Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: ductility

207 Influence of Slenderness Ratio on the Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Portal Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Nekmouche Aghiles, Titouche Billal, Hamizi Mohand, Hannachi Naceur Eddine


The ductility is an important parameter in the nonlinear behavior of portal structures reinforced concrete. It may be explained by the ability of the structure to deform in the plastic range, or the geometric characteristics in the map may influence the overall ductility. Our study is based on the influence of geometric slenderness (Lx / Ly) on the overall ductility of these structures, a study is made on a structure has 05 floors with varying the column section of 900 cm², 1600 cm² and 1225 cm². A slight variation in global ductility is noticed as (Lx/Ly) varies; however, column sections can control satisfactorily the plastic behavior of buildings.

Keywords: ductility, nonlinear behavior, pushover analysis, geometric slenderness, structural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
206 Experimental Research on Ductility of Regional Confined Concrete Beam

Authors: Qinggui Wu, Xinming Cao, Guyue Guo, Jiajun Ding


In efforts to study the shear ductility of regional confined concrete beam, 5 reinforced concrete beams were tested to examine its shear performance. These beams has the same shear span ratio, concrete strength, different ratios of tension reinforcement and shapes of stirrup. The purpose of the test is studying the effects of stirrup shape and tension reinforcement ratio on failure mode and shear ductility. The test shows that the regional confined part can be used as an independent part and the rest of the beam is good to work together so that the ductility of the beam is more one time higher than that of the normal confined concrete beam. The related laws of the effect of tension reinforcement ratio and stirrup shapes on beam’s shear ductility are founded.

Keywords: ratio of tension reinforcement, stirrup shapes, shear ductility, failure mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
205 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
204 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi


If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
203 Ductility Reduction Factors for Displacement Spectra Corresponding to Soft Soil Zone of the Valley of Mexico

Authors: Noé D. Lazos-Gallardo, Sonia E. Ruiz, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran


A simplified mathematical expression to estimate ductility reduction factors of the displacement spectra corresponding to the soft soil zone of Mexico City is proposed. The aim is to allow a better characterization of the displacement spectra and provide a simple expression to be used in displacement based design (DBD). Emphasis is on the Mexico City Building Code. The study is based on the analysis of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with elasto-plastic hysteretic behavior. Several seismic ground motions corresponding to subduction events with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6 and recorded in different stations of Mexico City are used. The proposed expression involves the ratio of elastic and inelastic pseudo-aceleration spectra, and depends on factors such the ductility demand and the vibration period of the structural system. The resulting ductility reduction factors obtained in this study are compared with others existing in the literature, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: displacement based design, displacements spectrum, ductility reduction factors, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
202 Ductility Spectrum Method for the Design and Verification of Structures

Authors: B. Chikh, L. Moussa, H. Bechtoula, Y. Mehani, A. Zerzour


This study presents a new method, applicable to evaluation and design of structures has been developed and illustrated by comparison with the capacity spectrum method (CSM, ATC-40). This method uses inelastic spectra and gives peak responses consistent with those obtained when using the nonlinear time history analysis. Hereafter, the seismic demands assessment method is called in this paper DSM, Ductility Spectrum Method. It is used to estimate the seismic deformation of Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) systems based on DDRS, Ductility Demand Response Spectrum, developed by the author.

Keywords: seismic demand, capacity, inelastic spectra, design and structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
201 Reliability-Based Ductility Seismic Spectra of Structures with Tilting

Authors: Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Juan Bojorquez


A reliability-based methodology which uses structural demand hazard curves to consider the increment of the ductility demands of structures with tilting is proposed. The approach considers the effect of two orthogonal components of the ground motions as well as the influence of soil-structure interaction. The approach involves the calculation of ductility demand hazard curves for symmetric systems and, alternatively, for systems with different degrees of asymmetry. To get this objective, demand hazard curves corresponding to different global ductility demands of the systems are calculated. Next, Uniform Exceedance Rate Spectra (UERS) are developed for a specific mean annual rate of exceedance value. Ratios between UERS corresponding to asymmetric and to symmetric systems located in soft soil of the valley of Mexico are obtained. Results indicate that the ductility demands corresponding to tilted structures may be several times higher than those corresponding to symmetric structures, depending on several factors such as tilting angle and vibration period of structure and soil.

Keywords: asymmetric yielding, seismic performance, structural reliability, tilted structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
200 Seismic Performance of Micropiles in Sand with Predrilled Oversized Holes

Authors: Cui Fu, Yi-Zhou Zhuang, Sheng-Zhi Wang


Full scale tests of six micropiles with different predrilled-hole parameters under low frequency cyclic lateral loading in-sand were carried out using the MTS hydraulic loading system to analyze the seismic performance of micropiles. Hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of micropiles were investigated. The experimental results show the hysteresis curves appear like plump bows in the elastic–plastic stage and failure stage which exhibit good hysteretic characteristics without pinching phenomena and good energy dissipating capacities. The ductility coefficient varies from 2.51 to 3.54 and the depth and loose backfill of oversized holes can improve ductility, but the diameter of predrilled-hole has a limited effect on enhancing its ductility. These findings and conclusions could make contribution to the practical application of the semi-integral abutment bridges and provide a reference for the predrilled oversized hole technology in integral abutment bridges.

Keywords: ductility, energy dissipation capacity, micropile with predrilled oversized hole, seismic performance, semi-integral abutment bridge

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
199 The Creep and Fracture Behavior of Additively Manufactured Inconel 625

Authors: Michael Kassner


Elevated-temperature creep tests were performed on additively manufactured (AM) Inconel 625 over a relatively wide range of stress. The behavior was compared to conventional wrought alloy. It was found that the steady-state creep rates of the AM alloys were comparable, or even more favorable, than that of the wrought Inconel. However, the ductility of the AM alloy was significantly less than the wrought alloy. The ductility however was recovered with hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of the AM specimens. The basis for the loss and recovery of the ductility will be discussed in terms of the differences in the details of the microstructures. In summary, it appears that HIP AM Inconel 625, over the long-term testing of a year, has very favorable mechanical properties compared to the conventional alloy.

Keywords: Inconel, creep, additive, manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
198 Seismic Retrofit of Rectangular Columns Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: E. L. Elghazy, A. M. Sanad, M. G. Ghoneim


Over the past two decades research has shown that fiber reinforced polymers can be efficiently, economically and safely used for strengthening and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Designing FRP confined concrete columns requires reliable analytical tools that predict the level of performance and ductility enhancement. A numerical procedure is developed aiming at determining the type and thickness of FRP jacket needed to achieve a certain level of ductility enhancement. The procedure starts with defining the stress strain curve, which is used to obtain moment curvature relationship then displacement ductility ratio of reinforced concrete cross-sections subjected to bending moment and axial force. Three sets of published experimental tests were used to validate the numerical procedure. Comparisons between predicted results obtained by using the proposed procedure and actual results of experimental tests proved the reliability of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: columns, confinement, ductility, FRP, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
197 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan


The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
196 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally


This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
195 An Experimental Analysis of Squeeze Casting Parameters for 2017 a Wrought Al Alloy

Authors: Mohamed Ben Amar, Najib Souissi, Chedly Bradai


A Taguchi design investigation has been made into the relationship between the ductility and process variables in a squeeze cast 2017A wrought aluminium alloy. The considered process parameters were: squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die preheating temperature. An orthogonal array (OA), main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to analyze the effect of casting parameters. The results have shown that the selected parameters significantly affect the ductility of 2017A wrought Al alloy castings. Optimal squeeze cast process parameters were provided to illustrate the proposed approach and the results were proven to be trustworthy through practical experiments.

Keywords: Taguchi method, squeeze casting, process parameters, ductility, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
194 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin


The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
193 Experimental Study on Single Bay RC Frame Designed Using EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, M. S. Syaref, M. I. Adiyanto, M. Mohamed


A one-half scale of single-bay two-storey RC frame together with foundation beam and mass concrete block is investigated. Moment resisting RC frame was designed using EC8 by including the provision for seismic loading and detailing of its connection. The objective of the experimental work is to determine seismic behaviour RC frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading using displacement control method. A double actuator is placed at centre of the mass concrete block at top of frame to represent the seismic load. The percentage drifts are starting from ±0.01% until ±2.25% with increment of ±0.25% drift. The ultimate lateral load of 158.48 kN was recorded at +2.25% drift in pushing and -126.09 kN in pulling direction. From the experimental hysteresis loops, the parameters such as lateral strength capacity, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping can be obtained. RC frame behaves in the elastic manner followed by inelastic behaviour after reaches the yield limit. The ductility value for this type frame is 4 which lies between the limit 3 and 6. Therefore, it is recommended to build this RC frame for moderate seismic regions under Ductility Class Medium (DCM) such as in Sabah, East Malaysia.

Keywords: single bay, moment resisting RC frame, ductility class medium, inelastic behavior, seismic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
192 Behavior of Oil Palm Shell Reinforced Concrete Beams Added with Kenaf Fibres

Authors: Sharifah M. Syed Mohsin, Sayid J. Azimi, Abdoullah Namdar


The present article reports the findings of a study into the behavior of oil palm shell reinforced concrete (OPSRC) beams with the addition of kenaf fibres. The work aim is to examine the potential of using kenaf fibres to improve the strength and ductility of the OPSRC beams and also observe its potential in serving as part of shear reinforcement in the beams. Two different arrangements of the shear links in OPSRC beams with a selection of kenaf fibres (amount of [10kg/m] ^3 and [20kg/m] ^3) content are tested under monotonic loading. In the first arrangement, the kenaf fibres are added to the beam which has full shear reinforcement to study the structural behavior of OPSRC beams with fibres. In the second arrangement, the spacing between the shear links in the OPSRC beams are increased by 50% and experimental work is carried out to study the effect of kenaf fibres without compromising the beams strength and ductility. The results show that the addition of kenaf fibres enhanced the load carrying capacity, ductility and also altered the failure mode of the beams from a brittle shear mode to a flexural ductile one. Furthermore, the study depicts that kenaf fibres are compatible with OPSRC and suggest prospective results.

Keywords: oil palm shell reinforced concrete, kenaf fibres, peak strength, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
191 Development of A MG-Gd-Er-Zn-Zr Alloy with Ultrahigh Strength and Ductility via Extrusion, Pre-Deformation, and Two-Stage Aging

Authors: Linyue Jia, Wenbo Du, Zhaohui Wang, Ke Liu, Shubo Li


Due to the great potential for weight reduction in aerospace and automotive industries, magnesium-rare earth (Mg-RE) based alloys with outstanding mechanical performance have been widely investigated for decades. However, magnesium alloys are still restricted in engineering applications because of their lower strength and ductility. Hence, there are large spaces and challenges in achieving high-performance Mg alloys. This work reports an Mg-Gd-Er-Zn-Zr alloy with ultrahigh strength and good ductility developed via hot extrusion, pre-deformation, and two-stage aging. The extruded alloy comprises fine dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grains and coarse worked grains with a large aspect ratio. Pre-deformation has little effect on the microstructure and macro-texture and serves primarily to introduce a large number of dislocations, resulting in strain hardening and higher precipitation strengthening during subsequent aging due to more nucleation sites. As a result, the alloy exhibits a yield strength (YS) of 506 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 549 MPa, and elongation (EL) of 8.2% at room temperature, showing superior strength-ductility balance than the other wrought Mg-RE alloys previously reported. The current study proposes a combination of pre-deformation and two-stage aging to further improve the mechanical properties of wrought Mg alloys for engineering applications.

Keywords: magnesium alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure, pre-deformation, two-stage aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
190 Experimental Studies on Prestressed Precast Concrete Bridge Piers

Authors: C. Shim, C. Koem, S. Park, S. Lee


This paper deals with experimental studies on pre stressed precast concrete columns with continuous reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons. Design requirements on minimum transverse reinforcement ratio are not included in current design codes. Pre stressing introduces additional compression to the column. Precast columns with different transverse reinforcement ratios were tested to derive adequate design requirement. Displacement ductility of the pre stressed precast columns was evaluated and compared with previous studies. Design of axial steels including reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons influenced on the seismic performance. Without significant increase of transverse reinforcement ratio, the specimens showed required displacement ductility without reduction of their flexural strength. Design recommendations for precast bridge piers were derived.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flexural strength, prestressed precast column, transverse reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
189 Full Analytical Procedure to Derive P-I Diagram of a Steel Beam under Blast Loading

Authors: L. Hamra, J. F. Demonceau, V. Denoël


The aim of this paper is to study a beam extracted from a frame and subjected to blast loading. The demand of ductility depends on six dimensionless parameters: two related to the blast loading, two referring to the bending behavior of the beam and two corresponding to the dynamic behavior of the rest of the structure. We develop a full analytical procedure that provides the ductility demand as a function of these six dimensionless parameters.

Keywords: analytical procedure, blast loading, membrane force, P-I diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
188 Effect of Site Amplification on Seismic Safety Evaluation of Flyover Pier

Authors: Mohammad Raihan Mukhlis, M. Abdur Rahman Bhuiyan


Bangladesh is a developing country in which a lot of multi-span simply/continuous supported flyovers are being constructed in its major cities. Being situated in a seismically active region, seismic safety evaluation of flyovers is essential for seismic risk reduction. Effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of flyover piers are the main concern of this study. In this regard, failure mode, lateral strength and displacement ductility of piers of a typical multi-span simply supported flyover have been evaluated by Japan Road Association (JRA) recommended guidelines, with and without considering site amplification. Ultimate flexural strengths of piers have been computed using the pushover analysis results. Shear capacity of piers has been calculated using the guidelines of JRA. Lateral strengths have been determined depending on the failure modes of the piers. Displacement ductility of piers has been computed using yield and ultimate displacements of the piers obtained from the pushover analysis results. Selected earthquake time history is used in seismic safety evaluation of the flyover piers. Finally, the ductility design method is used to conduct the seismic safety evaluation of the piers with and without considering site amplification. From the numerical results, it has been revealed that the effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of bridge structures should be carefully taken into account.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flyover pier, lateral strength, safety evaluation, site amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
187 The Flexural Improvement of RC Beams Using an Inserted Plate between Concrete and FRP Bonding Surface

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon, Bu Seog Ju


The primary objective of this research is to improve the flexural capacity of FRP strengthened RC Beam structures with Aluminum and Titanium laminates. FRP rupture of flexural strengthened RC beams using FRP plates generally occurs at the interface between FRP plate and the beam. Therefore, in order to prevent brittle rupture and improve the ductility of the system, this research was performed by using Aluminum and Titanium materials between the two different structural systems. The research also aims to provide various strengthening/retrofitting methods for RC beam structures and to conduct a preliminary analysis of the demands on the structural systems. This was achieved by estimation using the experimental data from this research to identify a flexural capacity for the systems. Ultimately, the preliminary analysis of current study showed that the flexural capacity and system demand ductility was significantly improved by the systems inserted with Aluminum and Titanium anchor plates. Further verification of the experimental research is currently on its way to develop a new or reliable design guideline to retrofit/strengthen the concrete-FRP structural system can be evaluated.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, FRP laminate, flexural capacity, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
186 Seismic Response of Structures of Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Regular and Irregular Configurations

Authors: Abdelhammid Chibane


Often, for architectural reasons or designs, several buildings have a non-uniform profile in elevation. Depending on the configuration of the construction and the arrangements structural elements, the non-uniform profile in elevation (the recess) is considered concept of a combination of non-uniform distributions of strength, stiffness, weight and geometry along the height of irregular structures. Therefore, this type of configuration can induce irregular distribution load causing a serious concentration stresses at the discontinuity. This therefore requires a serious behavioral treatment buildings in an earthquake. If appropriate measures are not taken into account, structural irregularity may become a major source of damage during earthquakesEarth. In the past, several research investigations have identified differences in dynamic response of irregular and regular porches. Among the most notable differences are the increments of displacements and ductility applications in floors located above the level of the shoulder and an increase in the contribution of the higher modes cisaillement1 efforts, ..., 10. The para -ssismiques codes recommend the methods of analysis Dynamic (or modal history) to establish the forces of calculation instead of the static method equivalent, which is basically applicable only to regular structures without major discontinuities in the mass, rigidity and strength along the height 11, 12 .To investigate the effects of irregular profiles on the structures, the main objective of this study was the assessment of the inelastic response, in terms of applications of ductility four types of non-uniform multi-stage structures subjected to relatively severe earthquakes. In the This study, only the parallel responses are analyzed setback.

Keywords: buildings, concentration stresses, ductility, ductility, designs, irregular structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
185 Seismic Performance of Two-Storey RC Frame Designed EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, A. Azmi, M. I. Adiyanto


This main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the seismic performance of double bay two-storey reinforced concrete frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading which designed using Eurocode 8 (EC8) by taking into account of seismic loading. The prototype model of reinforced concrete frame was constructed in one-half scale tested under in-plane lateral cyclic loading starts with ±0.2% drift, ±0.25% up to ±3.0% drift with the increment of ±0.25%. The performance of the RC frame is evaluated in terms of the hysteresis loop (load vs. displacement), stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, stress-strain relationship and equivalent viscous damping. Visual observation of the crack pattern after testing were observed where the beam- column joint suffer the most severe damage as it is the critical part in moment resisting frame. Spalling of concrete starts occurred at ±2.0% drift and become worse at ±2.5% drift. The experimental result shows that the maximum lateral strength of specimen is 99.98 kN and ductility of the specimen is µ=4.07 which lies between 3≤µ≤6 in order to withstand moderate to severe earthquakes.

Keywords: ductility, equivalent viscous damping, hysteresis loops, lateral strength, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
184 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu


In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
183 Use of PET Fibers for Enhancing the Ductility of Exterior RC Beam-Column Connections Subjected to Reversed Cyclic Loading

Authors: Comingstarful Marthong, Shembiang Marthong


Application of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber for enhancing the seismic performance of exterior RC beam-column connections in substitution of steel fibers is experimentally investigated. The study involves the addition of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber-reinforced concrete, i.e., PFRC at the joint region of the connection. The PET fiber of 0.5% volume fraction used in the PFRC mix is obtained by hand cutting of post-consumer PET bottles. Specimens design as per relevant codes was casted and tested to reverse cyclic loading. PFRC specimen was also casted and subjected to similar loading sequence. Test results established that addition of PET fibers in the joint region is effective in enhancing the displacement ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The improvement of damage indices and principal tensile stresses of PFRC specimens gave experimental evidence of the suitability of PET fibers as a discrete reinforcement in the substitution of steel fiber for structural use.

Keywords: beam-column connections, polyethylene terephthalate fibers reinforced concrete, joint region, ductility, seismic capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
182 Elastic and Thermal Behaviour of LaX (X= Cd, Hg) Intermetallics: A DFT Study

Authors: Gitanjali Pagare, Hansa Devi, S. P. Sanyal


Full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method has been employed within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local spin density approximation (LSDA) as the exchange correlation potential to investigate elastic properties of LaX (X = Cd and Hg) in their B2-type (CsCl) crystal structure. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and pressure derivative of bulk modulus (B') agree well with the available experimental results. The second order elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) have been calculated. The ductility or brittleness of these intermetallic compounds is predicted by using Pugh’s rule B/GH and Cauchy’s pressure (C12-C44). The calculated results indicate that LaHg is the ductile whereas LaCd is brittle in nature.

Keywords: ductility/brittleness, elastic constants, equation of states, FP-LAPW method, intermetallics

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
181 Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. A. Anuar, N. H. Hamid, M. H. Hashim, S. M. D. Salleh


This paper present the experimental work on the seismic performance of double unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested at ±0.01%, ±0.1%, ±0.25%, ±0.5%, ±0.75% and ±1.0% drifts until the structure achieves its strength degradation. After that, the TFB is repaired and retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet. A similar testing approach is applied to the specimen after repair and retrofit. The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength increases by 22 in pushing direction and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover, the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double unit TFB.

Keywords: tunnel form building, in-plane lateral cyclic loading, crack pattern, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility, equivalent viscous damping, repair and retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
180 Investigation of Overstrength of Dual System by Non-Linear Static and Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Nina Øystad-Larsen, Miran Cemalovic, Amir M. Kaynia


The nonlinear static and dynamic analysis procedures presented in EN 1998-1 for the structural response of a RC wall-frame building are assessed. The structure is designed according to the guidelines for high ductility (DCH) in 1998-1. The finite element packages SeismoStruct and OpenSees are utilized and evaluated. The structural response remains nearly in the elastic range even though the building was designed for high ductility. The overstrength is a result of oversized and heavily reinforced members, with emphasis on the lower storey walls. Nonlinear response history analysis in the software packages give virtually identical results for displacements.

Keywords: behaviour factor, dual system, OpenSEES, overstrength, seismostruct

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
179 Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Chromium Alloyed Low Carbon Steel

Authors: L. Kučerová, M. Bystrianský, V. Kotěšovec


Thermo-mechanical processing with various processing parameters was applied to 0.2%C-0.6%Mn-2S%i-0.8%Cr low alloyed high strength steel. The aim of the processing was to achieve the microstructures typical for transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. Thermo-mechanical processing used in this work incorporated two or three deformation steps. The deformations were in all the cases carried out during the cooling from soaking temperatures to various bainite hold temperatures. In this way, 4-10% of retained austenite were retained in the final microstructures, consisting further of ferrite, bainite, martensite and pearlite. The complex character of TRIP steel microstructure is responsible for its good strength and ductility. The strengths achieved in this work were in the range of 740 MPa – 836 MPa with ductility A5mm of 31-41%.

Keywords: pearlite, retained austenite, thermo-mechanical treatment, TRIP steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
178 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: A. Siva, K. Bala Subramanian, Kinson Prabu


Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: cyclic loading, ductility, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, structural integrity

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