Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: quinoline

15 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Some Quinoline Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: M. Ouassaf, S. Belaid

Abstract:

A series of quinoline derivatives with antimalarial activity were subjected to two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) studies. Three models were implemented using multiple regression linear MLR, a regression partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear regression (MNLR), to see which descriptors are closely related to the activity biologic. We relied on a principal component analysis (PCA). Based on our results, a comparison of the quality of, MLR, PLS, and MNLR models shows that the MNLR (R = 0.914 and R² = 0.835, RCV= 0.853) models have substantially better predictive capability because the MNLR approach gives better results than MLR (R = 0.835 and R² = 0,752, RCV=0.601)), PLS (R = 0.742 and R² = 0.552, RCV=0.550) The model of MNLR gave statistically significant results and showed good stability to data variation in leave-one-out cross-validation. The obtained results suggested that our proposed model MNLR may be useful to predict the biological activity of derivatives of quinoline.

Keywords: antimalarial, quinoline, QSAR, PCA, MLR , MNLR, MLR

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14 Synthesis and Pharmaco-Potential Evaluation of Quinoline Hybrids

Authors: Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh

Abstract:

The global threat of pathogenic resistance to available therapeutic agents has become a menace to clinical practice, public health and man’s existence inconsequential. This has therefore led to an exigency in the development of new molecular scaffolds with profound activity profiles. In this vein, a versatile synthetic tool for accessing new molecules by incorporating two or more pharmacophores into a single entity with the unique ability to be recognized by multiple receptors hence leading to an improved bioactivity, known as molecular hybridization, has been explored with tremendous success. Accordingly, aware of the similarity in pharmacological activity spectrum of quinoline and 1,2,3-triazole pharmacophores such as; anti-Alzheimer, anticancer, anti-HIV, antimalarial and antimicrobial to mention but a few, the present study sets out to synthesize hybrids of quinoline and 1,2,3-triazole. The hybrids were accessed via click chemistry using copper catalysed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their pharmaco-potential in an antimicrobial assay out of which the 3-OH derivative emerged as the most active with MIC value of 4 μg/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans; a value superior to standard Fluconazole and comparable to Amphotericin B. Structures of synthesized hybrids were elucidated using appropriate spectroscopic techniques (1H, 13C and 2D NMR, FT-IR and HRMS).

Keywords: bioisostere, click chemistry, molecular hybridization, quinoline, 1, 2, 3-triazole

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13 Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticles: Sensing Properties and Cytotoxicity Studies in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Cristina Núñez, Rufina Bastida, Elena Labisbal, Alejandro Macías, María T. Pereira, José M. Vila

Abstract:

A highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor L was designed in order to functionalize gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The cytotoxicity of compound L and [email protected] on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells was explored and it was observed that L and [email protected] compounds induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cancer cells. The cellular uptake of the hybrid system [email protected] was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, fluorescent probes, nanoparticles, quinoline

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12 Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Ionic Liquid in Combinatorial Approach: A Recyclable and Water Tolerant-Acidic Catalyst for Friedlander Quinoline Synthesis

Authors: Jafar Akbari

Abstract:

Quinolines are very important compounds partially because of their pharmacological properties which include wide applications in medicinal chemistry. notable among them are antimalarial drugs, anti-inflammatory agents, antiasthamatic, antibacterial, antihypertensive, and tyrosine kinase inhibiting agents. Despite quinoline usage in pharmaceutical and other industries, comparatively few methods for their preparation have been reported.The Friedlander annulation is one of the simplest and most straightforward methods for the synthesis of poly substituted quinolines. Although, modified methods employing lewis or br¢nsted acids have been reported for the synthesis of quinolines, the development of water stable acidic catalyst for quinoline synthesis is quite desirable. One of the most remarkable features of ionic liquids is that the yields can be optimized by changing the anions or the cations. Recently, sulfonic acid functionalized ionic liquids were used as solvent-catalyst for several organic reactions. We herein report the one pot domino approach for the synthesis of quinoline derivatives in Friedlander manner using TSIL as a catalyst. These ILs are miscible in water, and their homogeneous system is readily separated from the reaction product, combining advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. In this reaction, the catalyst plays a dual role; it ensures an effective condensation and cyclization of 2-aminoaryl ketone with second carbonyl group and it also promotes the aromatization to the final product. Various types of quinolines from 2-aminoaryl ketones and β-ketoesters/ketones were prepared in 85-98% yields using the catalytic system of SO3-H functionalized ionic liquid/H2O. More importantly, the catalyst could be easily recycled for five times without loss of much activity.

Keywords: antimalarial drugs, green chemistry, ionic liquid, quinolines

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11 In silico Designing and Insight into Antimalarial Potential of Chalcone-Quinolinylpyrazole Hybrids by Preclinical Study in Mice

Authors: Deepika Saini, Sandeep Jain, Ajay Kumar

Abstract:

The quinoline scaffold is one of the most widely studied in the discovery of derivatives with various heterocyclic moieties due to its potential antimalarial activities. In the present study, a chalcone series of quinoline derivatives clubbed with pyrazole were synthesized to evaluate their antimalarial property by in vitro schizont maturation inhibition assay against both chloroquine sensitive, 3D7 and chloroquine resistant, RKL9 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Further, top five compounds were studied for in vivo preclinical study for antimalarial potential against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice. To understand the mechanism of synthesized analogues, they were screened computationally by molecular docking techniques. Compounds were docked into the active site of a protein receptor, Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine Protease Falcipain-2. The compounds were successfully synthesized, and structural confirmation was performed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In vitro study suggested that the compounds 5b, 5g, 5l, 5s and 5u possessed best antimalarial activity and further tested for in vivo screening. Compound 5u (CH₃ on both rings) with EC₅₀ 0.313 & 0.801 µg/ml against CQ-S & CQ-R strains of P. falciparum respectively and 78.01% suppression of parasitemia. The molecular docking studies of the compounds helped in understanding the mechanism of action against falcipain-2. The present study reveals the binding signatures of the synthesized ligands within the active site of the protein, and it explains the results from in vitro study in their EC₅₀ values and percentage parasitemia.

Keywords: antimalarial activity, chalcone, docking, quinoline

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10 Photocatalytic Packed‐Bed Flow Reactor for Continuous Room‐Temperature Hydrogen Release from Liquid Organic Carriers

Authors: Malek Y. S. Ibrahim, Jeffrey A. Bennett, Milad Abolhasani

Abstract:

Despite the potential of hydrogen (H2) storage in liquid organic carriers to achieve carbon neutrality, the energy required for H2 release and the cost of catalyst recycling has hindered its large-scale adoption. In response, a photo flow reactor packed with rhodium (Rh)/titania (TiO2) photocatalyst was reported for the continuous and selective acceptorless dehydrogenation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline to H2 gas and quinoline under visible light irradiation at room temperature. The tradeoff between the reactor pressure drop and its photocatalytic surface area was resolved by selective in-situ photodeposition of Rh in the photo flow reactor post-packing on the outer surface of the TiO2 microparticles available to photon flux, thereby reducing the optimal Rh loading by 10 times compared to a batch reactor, while facilitating catalyst reuse and regeneration. An example of using quinoline as a hydrogen acceptor to lower the energy of the hydrogen production step was demonstrated via the water-gas shift reaction.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, flow chemistry, photocatalysis, solar hydrogen

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9 Synthesis of Functionalized-2-Aryl-2, 3-Dihydroquinoline-4(1H)-Ones via Fries Rearrangement of Azetidin-2-Ones

Authors: Parvesh Singh, Vipan Kumar, Vishu Mehra

Abstract:

Quinoline-4-ones represent an important class of heterocyclic scaffolds that have attracted significant interest due to their various biological and pharmacological activities. This heterocyclic unit also constitutes an integral component in drugs used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders and in antibiotics viz. norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The synthetic accessibility and possibility of fictionalization at varied positions in quinoline-4-ones exemplifies an elegant platform for the designing of combinatorial libraries of functionally enriched scaffolds with a range of pharmacological profles. They are also considered to be attractive precursors for the synthesis of medicinally imperative molecules such as non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists, antimalarial drug Chloroquine and martinellines with antibacterial activity. 2-Aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones are present in many natural and non-natural compounds and are considered to be the aza-analogs of favanones. The β-lactam class of antibiotics is generally recognized to be a cornerstone of human health care due to the unparalleled clinical efficacy and safety of this type of antibacterial compound. In addition to their biological relevance as potential antibiotics, β-lactams have also acquired a prominent place in organic chemistry as synthons and provide highly efficient routes to a variety of non-protein amino acids, such as oligopeptides, peptidomimetics, nitrogen-heterocycles, as well as biologically active natural and unnatural products of medicinal interest such as indolizidine alkaloids, paclitaxel, docetaxel, taxoids, cyptophycins, lankacidins, etc. A straight forward route toward the synthesis of quinoline-4-ones via the triflic acid assisted Fries rearrangement of N-aryl-βlactams has been reported by Tepe and co-workers. The ring expansion observed in this case was solely attributed to the inherent ring strain in β-lactam ring because -lactam failed to undergo rearrangement under reaction conditions. Theabovementioned protocol has been recently extended by our group for the synthesis of benzo[b]-azocinon-6-ones via a tandem Michael addition–Fries rearrangement of sorbyl anilides as well as for the single-pot synthesis of 2-aryl-quinolin-4(3H)-ones through the Fries rearrangement of 3-dienyl-βlactams. In continuation with our synthetic endeavours with the β-lactam ring and in view of the lack of convenient approaches for the synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones, the present work describes the single-pot synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones via the trific acid promoted Fries rearrangement of C-3 vinyl/isopropenyl substituted β-lactams. In addition, DFT calculations and MD simulations were performed to investigate the stability profles of synthetic compounds.

Keywords: dihydroquinoline, fries rearrangement, azetidin-2-ones, quinoline-4-ones

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8 Synthesis, Growth, Characterization and Quantum Chemical Investigations of an Organic Single Crystal: 2-Amino- 4-Methylpyridinium Quinoline- 2-Carboxylate

Authors: Anitha Kandasamy, Thirumurugan Ramaiah

Abstract:

Interestingly, organic materials exhibit large optical nonlinearity with quick responses and having the flexibility of molecular tailoring using computational modelling and favourable synthetic methodologies. Pyridine based organic compounds and carboxylic acid contained aromatic compounds play a crucial role in crystal engineering of NCS complexes that displays admirable optical nonlinearity with fast response and favourable physicochemical properties such as low dielectric constant, wide optical transparency and large laser damage threshold value requires for optoelectronics device applications. Based on these facts, it was projected to form an acentric molecule of π-conjugated system interaction with appropriately replaced electron donor and acceptor groups for achieving higher SHG activity in which quinoline-2-carboyxlic acid is chosen as an electron acceptor and capable of acting as an acid as well as a base molecule, while 2-amino-4-methylpyridine is used as an electron donor and previously employed in numerous proton transfer complexes for synthesis of NLO materials for optoelectronic applications. 2-amino-4-mehtylpyridinium quinoline-2-carboxylate molecular complex (2AQ) is having π-donor-acceptor groups in which 2-amino-4-methylpyridine donates one of its electron to quinoline -2-carboxylic acid thereby forming a protonated 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium moiety and mono ionized quinoline-2-carboxylate moiety which are connected via N-H…O intermolecular interactions with non-centrosymmetric crystal packing arrangement at microscopic scale is accountable to the enhancement of macroscopic second order NLO activity. The 2AQ crystal was successfully grown by a slow evaporation solution growth technique and its structure was determined in orthorhombic crystal system with acentric, P212121, space group. Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that O…H intermolecular interactions primarily contributed with 31.0 % to the structural stabilization of 2AQ. The molecular structure of title compound has been confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. The vibrational modes of functional groups present in 2AQ have been assigned by using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The grown 2AQ crystal exhibits high optical transparency with lower cut-off wavelength (275 nm) within the region of 275-1500 nm. The laser study confirmed that 2AQ exhibits high SHG efficiency of 12.6 times greater than that of KDP. TGA-DTA analysis revealed that 2AQ crystal had a thermal stability of 223 °C. The low dielectric constant and low dielectric loss at higher frequencies confirmed good crystalline nature with fewer defects of grown 2AQ crystal. The grown crystal exhibits soft material and positive photoconduction behaviour. Mulliken atomic distribution and FMOs analysis suggested that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding which lead to the enhancement of NLO activity. These properties suggest that 2AQ crystal is a suitable material for optoelectronic and laser frequency conversion applications.

Keywords: crystal growth, NLO activity, proton transfer complex, quantum chemical investigation

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7 Ecofriendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocomposites and Their Catalytic Activity on Multicomponent Domino Annulation-Aromatization for Quinoline Synthesis

Authors: Kanti Sapkota, Do Hyun Lee, Sung Soo Han

Abstract:

Nanocomposites have been widely used in various fields such as electronics, catalysis, and in chemical, biological, biomedical and optical fields. They display broad biomedical properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used for wastewater treatment. Particularly, bimetallic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique features as compared to their monometallic components. Hybrid nanomaterials not only afford the multifunctionality endowed by their constituents but can also show synergistic properties. In addition, these hybrid nanomaterials have noteworthy catalytic and optical properties. Notably, Au−Ag based nanoparticles can be employed in sensor and catalysis due to their characteristic composition-tunable plasmonic properties. Due to their importance and usefulness, various efforts were developed for their preparation. Generally, chemical methods have been described to synthesize such bimetallic nanocomposites. In such chemical synthesis, harmful and hazardous chemicals cause environmental contamination and increase toxicity levels. Therefore, ecologically benevolent processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials are highly desirable to diminish such environmental and safety concerns. In this regard, here we disclose a simple, cost-effective, external additive free and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites using Nephrolepis cordifolia root extract. [email protected] NCs were obtained by the simultaneous reduction of cationic Ag and Au into AgCl in the presence of plant extract. The particle size of 10 to 50 nm was observed with the average diameter of 30 nm. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various modern characterization techniques. For example, UV−visible spectroscopy was used to determine the optical activity of the synthesized NCs, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the functional groups present in the biomolecules that were responsible for both reducing and capping agents during the formation of nanocomposites. Similarly, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to determine crystallinity, size, oxidation states, thermal stability and weight loss of the synthesized nanocomposites. As a synthetic application, the synthesized nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the multicomponent synthesis of biologically interesting quinoline molecules via domino annulation-aromatization reaction of aniline, arylaldehyde, and phenyl acetylene derivatives. Interestingly, the nanocatalyst was efficiently recycled for five times without substantial loss of catalytic properties.

Keywords: nanoparticles, catalysis, multicomponent, quinoline

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6 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests.From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization

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5 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li

Abstract:

This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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4 Aryne Mediated, Transition-Metal Free Arylations of Quinolines for Medicinal and Materials Applications

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Shashi Janeoo, Ankit Dhiman, Siddharth Chopra

Abstract:

Arynes are versatile reactive intermediates that offer broad opportunities in green organic synthesis. Arynes are potential aryl group surrogates for the transition metal-free environment friendly arylation reactions. Regioselective arylations of quinolines were achieved by the reactions of quinoline N-oxides with aryne intermediates generated in situ from the Kobayashi precursors. Various 2-substituted quinolines provided 3-arylated-2-substituted quinolines under ambient conditions. Acridine N-oxides also reacted well and provided unusual 4-arylacridines. Various fluorine containing 2,3-diarylquinaolines prepared using this approach were evaluated for antibacterial activity and two compounds inhibited the drug-resistant strains of S-aureus with a good selectivity index. Further, the 2,3-diarylquinolines as the potential optoelectronic materials were prepared by the aryne chemistry approach and their optical and electronic properties for such applications are under study. The aryne intermediates provide an effective Green Chemistry tool to achieve versatile arylated heteroarenes for diverse applications.

Keywords: arynes, arylation, quinolines, acridines.

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3 Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Antibacterial Studies of Highly Functionalized Novel Spiropyrrolidine 4-Quinolone-3-Carboxylic Acids Derived from 6-Acetyl Quinolone

Authors: Thangaraj Arasakumar, Athar Ata, Palathurai Subramaniam Mohan

Abstract:

A series of novel 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid grafted spiropyrrolidines as new type of antibacterial agents were synthesized via multicomponent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of an azomethine ylides with a newly prepared (E)-4-oxo-6-(3-phenyl-acryloyl)-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carboxylic acids in high regioselectivity with good yields. The structure of cycloadduct characterized by FT IR, mass, 1H, 13C, 2D NMR techniques and elemental analysis. Structure and spectrometry of compound 8a has been investigated theoretically by using HF and DFT approach at B3LYP, M05-2x/6-31G* levels of theories. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. A good agreement is found between the measured and calculated values. The DFT studies support the molecular mechanism of this cycloaddition reaction and determine the molecular electrostatic potential and thermodynamic properties. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Among 21 compounds screened, 8f and 8p were found to be more active against tested bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, azomethine ylide, DFT calculation, spirooxindole

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2 N-Heterocyclic Carbene Based Dearomatized Iridium Complex as an Efficient Catalyst towards Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation via Hydrogen Borrowing Strategy

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, Jitendra K. Bera

Abstract:

The search for atom-economical and green synthetic methods for the synthesis of functionalized molecules has attracted much attention. Metal ligand cooperation (MLC) plays a pivotal role in organometallic catalysis to activate C−H, H−H, O−H, N−H and B−H bonds through reversible bond breaking and bond making process. Towards this goal, a bifunctional N─heterocyclic carbene (NHC) based pyridyl-functionalized amide ligand precursor, and corresponding dearomatized iridium complex was synthesized. The NMR and UV/Vis acid titration study have been done to prove the proton response nature of the iridium complex. Further, the dearomatized iridium complex explored as a catalyst on the platform of MLC via dearomatzation/aromatization mode of action towards atom economical α and β─alkylation of ketones and secondary alcohols by using primary alcohols through hydrogen borrowing methodology. The key features of the catalysis are high turnover frequency (TOF) values, low catalyst loading, low base loading and no waste product. The greener syntheses of quinoline, lactone derivatives and selective alkylation of drug molecules like pregnenolone and testosterone were also achieved successfully. Another structurally similar iridium complex was also synthesized with modified ligand precursor where a pendant amide unit was absent. The inactivity of this analogue iridium complex towards catalysis authenticated the participation of proton responsive imido sidearm of the ligand to accelerate the catalytic reaction. The mechanistic investigation through control experiments, NMR and deuterated labeling study, authenticate the borrowing hydrogen strategy.

Keywords: C-C bond formation, hydrogen borrowing, metal ligand cooperation (MLC), n-heterocyclic carbene

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1 Evaluating the Efficacy of Tasquinimod in Covid-19

Authors: Raphael Udeh, Luis García De Guadiana Romualdo, Xenia Dolje-Gore

Abstract:

Background: Quite disturbing is the huge public health impact of COVID-19: As at today [25th March 2021, the COVID-19 global burden shows over 123 million cases and over 2.7 million deaths worldwide. Rationale: Recent evidence shows calprotectin’s potential as a therapeutic target, stating that tasquinimod, from the Quinoline-3-Carboxamide family is capable of blocking the interaction between calprotectin and TLR4. Hence preventing the cytokine release syndrome, that heralds the functional exhaustion in COVID-19. Early preclinical studies showed that tasquinimod inhibit tumor growth and prevent angiogenesis/cytokine storm. Phase I – III clinical studies in prostate cancer showed it has a good safety profile with good radiologic progression free survival but no effect on overall survival. Rationale/hypothesis: Strategic endeavors have been amplified globally to assess new therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 management – thus the clinical and antiviral efficacy of tasquinimod in COVID-19 remains to be explored. Hence the primary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the efficacy of tasquinimod in the treatment of adult patients with severe COVID-19 infections. Therefore, I hypothesise that among adults with COVID19 infection, tasquinimod will reduce the severe respiratory distress associated with COVID-19 compared to placebo, over a 28-day study period. Method: The setting is in Europe. Design – a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II double-blinded trial. Trial lasts for 28 days from randomization, Tasquinimod capsule given as 0.5mg daily 1st fortnight, then 1mg daily 2nd fortnight. I0 outcome - assessed using six-point ordinal scale alongside eight 20 outcomes. 125 participants to be enrolled, data collection at baseline and subsequent data points, and safety reporting monitored via serological profile. Significance: This work could potentially establish tasquinimod as an effective and safe therapeutic agent for COVID-19 by reducing the severe respiratory distress, related time to recovery, time on oxygen/admission. It will also drive future research – as in larger multi-centre RCT.

Keywords: Calprotectin, COVID-19, Phase II Trial, Tasquinimod

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