing Very Low Amounts of Niobium

Authors: Huseyin Zengin, Muhammet Emre Turan, Yunus Turen, Hayrettin Ahlatci, Yavuz Sun


This study aimed for understanding the effects of dilute Nb additions on the austenite microstructure of microalloyed steels at five different reheating temperatures from 950 °C to 1300 °C. Four microalloyed high-carbon steels having 0.8 %wt C were examined in which three of them had varying Nb concentrations from 0.005 wt% to 0.02 wt% and one of them had no Nb concentration. The quantitative metallographic techniques were used to measure the average prior austenite grain size in order to compare the grain growth pinning effects of Nb precipitates as a function of reheating temperature. Due to the higher stability of the precipitates with increasing Nb concentrations, the grain coarsening temperature that resulted in inefficient grain growth impediment and a bimodal grain distribution in the microstructure, showed an increase with increasing Nb concentration. The respective grain coarsening temperatures (T_GC) in an ascending order for the steels having 0.005 wt% Nb, 0.01 wt% Nb and 0.02 wt% Nb were 950 °C, 1050 °C and 1150 °C. According to these observed grain coarsening temperatures, an approximation was made considering the complete dissolution temperature (T_DISS) of second phase particles as T_GC=T_DISS-300. On the other hand, the plain carbon steel did not show abnormal grain growth behaviour due to the absence of second phase particles. It was also observed that the higher the Nb concentration, the smaller the average prior austenite grain size although the small increments in Nb concenration did not change the average grain size considerably.

Keywords: microalloyed steels, prior austenite grains, second phase particles, grain coarsening temperature

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5710 Assessment of Drought Tolerance Maize Hybrids at Grain Growth Stage in Mediterranean Area

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka


Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a grave threat to cereals production including maize. Maize improvement in drought-stress tolerance poses a great challenge as the global need for food and bio-enegry increases. Thus, the current study was planned to explore the variations and determine the performance of target traits of maize hybrids at grain growth stage under drought conditions during 2014 under Adana, Mediterranean climate conditions, Turkey. Maize hybrids (Sancia, Indaco, 71May69, Aaccel, Calgary, 70May82, 72May80) were evaluated under (irrigated and water stress). Results revealed that, grain yield and yield traits had a negative effects because of water stress conditions compared with the normal irrigation. As well as, based on the result under normal irrigation, the maximum biological yield and harvest index were recorded. According to the differences among hybrids were found that, significant differences were observed among hybrids with respect to yield and yield traits under current research. Based on the results, grain weight had more effect on grain yield than grain number during grain filling growth stage under water stress conditions. In this concern, according to low drought susceptibility index (less grain yield losses), the hybrid (Indaco) was more stable in grain number and grain weight. Consequently, it may be concluded that this hybrid would be recommended for use in the future breeding programs for production of drought tolerant hybrids.

Keywords: drought susceptibility index, grain growth, grain yield, maize, water stress

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5709 Grain Selection in Spiral Grain Selectors during Casting Single-Crystal Turbine Blades

Authors: M. Javahar, H. B. Dong


Single crystal components manufactured using Ni-base Superalloys are routinely used in the hot sections of aero engines and industrial gas turbines due to their outstanding high temperature strength, toughness and resistance to degradation in corrosive and oxidative environments. To control the quality of the single crystal turbine blades, particular attention has been paid to grain selection, which is used to obtain the single crystal morphology from a plethora of columnar grains. For this purpose, different designs of grain selectors are employed and the most common type is the spiral grain selector. A typical spiral grain selector includes a starter block and a spiral (helix) located above. It has been found that the grains with orientation well aligned to the thermal gradient survive in the starter block by competitive grain growth while the selection of the single crystal grain occurs in the spiral part. In the present study, 2D spiral selectors with different geometries were designed and produced using a state-of-the-art Bridgeman Directional Solidification casting furnace to investigate the competitive growth during grain selection in 2d grain selectors. The principal advantage of using a 2-D selector is to facilitate the wax injection process in investment casting by enabling significant degree of automation. The automation within the process can be derived by producing 2D grain selector wax patterns parts using a split die (metal mold model) coupled with wax injection stage. This will not only produce the part with high accuracy but also at an acceptable production rate.

Keywords: grain selector, single crystal, directional solidification, CMSX-4 superalloys, investment casting

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5708 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova


Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

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5707 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: mycorrhizal fungi, salinity, sodium, wheat

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5706 Analysing the Behaviour of Local Hurst Exponent and Lyapunov Exponent for Prediction of Market Crashes

Authors: Shreemoyee Sarkar, Vikhyat Chadha


In this paper, the local fractal properties and chaotic properties of financial time series are investigated by calculating two exponents, the Local Hurst Exponent: LHE and Lyapunov Exponent in a moving time window of a financial series.y. For the purpose of this paper, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DIJA) and S&P 500, two of the major indices of United States have been considered. The behaviour of the above-mentioned exponents prior to some major crashes (1998 and 2008 crashes in S&P 500 and 2002 and 2008 crashes in DIJA) is discussed. Also, the optimal length of the window for obtaining the best possible results is decided. Based on the outcomes of the above, an attempt is made to predict the crashes and accuracy of such an algorithm is decided.

Keywords: local hurst exponent, lyapunov exponent, market crash prediction, time series chaos, time series local fractal properties

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5705 Effect of Heat Treatment on Columnar Grain Growth and Goss Texture on Surface in Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Jungkyun Na, Jaesang Lee, Yang Mo Koo


In this study to find a replacement for expensive secondary recrystallization in GO electrical steel production, effect of heat treatment on the formation of columnar grain and Goss texture is investigated. The composition of the sample is Fe-2.0Si-0.2C. This process involves repeating of cold rolling and decarburization as a replacement for secondary recrystallization. By cold-rolling shear band is made and Goss grain grows from shear band by decarburization. By doing another cold rolling, some Goss texture is newly formed from the shear band, and some Goss texture is retained in microbands. To determine whether additional heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is needed on decarburization process for growth of Goss texture, comparing between decarburization and heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is performed. Also, to find optimum condition for heat treatment, heat treatment with various time and temperature is performed. It was found that increase in the number of cold rolling and heat treatment increases Goss texture. Both high Goss texture and good columnar structure is achieved at 900℃, and this temperature is within a+r phase region. Heat treatment at a temperature higher than a+r phase region caused carbon diffusion and this made layer with Goss grain decrease.

Keywords: electrical steel, Goss texture, columnar structure, normal grain growth

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5704 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina


A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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5703 Effect of Salicylic Acid and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Wheat Growth and Yield

Authors: Omar Ibrahim, Aly A. Gaafar, K. A. Ratib


Two field experiments in micro plots were carried out during the winter seasons of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014, Soil Salinity Laboratory, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of three levels of salicylic acid (SA) as a growth regulator (0, 50, 100 ppm) and three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (75, 100, 125 kg N/feddan) on growth and yield of a spring wheat (Giza 168). The experimental design was a split plot with the main plots in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and four replicates. The results indicated that increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates resulted in insignificant effect on both plant height (cm) and grain weight/spike only. However, a significant effect was observed in all the other studied characters due to the increase in nitrogen fertilizer. On the other hand, increasing salicylic acid rates resulted in insignificant effect in all the studied characters except for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, number of grain/spike, and grain yield (gm/ plot). The highest effects on grain yield in wheat were obtained by the rate of 125 kg/feddan of nitrogen fertilizer and 100 ppm of salicylic acid. In conclusion, the data indicated that a high grain yield could be obtained by adding 100 kg/feddan of nitrogen fertilizer and spraying of 50 ppm of salicylic acid with no significant difference with the highest rates. Finally, the interaction had no significant effect on all the studied characters.

Keywords: growth regulator, nitrogen fertilizer, spring wheat, salicylic acid

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5702 Phosphorus Uptake of Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) Genotypes at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Imren Kutlu, Nurdilek Gulmezoglu


Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Triticale has until now been used mostly for animal feed; however, it can be consumed by humans in the form of biscuits, cookies, and unleavened bread. Moreover, one of the reasons for the development of triticale is that it is more efficient in nutrient deficient soil than wheat cultivars. After nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus (P) is the most used fertilizer for crop production because P fixation occurs highly when it is applied the soil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate P uptake of winter triticale genotypes under different P fertilizer rates in different growth stages. The experiment was conducted in Eskisehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Treatments consisted of five triticale lines and one triticale cultivars (Samursortu) with four rates of P fertilization (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹). Phosphorus uptake of triticale genotypes in tillering, heading, as well as grain and straw at harvest stage and yield of grain and straw were determined. The results showed that a P rate of 60 kg/ha and the TCL-25 genotype produced the highest yields of straw and grain at harvest. Phosphorus uptake was the highest in tillering stage, and it decreased towards to harvest time. Phosphorus uptake of all growth stage increased as P rates raised and the application of 120 kg/ha P₂O₅ had the highest P uptake. Phosphorus uptake of genotypes was found differently. The regression analyses indicated that P uptake at tillering stage was the most effective on grain yield. These results will provide useful information to triticale growers about suitable phosphorus fertilization for both forage and food usage.

Keywords: grain yield, growth stage, phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus uptake, triticale

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5701 Grain Yield, Morpho-Physiological Parameters and Growth Indices of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Varieties Exposed to High Temperature under Late Sown Condition

Authors: Shital Bangar, Chetana Mandavia


A field experiment was carried out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications at Instructional Farm Krushigadh, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, India to assess the biochemical parameters of wheat in order to assess the thermotolerance. Nine different wheat varieties GW 433, GW 431, HI 1571, GW 432, RAJ 3765, HD 2864, HI 1563, HD 3091 and PBW 670 sown in timely and late sown conditions (i.e., 22 Nov and 6 Dec 2012) were analysed. All the varieties differed significantly with respect to grain yield morpho-physiological parameters and growth indices for time of sowing, varieties and varieties x time of sowing interactions. The observations on morpho-physiological parameters viz., germination percentage, canopy temperature depression and growth indices viz., leaf area index (LAI), leaf area ratio (LAR) were recorded. Almost all the morpho-physiological parameters, growth indices and grain yield studied were affected adversely by late sowing, registering reduction in their magnitude. Germination percentage was reduced under late sown condition but variety PBW 670 was the best. Varieties GW 432 performed better with respect to canopy temperature depression while sown late. Under late sown condition, variety GW 431 recorded higher LAI while HI 1563 had maximum LAR. Considering yield performance, HD 2864 was best under timely sown condition, while GW 433 was best under late sown condition. Varieties HI 1571, GW 433 and GW 431 could be labelled as thermo-tolerant because there was least reduction in grain yield under late sown condition (1.75 %, 7.90 % and13.8 % respectively). Considering correlation coefficient, grain yield showed very strong significant positive association with germination percentage. Leaf area ratio was strongly and significantly correlated with grain yield but in negative direction. Canopy temperature depression and leaf area index also had positive correlation with grain yield but were non-significant.

Keywords: growth indices, morpho-physiological parametrs, thermo-tolerance, wheat

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5700 Physical Characterization of SnO₂ Films Prepared by the Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation (RGTO) Method

Authors: A. Kabir, D. Boulainine, I. Bouanane, N. Benslim, B. Boudjema, C. Sedrati


SnO₂ is an n-type semiconductor with a direct gap of about 3.6 eV. It is largely used in several domains such as nanocrystalline photovoltaic cells. Due to its interesting physic-chemical properties, this material was elaborated in thin film forms using different deposition techniques. It was found that SnO₂ properties were directly affected by the deposition method parameters. In this work, the RGTO method (Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation) was used to deposit elaborate SnO₂ thin films. This technique consists on thermal oxidation of the Sn films deposited onto a substrate heated to a temperature close to Sn melting point (232°C). Such process allows the preparation of high porosity tin oxide films which are very suitable for the gas sensing. The films structural, morphological and optical properties pre and post thermal oxidation were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. XRD patterns showed a polycrystalline structure of the cassiterite phase of SnO₂. The grain growth was found affected by the oxidation temperature. This grain size evolution was confronted to existing grain growth models in order to understand the growth mechanism. From SEM images, the as deposited Sn film was formed of difference diameter spherical agglomerations. As a function of the oxidation temperature, these spherical agglomerations shape changed due to the introduction of oxygen ions. The deformed spheres started to interconnect by forming bridges between them. The volume porosity, determined from the UV-Visible reflexion spectra, Changes as a function of the oxidation temperature. The variation of the crystalline fraction, determined from FTIR spectra, correlated with the variation of both the grain size and the volume porosity.

Keywords: tin oxide, RGTO, grain growth, volume porosity, crystalline fraction

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5699 Modelling the Growth of σ-Phase in AISI 347H FG Steel

Authors: Yohanes Chekol Malede


σ-phase has negative effects on the corrosion responses and the mechanical properties of steels. The growth of σ-phase in the austenite matrix of AISI 347H FG steel was simulated using DICTRA software using CALPHAD method. The simulation work included the influence of both volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion. The simulation results showed a good agreement with the experimental findings. The simulation results revealed a Cr-depleted and a Ni-enriched σ-phase/austenite interface. Effects of temperature, grain size, and composition of alloying elements on the growth kinetics of σ-phase were assessed. The simulated results were fitted to the JMAK equation and a good correlation was obtained.

Keywords: AISI 347H FG austenitic steel, CALPHAD, sigma phase, microstructure evolution

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5698 Grain Boundary Detection Based on Superpixel Merges

Authors: Gaokai Liu


The distribution of material grain sizes reflects the strength, fracture, corrosion and other properties, and the grain size can be acquired via the grain boundary. In recent years, the automatic grain boundary detection is widely required instead of complex experimental operations. In this paper, an effective solution is applied to acquire the grain boundary of material images. First, the initial superpixel segmentation result is obtained via a superpixel approach. Then, a region merging method is employed to merge adjacent regions based on certain similarity criterions, the experimental results show that the merging strategy improves the superpixel segmentation result on material datasets.

Keywords: grain boundary detection, image segmentation, material images, region merging

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5697 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee


The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: aluminium, grain size, nitrogen, reheating, sizing strain, steel, vanadium

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5696 Effects of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Ni-17Cr Alloy

Authors: B. J. Babalola, M. B. Shongwe


Spark Plasma Sintering technique is a novel processing method that produces limited grain growth and highly dense variety of materials; alloys, superalloys, and carbides just to mention a few. However, initial particle size and spark plasma sintering parameters are factors which influence the grain growth and mechanical properties of sintered materials. Ni-Cr alloys are regarded as the most promising alloys for aerospace turbine blades, owing to the fact that they meet the basic requirements of desirable mechanical strength at high temperatures and good resistance to oxidation. The conventional method of producing this alloy often results in excessive grain growth and porosity levels that are detrimental to its mechanical properties. The effect of sintering temperature was evaluated on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanostructured Ni-17Cr alloy. Nickel and chromium powder were milled using high energy ball milling independently for 30 hours, milling speed of 400 revs/min and ball to powder ratio (BPR) of 10:1. The milled powders were mixed in the composition of Nickel having 83 wt % and chromium, 17 wt %. This was sintered at varied temperatures from 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C. The structural characteristics such as porosity, grain size, fracture surface and hardness were analyzed by scan electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, Archimedes densitometry, micro-hardness tester. The corresponding results indicated an increase in the densification and hardness property of the alloy as the temperature increases. The residual porosity of the alloy reduces with respect to the sintering temperature and in contrast, the grain size was enhanced. The study of the mechanical properties, including hardness, densification shows that optimum properties were obtained for the sintering temperature of 1100°C. The advantages of high sinterability of Ni-17Cr alloy using milled powders and microstructural details were discussed.

Keywords: densification, grain growth, milling, nanostructured materials, sintering temperature

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5695 Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Winter Wheat under Different Levels of Irrigation

Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Alghamdi


Field experiment were carried out to investigate the effect of the plant growth regulator on vegetative growth and yield components of reduced height isogenic lines of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mercia. The Field experiment compared the growth regulator response of seven isogenic lines of Mercia. Growth regulators reduced plant height significantly in all lines. Growth regulator decreased total dry matter and grain yield with greatest reduction generally for the control and Rht8 lines. Rht1 was the least affected. There were few significant effects of growth regulator on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence but the trend was for greater values with growth regulator. In this field experiment, a rate of 2.0 l ha-1 applied just before the third node detectable stage under non water stressed and water stressed conditions gave slight increases in yield of up to 14% except for line Rht10 which increased significantly in non-stressed conditions. In the second glasshouse experiment, a rate of 2.5 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation under 30% FC and 100% FC gave reductions in yield up to 16% for the growth regulator and 55% under water stress. In the field experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation gave reductions in yield up to 20% mainly through individual seed weight. In the final glasshouse experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at 6 leaves unfolded and 1st node detectable both reduced grain yield.

Keywords: growth regulator, irrigation, isogenic lines, yield, winter wheat

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5694 Optimal Design of Propellant Grain Shape Based on Structural Strength Analysis

Authors: Chen Xiong, Tong Xin, Li Hao, Xu Jin-Sheng


Experiment and simulation researches on the structural integrity of propellant grain in solid rocket motor (SRM) with high volumetric fraction were conducted. First, by using SRM parametric modeling functions with secondary development tool Python of ABAQUS, the three dimensional parameterized modeling programs of star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain were accomplished. Then, the mechanical properties under different loads for star shaped grain were obtained with the application of automatically established finite element model in ABAQUS. Next, several optimization algorithms are introduced to optimize the star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain. After meeting the demands of burning surface changes and volumetric fraction, the optimum three dimensional shapes of grain were obtained. Finally, by means of parametric modeling functions, pressure data of SRM’s cold pressurization test was directly applied to simulation of grain in terms of mechanical performance. The results verify the reliability and practical of parameterized modeling program of SRM.

Keywords: cold pressurization test, ğarametric modeling, structural integrity, propellant grain, SRM

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5693 Assessment of Petrophysical Parameters Using Well Log and Core Data

Authors: Khulud M. Rahuma, Ibrahim B. Younis


Assessment of petrophysical parameters are very essential for reservoir engineer. Three techniques can be used to predict reservoir properties: well logging, well testing, and core analysis. Cementation factor and saturation exponent are very required for calculation, and their values role a great effect on water saturation estimation. In this study a sensitive analysis was performed to investigate the influence of cementation factor and saturation exponent variation applying logs, and core analysis. Measurements of water saturation resulted in a maximum difference around fifteen percent.

Keywords: porosity, cementation factor, saturation exponent, formation factor, water saturation

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5692 Design and Burnback Analysis of Three Dimensional Modified Star Grain

Authors: Almostafa Abdelaziz, Liang Guozhu, Anwer Elsayed


The determination of grain geometry is an important and critical step in the design of solid propellant rocket motor. In this study, the design process involved parametric geometry modeling in CAD, MATLAB coding of performance prediction and 2D star grain ignition experiment. The 2D star grain burnback achieved by creating new surface via each web increment and calculating geometrical properties at each step. The 2D star grain is further modified to burn as a tapered 3D star grain. Zero dimensional method used to calculate the internal ballistic performance. Experimental and theoretical results were compared in order to validate the performance prediction of the solid rocket motor. The results show that the usage of 3D grain geometry will decrease the pressure inside the combustion chamber and enhance the volumetric loading ratio.

Keywords: burnback analysis, rocket motor, star grain, three dimensional grains

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5691 Effect of Drought Stress on Yield and Yield Components of Maize Cultivars in Golestan Province

Authors: Mojtaba Esmaeilzad Limoudehi, Ebrahim Amiri


Water scarcity is now one of the leading challenges for human societies. In this regard, recognizing the relationship between soil, water, plant growth, and plant response to stress is very significant. In this paper, considering the importance of drought stress and the role of choosing suitable cultivars in resistance against drought, a split-plot experiment using early, intermediate, and late-maturing cultivars was carried out in Katul filed, Golestan province during two cultivation years of 2015 and 2016. The main factor was irrigation intervals at four levels, including 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. The subfactor was the subplot of six maize cultivars (two early maturing cultivars, two medium maturing cultivars, and two late-maturing cultivars). The results of variance analysis have revealed that irrigation interval and cultivars treatment have significant effects on the number of grain in each corn, number of rows in each corn, number of grain per row, the weight of 1000 grains, grain yield, and biomass yield. Although, the interaction of these two factors on the mentioned attributes was meaningful. The best grain yield was achieved at 7 days irrigation interval and late maturing maize cultivars treatment, which was equal to 12301 kg/ha.

Keywords: corn, growth period, optimization, stress

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5690 Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karbalaei Aghamolki, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Fateh Chand Oad, Hamed Zakikhani, Hawa Zee Jaafar, Sharifh Kharidah, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Shahram Soltani


The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were: growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted at 38oC+2 (day) and 22oC+2 (night) for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashsemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr receiving heat stress during booting stage. In all growing conditions and growth stages, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion and flag leaf length. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield slightly decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. Similar results were found in all other exotic cultivars recording to lower grain yield in the heat stress condition during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Keywords: rice, growth, heat, temperature, stress, morphology, yield

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5689 Factors Affecting Special Core Analysis Resistivity Parameters

Authors: Hassan Sbiga


Laboratory measurements methods were undertaken on core samples selected from three different fields (A, B, and C) from the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the central graben reservoirs in Libya. These measurements were conducted in order to determine the factors which affect resistivity parameters, and to investigate the effect of rock heterogeneity and wettability on these parameters. This included determining the saturation exponent (n) in the laboratory at two stages. The first stage was before wettability measurements were conducted on the samples, and the second stage was after the wettability measurements in order to find any effect on the saturation exponent. Another objective of this work was to quantify experimentally pores and porosity types (macro- and micro-porosity), which have an affect on the electrical properties, by integrating capillary pressure curves with other routine and special core analysis. These experiments were made for the first time to obtain a relation between pore size distribution and saturation exponent n. Changes were observed in the formation resistivity factor and cementation exponent due to ambient conditions and changes of overburden pressure. The cementation exponent also decreased from GHE-5 to GHE-8. Changes were also observed in the saturation exponent (n) and water saturation (Sw) before and after wettability measurement. Samples with an oil-wet tendency have higher irreducible brine saturation and higher Archie saturation exponent values than samples with an uniform water-wet surface. The experimental results indicate that there is a good relation between resistivity and pore type depending on the pore size. When oil begins to penetrate micro-pore systems in measurements of resistivity index versus brine saturation (after wettability measurement), a significant change in slope of the resistivity index relationship occurs.

Keywords: part of thesis, cementation, wettability, resistivity

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5688 Effects of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at Different Spacing and Weeding Regimes on Crops Productivity

Authors: Oluseun S. Oyelakin, Olalekan W. Olaniyi


A field experiment was conducted at Ido town in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at different spacing and weeding regimes on crops productivity. The treatments were 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving two spatial crop arrangements. Spacing of 75 cm x 50 cm and 90 cm x 42 cm (41.667 cm) with two plants per stand resulted in plant population of approximately 53,000 plants/hectare. Also, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two cropping patterns (sole and intercrop), three weeding regimes (weedy check, weeds once, and weed twice) with three replicates was used. Data were analyzed with SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and statistical means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05). Intercropping and crop spacing did not have significant influence on the growth parameters and yield parameters. The maize grain yield of 1.11 t/ha obtained under sole maize was comparable to 1.05 t/ha from maize/jack beans. Weeding regime significantly influenced growth and yields of maize in intercropping with Jack beans. Weeding twice resulted in significantly higher growth than that of the other weeding regimes. Plant height at 6 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) under weeding twice regime (3 and 6 WAS) was 83.9 cm which was significantly different from 67.75 cm and 53.47 cm for weeding once (3 WAS) and no weeding regimes respectively. Moreover, maize grain yield of 1.3 t/ha obtained from plots weeded twice was comparable to that of 1.23 t/ha from single weeding and both were significantly higher than 0.71 t/ha maize grain yield obtained from the no weeding control. The dry matter production of Jack beans reduced at some growth stages due to intercropping of maize with Jack beans though with no significance effect on the other growth parameters of the crop. There was no effect on the growth parameters of Jack beans in maize/jack beans intercrop based on cropping spacing while comparable growth and dry matter production in Jack beans were produced in maize/Jack beans mixture with single weeding.

Keywords: crop spacing, intercropping, growth parameter, weeding regime, sole cropping, WAS, week after sowing

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5687 Some Yield Parameters of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Hatem Jasim, Ali R. Abas, Dheya P. Yousef


To study the effect of the cross direction in bead wheat, three hybrid combinations (Babyle 113 , Iratome), (Sawa , Tamose2) and (Al Hashymya Al Iraq) were tested for plant height, number of tillers/m, number of grains per spike, weight of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. The results revealed that the direction of the cross had significant effect the number of grain/spike, tillers/m and grain yields. Grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and tillers. Depend on the result of heritability and genetic advance it was suggested that 1000-grain weight number of grains per spike and tillers should be given emphasis for future wheat yield improvement programs.

Keywords: correlation, genetic advance, heritability, wheat, yield traits

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5686 Hydro-Mechanical Forming of AZ31 Sheet

Authors: Yong-Nam Kwon


In the present study, we have designed the hydro-mechanical forming in which AZ31 sheet was drawn to a kind of preform step following gas blow forming for accurate geometry. In order to judge a formability enhancement of AZ31 sheet, model geometry came from a practical automotive part which had quite depth with complicated curvatures, which was proven that a single sheet forming could not gave a successful part. Experimentally, we succeeded to make the model part with accurate dimension. The optimum forming conditions for respective forming steps were considered most important technical features of this hydro-mechanical and would be discussed in details. Also, the effort to avoid detrimental abnormal grain growth was given and discussed for a practical application.

Keywords: hydro-mechanical forming, AZ31, abnormal grain growth, model geometry

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