Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: K. Soumya

17 Simulation Study of the Microwave Heating of the Hematite and Coal Mixture

Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Sunil Yadav, Soumya Ranjan Mohantry, Ajay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Temperature distribution in the hematite ore mixed with 7.5% coal was predicted by solving a 1-D heat conduction equation using an implicit finite difference approach. In this work, it was considered a square slab of 20 cm x 20 cm, which assumed the coal to be uniformly mixed with hematite ore. It was solved the equations with the use of MATLAB 2018a software. Heat transfer effects in this 1D dimensional slab convective and the radiative boundary conditions are also considered. Temperature distribution obtained inside hematite slab by considering microwave heating time, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, carbon percentage, sample dimensions, and many other factors such as penetration depth, permittivity, and permeability of coal and hematite ore mixtures. The resulting temperature profile can be used as a guiding tool for optimizing the microwave-assisted carbothermal reduction process of hematite slab was extended to other dimensions as well, viz., 1 cm x 1 cm, 5 cm x 5 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: hematite ore, coal, microwave processing, heat transfer, implicit method, temperature distribution

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16 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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15 Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method

Authors: D. Kari Basavaraja, M. G. Skanda, C. Soumya, V. Ramesh

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

Keywords: bath parameters, coatings, design of experiment, fracture toughness, impact strength

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14 Forensic Necropsy-Importance in Wildlife Conservation

Authors: G. V. Sai Soumya, Kalpesh Solanki, Sumit K. Choudhary

Abstract:

Necropsy is another term used for an autopsy, which is known as death examination in the case of animals. It is a complete standardized procedure involving dissection, observation, interpretation, and documentation. Government Bodies like National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) have given standard operating procedures for commencing the necropsies. Necropsies are rarely performed as compared to autopsies performed on human bodies. There are no databases which maintain the count of autopsies in wildlife, but the research in this area has shown a very small number of necropsies. Long back, wildlife forensics came into existence but is coming into light nowadays as there is an increase in wildlife crime cases, including the smuggling of trophies, pooching, and many more. Physical examination in cases of animals is not sufficient to yield fruitful information, and thus postmortem examination plays an important role. Postmortem examination helps in the determination of time since death, cause of death, manner of death, factors affecting the case under investigation, and thus decreases the amount of time required in solving cases. Increasing the rate of necropsies will help forensic veterinary pathologists to build standardized provision and confidence within them, which will ultimately yield a higher success rate in solving wildlife crime cases.

Keywords: necropsy, wildlife crime, postmortem examination, forensic application

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13 Marker Assisted Selection of Rice Genotypes for Xa5 and Xa13 Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistance Genes

Authors: P. Sindhumole, K. Soumya, R. Renjimol

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple food crop over the world. It is prone to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, out of which Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is the most rampant. Management of this disease through chemicals or any other means is very difficult. The best way to control BLB is by the development of Host Plant Resistance. BLB resistance is not an activity of a single gene but it involves a cluster of more than thirty genes reported. Among these, Xa5 and Xa13 genes are two important ones, which can be diagnosed through marker assisted selection using closely linked molecular markers. During 2014, the first phase of field screening using forty traditional rice genotypes was carried out and twenty resistant symptomless genotypes were identified. Molecular characterisation of these genotypes using RM 122 SSR marker revealed the presence of Xa5 gene in thirteen genotypes. Forty-two traditional rice genotypes were used for the second phase of field screening for BLB resistance. Among these, sixteen resistant genotypes were identified. These genotypes, along with two susceptible check genotypes, were subjected to marker assisted selection for Xa13 gene, using the linked STS marker RG-136. During this process, presence of Xa13 gene could be detected in ten resistant genotypes. In future, these selected genotypes can be directly utilised as donors in Marker assisted breeding programmes for BLB resistance in rice.

Keywords: oryza sativa, SSR, STS, marker, disease, breeding

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12 Efficient Wind Fragility Analysis of Concrete Chimney under Stochastic Extreme Wind Incorporating Temperature Effects

Authors: Soumya Bhattacharjya, Avinandan Sahoo, Gaurav Datta

Abstract:

Wind fragility analysis of chimney is often carried out disregarding temperature effect. However, the combined effect of wind and temperature is the most critical limit state for chimney design. Hence, in the present paper, an efficient fragility analysis for concrete chimney is explored under combined wind and temperature effect. Wind time histories are generated by Davenports Power Spectral Density Function and using Weighed Amplitude Wave Superposition Technique. Fragility analysis is often carried out in full Monte Carlo Simulation framework, which requires extensive computational time. Thus, in the present paper, an efficient adaptive metamodelling technique is adopted to judiciously approximate limit state function, which will be subsequently used in the simulation framework. This will save substantial computational time and make the approach computationally efficient. Uncertainty in wind speed, wind load related parameters, and resistance-related parameters is considered. The results by the full simulation approach, conventional metamodelling approach and proposed adaptive metamodelling approach will be compared. Effect of disregarding temperature in wind fragility analysis will be highlighted.

Keywords: adaptive metamodelling technique, concrete chimney, fragility analysis, stochastic extreme wind load, temperature effect

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11 Classifier for Liver Ultrasound Images

Authors: Soumya Sajjan

Abstract:

Liver cancer is the most common cancer disease worldwide in men and women, and is one of the few cancers still on the rise. Liver disease is the 4th leading cause of death. According to new NHS (National Health Service) figures, deaths from liver diseases have reached record levels, rising by 25% in less than a decade; heavy drinking, obesity, and hepatitis are believed to be behind the rise. In this study, we focus on Development of Diagnostic Classifier for Ultrasound liver lesion. Ultrasound (US) Sonography is an easy-to-use and widely popular imaging modality because of its ability to visualize many human soft tissues/organs without any harmful effect. This paper will provide an overview of underlying concepts, along with algorithms for processing of liver ultrasound images Naturaly, Ultrasound liver lesion images are having more spackle noise. Developing classifier for ultrasound liver lesion image is a challenging task. We approach fully automatic machine learning system for developing this classifier. First, we segment the liver image by calculating the textural features from co-occurrence matrix and run length method. For classification, Support Vector Machine is used based on the risk bounds of statistical learning theory. The textural features for different features methods are given as input to the SVM individually. Performance analysis train and test datasets carried out separately using SVM Model. Whenever an ultrasonic liver lesion image is given to the SVM classifier system, the features are calculated, classified, as normal and diseased liver lesion. We hope the result will be helpful to the physician to identify the liver cancer in non-invasive method.

Keywords: segmentation, Support Vector Machine, ultrasound liver lesion, co-occurance Matrix

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10 Effect of Gas Boundary Layer on the Stability of a Radially Expanding Liquid Sheet

Authors: Soumya Kedia, Puja Agarwala, Mahesh Tirumkudulu

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Linear stability analysis is performed for a radially expanding liquid sheet in the presence of a gas medium. A liquid sheet can break up because of the aerodynamic effect as well as its thinning. However, the study of the aforementioned effects is usually done separately as the formulation becomes complicated and is difficult to solve. Present work combines both, aerodynamic effect and thinning effect, ignoring the non-linearity in the system. This is done by taking into account the formation of the gas boundary layer whilst neglecting viscosity in the liquid phase. Axisymmetric flow is assumed for simplicity. Base state analysis results in a Blasius-type system which can be solved numerically. Perturbation theory is then applied to study the stability of the liquid sheet, where the gas-liquid interface is subjected to small deformations. The linear model derived here can be applied to investigate the instability for sinuous as well as varicose modes, where the former represents displacement in the centerline of the sheet and the latter represents modulation in sheet thickness. Temporal instability analysis is performed for sinuous modes, which are significantly more unstable than varicose modes, for a fixed radial distance implying local stability analysis. The growth rates, measured for fixed wavenumbers, predicated by the present model are significantly lower than those obtained by the inviscid Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and compare better with experimental results. Thus, the present theory gives better insight into understanding the stability of a thin liquid sheet.

Keywords: boundary layer, gas-liquid interface, linear stability, thin liquid sheet

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9 Intellectual Property Laws: Protection of Celebrities’ Identity

Authors: Soumya Chaturvedi

Abstract:

Ever since India opened its doors for the world economy to enter, there has not been a single instance of recoil. A consequence of this move by the government of India resulted in India evolving as a consumer-driven market and in order to survive in this era of extreme competition, the corporate houses have employed every possible means to reach out and hit onto the sentiments of the consumers. The most obvious way to ensure a strong perseverance towards the specific product or brand is through celebrity endorsements. In a country like India, whose film industry accounts for the largest sales and output, it is indeed appalling to acknowledge the fact that it lacks an effective mechanism of protection of the commercial exploitation of celebrities’ attributes under the ambit of law. The western half of the globe has very well accepted and recognized the rights of the celebrities to decide upon the quantum of commercial exploitation of their own attributes and earn profit out of the same. However, the eastern half seems to be a little reluctant in accepting and enforcing these views per se. A celebrity has a right to publicity over the traits of his personality which involves voice, autographs, reputation, and style, so on and so forth as it is these attributes that are responsible for huge trade profits concerning the products to which such traits are attributed to. This clearly involves the right of the celebrity to benefit himself by commercially exploiting the same and refraining the unauthorized gain to third parties. The market is making it nearly impossible to proceed further with such weak laws considering the escalating rate of celebrity endorsements in the nation. This paper discusses the lacunae in law per se to identify a right as such by a celebrity over his traits that are potentially under the circle of commercial exploitation and the need of a definite legislation that would ensure a change in the paradigm of the Courts in India. Also, it discusses the only remedy available currently for violation, which is, a suit for passing off by Indian Courts under Trademark and Copyright laws and a comparison of the same with the mechanisms adopted by the legal systems across the globe.

Keywords: celebrity, rights, intellectual property, trademark, copyrights

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8 Fabrication of Durable and Renegerable Superhydrophobic Coatings on Metallic Surfaces for Potential Industrial Applications

Authors: Priya Varshney, Soumya S. Mohapatra

Abstract:

Fabrication of anti-corrosion and self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings for metallic surfaces which are regenerable and durable in the aggressive conditions has shown tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, the superhydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces (aluminum, steel, copper) were prepared by two-step and one-step chemical etching process. In two-step process, roughness on surface was created by chemical etching and then passivation of roughened surface with low surface energy materials whereas, in one-step process, roughness on surface by chemical etching and passivation of surface with low surface energy materials were done in a single step. Beside this, the effect of etchant concentration and etching time on wettability and morphology was also studied. Thermal, mechanical, ultra-violet stability of these coatings were also tested. Along with this, regeneration of coatings and self-cleaning, corrosion resistance and water repelling characteristics were also studied. The surface morphology shows the presence of a rough microstuctures on the treated surfaces and the contact angle measurements confirms the superhydrophobic nature. It is experimentally observed that the surface roughness and contact angle increases with increase in etching time as well as with concentration of etchant. Superhydrophobic surfaces show the excellent self-cleaning behaviour. Coatings are found to be stable and maintain their superhydrophobicity in acidic and alkaline solutions. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests prove the water-repellent nature of the coatings. These coatings are found to be thermal, mechanical and ultra-violet stable. These durable superhydrophobic metallic surfaces have potential industrial applications.

Keywords: superhydrophobic, water-repellent, anti-corrosion, self-cleaning

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7 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath

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Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: collagenase/dispase, dental pulp stem cells, flow cytometry, irreversible pulpitis

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6 Development of Pre-Mitigation Measures and Its Impact on Life-Cycle Cost of Facilities: Indian Scenario

Authors: Mahima Shrivastava, Soumya Kar, B. Swetha Malika, Lalu Saheb, M. Muthu Kumar, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi

Abstract:

Natural hazards and manmade destruction causes both economic and societal losses. Generalized pre-mitigation strategies introduced and adopted for prevention of disaster all over the world are capable of augmenting the resiliency and optimizing the life-cycle cost of facilities. In countries like India where varied topographical feature exists requires location specific mitigation measures and strategies to be followed for better enhancement by event-driven and code-driven approaches. Present state of vindication measures followed and adopted, lags dominance in accomplishing the required development. In addition, serious concern and debate over climate change plays a vital role in enhancing the need and requirement for the development of time bound adaptive mitigation measures. For the development of long-term sustainable policies incorporation of future climatic variation is inevitable. This will further assist in assessing the impact brought about by the climate change on life-cycle cost of facilities. This paper develops more definite region specific and time bound pre-mitigation measures, by reviewing the present state of mitigation measures in India and all over the world for improving life-cycle cost of facilities. For the development of region specific adoptive measures, Indian regions were divided based on multiple-calamity prone regions and geo-referencing tools were used to incorporate the effect of climate changes on life-cycle cost assessment. This study puts forward significant effort in establishing sustainable policies and helps decision makers in planning for pre-mitigation measures for different regions. It will further contribute towards evaluating the life cycle cost of facilities by adopting the developed measures.

Keywords: climate change, geo-referencing tools, life-cycle cost, multiple-calamity prone regions, pre-mitigation strategies, sustainable policies

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5 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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4 Impact of Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence on Radio Presenter's Performance in All India Radio, Kolkata, India

Authors: Soumya Dutta

Abstract:

This research paper aims at investigating the impact of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence on radio presenter’s performance in the All India Radio, Kolkata (India’s public service broadcaster). The ancient concept of productivity is the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. But, father of modern management Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005) defined productivity of knowledge work and knowledge workers in a new form. In the other hand, the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) originated back in 1920’s when Thorndike (1920) for the first time proposed the emotional intelligence into three dimensions, i.e., abstract intelligence, mechanical intelligence, and social intelligence. The contribution of Salovey and Mayer (1990) is substantive, as they proposed a model for emotional intelligence by defining EI as part of the social intelligence, which takes measures the ability of an individual to regulate his/her personal and other’s emotions and feeling. Cognitive intelligence illustrates the specialization of general intelligence in the domain of cognition in ways that possess experience and learning about cognitive processes such as memory. The outcomes of past research on emotional intelligence show that emotional intelligence has a positive effect on social- mental factors of human resource; positive effects of emotional intelligence on leaders and followers in terms of performance, results, work, satisfaction; emotional intelligence has a positive and significant relationship with the teachers' job performance. In this paper, we made a conceptual framework based on theories of emotional intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1989-1990) and a compensatory model of emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance proposed by Stephen Cote and Christopher T. H. Miners (2006). For investigating the impact of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence on radio presenter’s performance, sample size consists 59 radio presenters (considering gender, academic qualification, instructional mood, age group, etc.) from All India Radio, Kolkata station. Questionnaires prepared based on cognitive (henceforth called C based and represented by C1, C2,.., C5) as well as emotional intelligence (henceforth called E based and represented by E1, E2,., E20). These were sent to around 59 respondents (Presenters) for getting their responses. Performance score was collected from the report of program executive of All India Radio, Kolkata. The linear regression has been carried out using all the E-based and C-based variables as the predictor variables. The possible problem of autocorrelation has been tested by having the Durbinson-Watson (DW) Statistic. Values of this statistic, almost within the range of 1.80-2.20, indicate the absence of any significant problem of autocorrelation. The possible problem of multicollinearity has been tested by having the Variable Inflation Factor (VIF) value. Values of this statistic, around within 2, indicates the absence of any significant problem of multicollinearity. It is inferred that the performance scores can be statistically regressed linearly on the E-based and C-based scores, which can explain 74.50% of the variations in the performance.

Keywords: cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, performance, productivity

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3 Searching Knowledge for Engagement in a Worker Cooperative Society: A Proposal for Rethinking Premises

Authors: Soumya Rajan

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While delving into the heart of any organization, the structural pre-requisites which form the framework of its system, allures and sometimes invokes great interest. In an attempt to understand the ecosystem of Knowledge that existed in organizations with diverse ownership and legal blueprints, Cooperative Societies, which form a crucial part of the neo-liberal movement in India, was studied. The exploration surprisingly led to the re-designing of at least a set of premises of the researcher on the drivers of engagement in an otherwise structured trade environment. The liberal organizational structure of Cooperative Societies has been empowered with certain terminologies: Voluntary, Democratic, Equality and Distributive Justice. To condense in Hubert Calvert’ words, ‘Co-operation is a form of organization wherein persons voluntarily associated together as human beings on the basis of equality for the promotion of the economic interest of themselves.’ In India, largely the institutions which work under this principle is registered under Cooperative Societies Act of the Central or State laws. A Worker Cooperative Society which originated as a movement in the state of Kerala and spread its wings across the country - Indian Coffee House was chosen as the enterprise for further inquiry for it being a living example and a highly successful working model in the designated space. The exploratory study reached out to employees and key stakeholders of Indian Coffee House to understand the nuances of the structure and the scope it provides for engagement. The key questions which formed shape in the mind of researcher while engaging in the inquiry were: How has the organization sustained despite its principle of accepting employees with no skills into employment and later training and empowering them? How can a system which has pre-independence and post-independence (independence here means the colonial independence from Great Britain) existence seek to engage employees within the premise of equality? How was the value of socialism ingrained in a commercial enterprise which has a turnover of several hundreds of Crores each year? How did the vision of a flat structure, way back in the 1940’s find its way into the organizational structure and has continued to remain as the way of life? These questions were addressed by the Case study research that ensued and placing Knowledge as the key premise, the possibilities of engagement of the organization man was pictured. Understanding that although the macro or holistic unit of analysis is the organization, it is pivotal to understand the structures and processes which best reflect on the actors. The embedded design which was adopted in this study delivered insights from the different stakeholder actors from diverse departments. While moving through variables which define and sometimes defy bounds in rationality, the study brought to light the inherent features of the organization structure and how it influences the actors who form a crucial part of the scheme of things. The research brought forth the key enablers for engagement and specifically explored the standpoint of knowledge in the larger structure of the Cooperative Society.

Keywords: knowledge, organizational structure, engagement, worker cooperative

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2 Religious Discourses and Their Impact on Regional and Global Geopolitics: A Study of Deobandi in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan

Authors: Soumya Awasthi

Abstract:

The spread of radical ideology is possible not merely through public meetings, protests, and mosques but even in schools, seminaries, and madrasas. The rhetoric created around the relationship between religion and conflict has been the primary factor for instigating global conflicts – when religion is used to achieve broader objectives. There have been numerous cases of religion-driven conflict around the world be it the Jewish revolt between 66 AD and 628 AD or the 1119 AD the Crusades revolt or during the Cold War period or the rise of right-wing politics in India. Some of the major developments which reiterate the significance of religion in the contemporary times include: (1) The emergence of theocracy in Iran in 1979 (2) Resurgence of world-wide religious beliefs in post-Soviet space. (3) Emergence of transnational terrorism shaped by twisted depiction of Islam by the self proclaimed protectors of the religion. Therefore this paper is premised in the argument that religion has always found itself on the periphery of the discipline of International Relations (IR), and has received less attention than it deserves. The focus of the topic is on the discourses of ‘Deobandi’ and its impact both on the geopolitics of the region- particularly in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan- and also at the global level. Discourse is a mechanism in use since time immemorial and has been a key tool to mobilise masses against the ruling authority. With the help of field surveys, qualitative and analytical method of research in religion and international relations, it has been found that they are numerous madrassas that are running illegally and are unregistered. These seminaries are operating in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA). During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, relation between religion and geopolitics was highlighted when there was a sudden spread of radical ideas, finding support from countries like Saudi Arabia (who funded the campaign) and Pakistan (which organised the Saudi funds and set up training camps, both educational and military). During this period there was a huge influence of Wahabi theology on the madrasas which started with Deoband philosophy and later became a mix of Wahabi (influenced by Ahmad Ibn Hannabal and Ibn Taimmiya) and Deobandi philosophy, tending towards fundamentalism. Later the impact of regional geopolitics had influence on the global geopolitics when the incidents like attack on the US in 2001, bomb blasts in U.K, Indonesia, Turkey, and Israel in 2000s. In the midst of all this, there were several scholars who pointed towards Deobandi Philosophy as one of the drivers in the creation of armed Islamic groups in Pakistan, Afghanistan. Hence this paper will make an attempt to understand the trend as to how Deobandi religious discourses originating from India have changed over the decades, and who the agents of such changes are. It will throw light on Deoband from pre-independence till date to create a narrative around the religious discourses and Deobandi philosophy and its spill over impact on the map of global and regional security.

Keywords: Deobandi School of Thought, radicalization, regional and global geopolitics, religious discourses, Whabi movement

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1 Bacteriophages for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment: Application in Black Water Decontamination with an Emphasis to DRDO Biotoilet

Authors: Sonika Sharma, Mohan G. Vairale, Sibnarayan Datta, Soumya Chatterjee, Dharmendra Dubey, Rajesh Prasad, Raghvendra Budhauliya, Bidisha Das, Vijay Veer

Abstract:

Bacteriophages are viruses that parasitize specific bacteria and multiply in metabolising host bacteria. Bacteriophages hunt for a single or a subset of bacterial species, making them potential antibacterial agents. Utilizing the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has several applications from medical to the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. However, harnessing phage based techniques in wastewater treatments to improve quality of effluent and sludge release into the environment is a potential area for R&D application. Phage mediated bactericidal effect in any wastewater treatment process has many controlling factors that lead to treatment performance. In laboratory conditions, titer of bacteriophages (coliphages) isolated from effluent water of a specially designed anaerobic digester of human night soil (DRDO Biotoilet) was successfully increased with a modified protocol of the classical double layer agar technique. Enrichment of the same was carried out and efficacy of the phage enriched medium was evaluated at different conditions (specific media, temperature, storage conditions). Growth optimization study was carried out on different media like soybean casein digest medium (Tryptone soya medium), Luria-Bertani medium, phage deca broth medium and MNA medium (Modified nutrient medium). Further, temperature-phage yield relationship was also observed at three different temperatures 27˚C, 37˚C and 44˚C at laboratory condition. Results showed the higher activity of coliphage 27˚C and at 37˚C. Further, addition of divalent ions (10mM MgCl2, 5mM CaCl2) and 5% glycerol resulted in a significant increase in phage titer. Besides this, effect of antibiotics addition like ampicillin and kanamycin at different concentration on plaque formation was analysed and reported that ampicillin at a concentration of 1mg/ml ampicillin stimulates phage infection and results in more number of plaques. Experiments to test viability of phage showed that it can remain active for 6 months at 4˚C in fresh tryptone soya broth supplemented with fresh culture of coliforms (early log phase). The application of bacteriophages (especially coliphages) for treatment of effluent of human faecal matter contaminated effluent water is unique. This environment-friendly treatment system not only reduces the pathogenic coliforms, but also decreases the competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Therefore, the phage based cocktail to treat fecal pathogenic bacteria present in black water has many implication in wastewater treatment processes including ‘DRDO Biotoilet’, which is an ecofriendly appropriate and affordable human faecal matter treatment technology for different climates and situations.

Keywords: wastewater, microbes, virus, biotoilet, phage viability

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