Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: DNA fingerprinting

41 HPTLC Metabolite Fingerprinting of Artocarpus champeden Stembark from Several Different Locations in Indonesia and Correlation with Antimalarial Activity

Authors: Imam Taufik, Hilkatul Ilmi, Puryani, Mochammad Yuwono, Aty Widyawaruyanti

Abstract:

Artocarpus champeden Spreng stembark (Moraceae) in Indonesia well known as ‘cempedak’ had been traditionally used for malarial remedies. The difference of growth locations could cause the difference of metabolite profiling. As a consequence, there were difference antimalarial activities in spite of the same plants. The aim of this research was to obtain the profile of metabolites that contained in A. champeden stembark from different locations in Indonesia for authentication and quality control purpose of this extract. The profiling had been performed by HPTLC-Densitometry technique and antimalarial activity had been also determined by HRP2-ELISA technique. The correlation between metabolite fingerprinting and antimalarial activity had been analyzed by Principle Component Analysis, Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and Partial Least Square. As a result, there is correlation between the difference metabolite fingerprinting and antimalarial activity from several different growth locations.

Keywords: antimalarial, artocarpus champeden spreng, metabolite fingerprinting, multivariate analysis

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40 A Non-Parametric Based Mapping Algorithm for Use in Audio Fingerprinting

Authors: Analise Borg, Paul Micallef

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the online multimedia collection has grown at a fast pace. Several companies showed interest to study the different ways to organize the amount of audio information without the need of human intervention to generate metadata. In the past few years, many applications have emerged on the market which are capable of identifying a piece of music in a short time. Different audio effects and degradation make it much harder to identify the unknown piece. In this paper, an audio fingerprinting system which makes use of a non-parametric based algorithm is presented. Parametric analysis is also performed using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The feature extraction methods employed are the Mel Spectrum Coefficients and the MPEG-7 basic descriptors. Bin numbers replaced the extracted feature coefficients during the non-parametric modelling. The results show that non-parametric analysis offer potential results as the ones mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: audio fingerprinting, mapping algorithm, Gaussian Mixture Models, MFCC, MPEG-7

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39 HPTLC Fingerprinting of steroidal glycoside of leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum L. (Inab-us-salab/makoh)

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh K. Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

Inab-us-salab also known as Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various unani traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of solanaceae, these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time its fractionation and fingerprinting of aglycone (solasodine) and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) in leaves and berries of S. nigrum using solvent extraction and fractionation followed by HPTLC analysis. The fingerprinting was done using silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5% ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phase at 400 nm, after derivatization with antimony tri chloride reagent for identification of steroidal glycoside. The statistical data obtained can further be validated and can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanum nigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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38 In-vitro Metabolic Fingerprinting Using Plasmonic Chips by Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Vadanasundari Vedarethinam, Kun Qian

Abstract:

The metabolic analysis is more distal over proteomics and genomics engaging in clinics and needs rationally distinct techniques, designed materials, and device for clinical diagnosis. Conventional techniques such as spectroscopic techniques, biochemical analyzers, and electrochemical have been used for metabolic diagnosis. Currently, there are four major challenges including (I) long-term process in sample pretreatment; (II) difficulties in direct metabolic analysis of biosamples due to complexity (III) low molecular weight metabolite detection with accuracy and (IV) construction of diagnostic tools by materials and device-based platforms for real case application in biomedical applications. Development of chips with nanomaterial is promising to address these critical issues. Mass spectroscopy (MS) has displayed high sensitivity and accuracy, throughput, reproducibility, and resolution for molecular analysis. Particularly laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) combined with devices affords desirable speed for mass measurement in seconds and high sensitivity with low cost towards large scale uses. We developed a plasmonic chip for clinical metabolic fingerprinting as a hot carrier in LDI MS by series of chips with gold nanoshells on the surface through controlled particle synthesis, dip-coating, and gold sputtering for mass production. We integrated the optimized chip with microarrays for laboratory automation and nanoscaled experiments, which afforded direct high-performance metabolic fingerprinting by LDI MS using 500 nL of serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) and exosomes. Further, we demonstrated on-chip direct in-vitro metabolic diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer patients using serum and exosomes without any pretreatment or purifications. To our best knowledge, this work initiates a bionanotechnology based platform for advanced metabolic analysis toward large-scale diagnostic use.

Keywords: plasmonic chip, metabolic fingerprinting, LDI MS, in-vitro diagnostics

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37 Molecular and Phytochemical Fingerprinting of Anti-Cancer Drug Yielding Plants in South India

Authors: Alexis John de Britto

Abstract:

Studies were performed to select the superior genotypes based on intra-specific variations, caused by phytogeographical, climatic and edaphic parameters of three anti cancer drug yielding mangrove plants such as Acanthus ilicifolius L., Calophyllum inophyllum L. and Excoecaria agallocha L. using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) markers and phytochemical analysis such as preliminary phytochemical tests, TLC, HPTLC, HPLC and antioxidant tests. The plants were collected from five different geographical locations of the East Coast of south India. Genetic heterozygosity, Nei’s gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and Percentage of polymorphism between the populations were calculated using POPGENE software. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA algorithm. AMOVA and correlations between genetic diversity and soil factors were analyzed. Combining the molecular and phytochemical variations superior genotypes were selected. Conservation constraints and methods of efficient exploitation of the species are discussed.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug yielding plants, DNA fingerprinting, phytochemical analysis, selection of superior genotypes

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36 DNA Fingerprinting of Some Major Genera of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera) (Anacanthotermes, Psammotermes and Microtermes) from Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: AbdelRahman A. Faragalla, Mohamed H. Alqhtani, Mohamed M. M.Ahmed

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Saudi Arabia has currently been beset by a barrage of bizarre assemblages of subterranean termite fauna, inflicting heavy catastrophic havocs on human valued properties in various homes, storage facilities, warehouses, agricultural and horticultural crops including okra, sweet pepper, tomatoes, sorghum, date palm trees, citruses and many forest domains and green lush desert oases. The most pressing urgent priority is to use modern technologies to alleviate the painstaking obstacle of taxonomic identification of these injurious noxious pests that might lead to effective pest control in both infested agricultural commodities and field crops. Our study has indicated the use of DNA fingerprinting technologies, in order to generate basic information of the genetic similarity between 3 predominant families containing the most destructive termite species. The methodologies included extraction and DNA isolation from members of the major families and the use of randomly selected primers and PCR amplifications with the nucleotide sequences. GC content and annealing temperatures for all primers, PCR amplifications and agarose gel electrophoresis were also conducted in addition to the scoring and analysis of Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPDs). A phylogenetic analysis for different species using statistical computer program on the basis of RAPD-DNA results, represented as a dendrogram based on the average of band sharing ratio between different species. Our study aims to shed more light on this intriguing subject, which may lead to an expedited display of the kinship and relatedness of species in an ambitious undertaking to arrive at correct taxonomic classification of termite species, discover sibling species, so that a logistic rational pest management strategy could be delineated.

Keywords: DNA fingerprinting, Western Saudi Arabia, DNA primers, RAPD

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35 Development of DNA Fingerprints in Selected Medicinal Plants of India

Authors: V. Verma, Hazi Raja

Abstract:

Conventionally, morphological descriptors are routinely used for establishing the identity of varieties. But these morphological descriptors suffer from many drawbacks such as influence of environment on trait expression, epistatic interactions, pleiotrophic effects etc. Furthermore, the paucity of a sufficient number of these descriptors for unequivocal identification of increasing number of reference collection varieties enforces to look for alternatives. Therefore, DNA based finger-print based techniques were selected to define the systematic position of the selected medicinal plants like Plumbago zeylanica, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta. DNA fingerprinting of herbal plants can be useful in authenticating the various claims of medical uses related to the plants, in germplasm characterization and conservation. In plants it has not only helped in identifying species but also in defining a new realm in plant genomics, plant breeding and in conserving the biodiversity. With world paving way for developments in biotechnology, DNA fingerprinting promises a very powerful tool in our future endeavors. Data will be presented on the development of microsatellite markers (SSR) used to fingerprint, characterize, and assess genetic diversity among 12 accessions of both Plumbago zeylanica, 4 accessions of Desmodium gengaticum, 4 accessions of Uraria Picta.

Keywords: Plumbago zeylanica, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, microsaetllite markers

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34 ISSR Based Molecular Phylogeny in Naturally Growing Suaeda Populations of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Basahi

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to identify the phylogenetic relationships and determine genetic diversity among Suaeda genotypes growing in Saudi Arabia and to find out whether these could be a potential source for genetic diversity. A set of nineteen genotypes was analyzed using twenty-four ISSR primers. Clear amplified polymorphic DNA products were obtained from the screening of twenty-four ISSR primers on nineteen genotypes that allowed selection of ten primers and the results were reproducible. Nineteen genotypes were revealed a unique profile with ten ISSR primers and thus it can be used for the DNA fingerprinting. Different primers produced a different level of polymorphism among the nineteen genotypes. The number of polymorphic bands per primer varied from 5 to 14 with an average of 8 bands per primer. The results revealed that the genotypes differed for ISSR markers. The genetic similarity based on Nei and Li’s ranged from 0.450 to 0.930. Cluster analysis was conducted based on ISSR data to group the Suaeda genotypes and to construct a dendrogram. Four groups can be distinguished by truncating the dendrogram at GS value of 0.54. ISSR markers showed high level of polymorphism among the genotypes examined. The present study indicates that ISSR markers could be successfully used in genetic characterization and diversity in Suaeda.

Keywords: suaeda, DNA fingerprinting, ISSR, Saudi Arabia

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33 Isolation and Identification of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Type-2 (GAT2) Genes from Three Egyptian Olive Cultivars

Authors: Yahia I. Mohamed, Ahmed I. Marzouk, Mohamed A. Yacout

Abstract:

Aim of this work was to study the genetic basis for oil accumulation in olive fruit via tracking DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) gene in three Egyptian Origen Olive cultivars namely Toffahi, Hamed and Maraki using molecular marker techniques and bioinformatics tools. Results illustrate that, firstly: specific genomic band of Maraki cultivars was identified as DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) and identical for this gene in Olea europaea with 100 % of similarity. Secondly, differential genomic band of Maraki cultivars which produced from RAPD fingerprinting technique reflected predicted distinguished sequence which identified as DGAT2 (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2) in Fragaria vesca subsp. Vesca with 76% of sequential similarity. Third and finally, specific genomic specific band of Hamed cultivars was indentified as two fragments, 1-Olea europaea cultivar Koroneiki diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 mRNA, complete cds with two matches regions with 99% or 2-PREDICTED: Fragaria vesca subsp. vesca diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2-like (LOC101313050), mRNA with 86% of similarity.

Keywords: Olea europaea, fingerprinting, diacylglycerol acyltransferase type-2 (DGAT2), Egypt

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32 Analytical Authentication of Butter Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics

Authors: M. Bodner, M. Scampicchio

Abstract:

Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.

Keywords: adulterated butter, margarine, PCA, PLS-DA, PLS-R, SIMCA

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31 Preliminary Evaluation of Echinacea Species by UV-VIS Spectroscopy Fingerprinting of Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Elena Ionescu, Elena Iacob, Marie-Louise Ionescu, Carmen Elena Tebrencu, Oana Teodora Ciuperca

Abstract:

Echinacea species (Asteraceae) has received a global attention because it is widely used for treatment of cold, flu and upper respiratory tract infections. Echinacea species contain a great variety of chemical components that contribute to their activity. The most important components responsible for the biological activity are those with high molecular-weight such as polysaccharides, polyacetylenes, highly unsaturated alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives. The principal factors that may influence the chemical composition of Echinacea include the species and the part of plant used (aerial parts or roots ). In recent years the market for Echinacea has grown rapidly and also the cases of adultery/replacement especially for Echinacea root. The identification of presence or absence of same biomarkers provide information for safe use of Echinacea species in food supplements industry. The aim of the study was the preliminary evaluation and fingerprinting by UV-VISIBLE spectroscopy of biomarkers in terms of content in phenolic derivatives of some Echinacea species (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida) for identification and authentication of the species. The steps of the study were: (1) samples (extracts) preparation from Echinacea species (non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed ethanol extracts); (2) samples preparation of reference substances (polyphenol acids: caftaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid; flavonoids: rutoside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and their aglycones: quercitri, quercetol, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin); (3) identification of specific absorption at wavelengths between 700-200 nm; (4) identify the phenolic compounds from Echinacea species based on spectral characteristics and the specific absorption; each class of compounds corresponds to a maximum absorption in the UV spectrum. The phytochemical compounds were identified at specific wavelengths between 700-200 nm. The absorption intensities were measured. The obtained results proved that ethanolic extract showed absorption peaks attributed to: phenolic compounds (free phenolic acids and phenolic acids derivatives) registrated between 220-280 nm, unsymmetrical chemical structure compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid) with maximum absorption peak and absorption "shoulder" that may be due to substitution of hydroxyl or methoxy group, flavonoid compounds (in free form or glycosides) between 330-360 nm, due to the double bond in position 2,3 and carbonyl group in position 4 flavonols. UV spectra showed two major peaks of absorption (quercetin glycoside, rutin, etc.). The results obtained by UV-VIS spectroscopy has revealed the presence of phenolic derivatives such as cicoric acid (240 nm), caftaric acid (329 nm), caffeic acid (240 nm), rutoside (205 nm), quercetin (255 nm), luteolin (235 nm) in all three species of Echinacea. The echinacoside is absent. This profile mentioned above and the absence of phenolic compound echinacoside leads to the conclusion that species harvested as Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea pallida are Echinacea purpurea also; It can be said that preliminary fingerprinting of Echinacea species through correspondence with the phenolic derivatives profile can be achieved by UV-VIS spectroscopic investigation, which is an adequate technique for preliminary identification and authentication of Echinacea in medicinal herbs.

Keywords: Echinacea species, Fingerprinting, Phenolic compounds, UV-VIS spectroscopy

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30 Intelligent Indoor Localization Using WLAN Fingerprinting

Authors: Gideon C. Joseph

Abstract:

The ability to localize mobile devices is quite important, as some applications may require location information of these devices to operate or deliver better services to the users. Although there are several ways of acquiring location data of mobile devices, the WLAN fingerprinting approach has been considered in this work. This approach uses the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurement as a function of the position of the mobile device. RSSI is a quantitative technique of describing the radio frequency power carried by a signal. RSSI may be used to determine RF link quality and is very useful in dense traffic scenarios where interference is of major concern, for example, indoor environments. This research aims to design a system that can predict the location of a mobile device, when supplied with the mobile’s RSSIs. The developed system takes as input the RSSIs relating to the mobile device, and outputs parameters that describe the location of the device such as the longitude, latitude, floor, and building. The relationship between the Received Signal Strengths (RSSs) of mobile devices and their corresponding locations is meant to be modelled; hence, subsequent locations of mobile devices can be predicted using the developed model. It is obvious that describing mathematical relationships between the RSSIs measurements and localization parameters is one option to modelling the problem, but the complexity of such an approach is a serious turn-off. In contrast, we propose an intelligent system that can learn the mapping of such RSSIs measurements to the localization parameters to be predicted. The system is capable of upgrading its performance as more experiential knowledge is acquired. The most appealing consideration to using such a system for this task is that complicated mathematical analysis and theoretical frameworks are excluded or not needed; the intelligent system on its own learns the underlying relationship in the supplied data (RSSI levels) that corresponds to the localization parameters. These localization parameters to be predicted are of two different tasks: Longitude and latitude of mobile devices are real values (regression problem), while the floor and building of the mobile devices are of integer values or categorical (classification problem). This research work presents artificial neural network based intelligent systems to model the relationship between the RSSIs predictors and the mobile device localization parameters. The designed systems were trained and validated on the collected WLAN fingerprint database. The trained networks were then tested with another supplied database to obtain the performance of trained systems on achieved Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and error rates for the regression and classification tasks involved therein.

Keywords: indoor localization, WLAN fingerprinting, neural networks, classification, regression

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29 Milk Yield and Fingerprinting of Beta-Casein Precursor (CSN2) Gene in Some Saudi Camel Breeds

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Yasser M. Saad, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

Abstract:

Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, fuel, security and capital in many countries, particularly Saudi Arabia. Identification of animal breeds has progressed rapidly during the last decade. Advanced molecular techniques are playing a significant role in breeding or strain protection laws. On the other hand, fingerprinting of some molecular markers related to some productive traits in farm animals represents most important studies to our knowledge, which aim to conserve these local genetic resources, and to the genetic improvement of such local breeds by selective programs depending on gene markers. Milk records were taken two days in each week from female camels of Majahem, Safara, Wathaha, and Hamara breeds, respectively from different private farms in northern Jeddah, Riyadh and Alwagh governorates and average weekly yields were calculated. DNA sequencing for CSN2 gene was used for evaluating the genetic variations and calculating the genetic distance values among four Saudi camel populations which are Hamra(R), Safra(Y), Wadha(W) and Majaheim(M). In addition, this marker was analyzed for reconstructing the Neighbor joining tree among evaluating camel breeds. In respect to milk yield during winter season, result indicated that average weekly milk yield of Safara camel breed (30.05 Kg/week) is significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the other 3 breeds which ranged from 39.68 for Hamara to 42.42 Kg/week for Majahem, while there are not significant differences between these three breeds. The Neighbor Joining analysis that re-constructed based on DNA variations showed that samples are clustered into two unique clades. The first clade includes Y (from Y4 to Y18) and M (from M1, to M9). On the other hand, the second cluster is including all R (from R1 to R6) and W (from W1 to W6). The genetic distance values were equal 0.0068 (between the groups M&Y and R&W) and equal 0 (within each group).

Keywords: milk yield, beta-casein precursor (CSN2), Saudi camel, molecular markers

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28 Genotyping and Phylogeny of Phaeomoniella Genus Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases in Algeria

Authors: A. Berraf-Tebbal, Z. Bouznad, , A.J.L. Phillips

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Phaeomoniella is a fungus genus in the mitosporic ascomycota which includes Phaeomoniella chlamydospora specie associated with two declining diseases on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) namely Petri disease and esca. Recent studies have shown that several Phaeomoniella species also cause disease on many other woody crops, such as forest trees and woody ornamentals. Two new species, Phaeomoniella zymoides and Phaeomoniella pinifoliorum H.B. Lee, J.Y. Park, R.C. Summerbell et H.S. Jung, were isolated from the needle surface of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. in Korea. The identification of species in Phaeomoniella genus can be a difficult task if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the application of molecular methods, particularly PCR-based techniques, may provide an important contribution. MSP-PCR (microsatellite primed-PCR) fingerprinting has proven useful in the molecular typing of fungal strains. The high discriminatory potential of this method is particularly useful when dealing with closely related or cryptic species. In the present study, the application of PCR fingerprinting was performed using the micro satellite primer M13 for the purpose of species identification and strain typing of 84 Phaeomoniella -like isolates collected from grapevines with typical symptoms of dieback. The bands produced by MSP-PCR profiles divided the strains into 3 clusters and 5 singletons with a reproducibility level of 80%. Representative isolates from each group and, when possible, isolates from Eutypa dieback and esca symptoms were selected for sequencing of the ITS region. The ITS sequences for the 16 isolates selected from the MSP-PCR profiles were combined and aligned with sequences of 18 isolates retrieved from GenBank, representing a selection of all known Phaeomoniella species. DNA sequences were compared with those available in GenBank using Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses. The phylogenetic trees of the ITS region revealed that the Phaeomoniella isolates clustered with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora reference sequences with a bootstrap support of 100 %. The complexity of the pathosystems vine-trunk diseases shows clearly the need to identify unambiguously the fungal component in order to allow a better understanding of the etiology of these diseases and justify the establishment of control strategies against these fungal agents.

Keywords: Genotyping, MSP-PCR, ITS, phylogeny, trunk diseases

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27 Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry in Honey Fingerprinting: The Occurrence of 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan and (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one

Authors: Igor Jerkovic

Abstract:

Owing to the attractive sensory properties and low odour thresholds, norisoprenoids (degraded carotenoid-like structures with 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enoic unit) have been identified as aroma contributors in a number of different matrices. C₁₃-Norisoprenoids have been found among volatile organic compounds of various honey types as well as C₉//C₁₀-norisoprenoids or C₁₄/C₁₅-norisoprenoids. Besides degradation of abscisic acid (which produces, e.g., dehydrovomifoliol, vomifoliol, others), the cleavage of the C(9)=C(10) bond of other carotenoid precursors directly generates nonspecific C₁₃-norisoprenoids such as trans-β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-trans-β-damascone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, 3-oxo-α-ionone, β-ionone found in various honey types. β-Damascenone and β-ionone smelling like honey, exhibit the lowest odour threshold values of all C₁₃-norisoprenoids. The presentation is targeted on two uncommon C₁₃-norisoprenoids in the honey flavor that could be used as specific or nonspecific chemical markers of the botanical origin. Namely, after screening of different honey types, the focus was directed on Centaruea cyanus L. and Allium ursinum L. honey. The samples were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and the extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). SPME fiber with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coating was applied for the research of C. cyanus honey headspace and predominant identified compound was 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-2,3,5,6,8,8a-hexahydro-7H-chromen-7-one also known as 2,3,5,6,8,8a-hexahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-7H-1-benzo-pyran-7-one). The oxoedulan structure contains epoxide and it is more volatile in comparison with its hydroxylated precursors. This compound has not been found in other honey types and can be considered specific for C. cyanus honey. The dichloromethane extract of A. ursinum honey contained abundant (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one that was previously isolated as dominant substance from the ether extracts of New Zealand thyme honey. Although a wide variety of degraded carotenoid-like substances have been identified from different honey types, this appears to be rare situation where 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan and (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one have been found that is of great importance for chemical fingerprinting and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis as the major method for the honey classification.

Keywords: 3, 4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan, (E)-4-(r-1', t-2', c-4'-trihydroxy-3', 6', 6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one, honey flavour, C₁₃-norisoprenoids

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26 Electrochemical Radiofrequency Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Measurements for Fingerprinting Single Electron Transfer Processes

Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Mohamed Awadein, Georg Gramse, Luyang Song, He Sun, Wolfgang Schofberger, Stefan Müllegger

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Electron transfer is a crucial part of chemical reactions which drive everyday processes. With the help of an electro-chemical radio frequency scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-RF-STM) setup, we are observing single electron mediated oxidation-reduction processes in molecules like ferrocene and transition metal corroles. Combining the techniques of scanning microwave microscopy and cyclic voltammetry allows us to monitor such processes with attoampere sensitivity. A systematic study of such phenomena would be critical to understanding the nano-scale behavior of catalysts, molecular sensors, and batteries relevant to the development of novel material and energy applications.

Keywords: radiofrequency, STM, cyclic voltammetry, ferrocene

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25 Digital Recording System Identification Based on Audio File

Authors: Michel Kulhandjian, Dimitris A. Pados

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The objective of this work is to develop a theoretical framework for reliable digital recording system identification from digital audio files alone, for forensic purposes. A digital recording system consists of a microphone and a digital sound processing card. We view the cascade as a system of unknown transfer function. We expect same manufacturer and model microphone-sound card combinations to have very similar/near identical transfer functions, bar any unique manufacturing defect. Input voice (or other) signals are modeled as non-stationary processes. The technical problem under consideration becomes blind deconvolution with non-stationary inputs as it manifests itself in the specific application of digital audio recording equipment classification.

Keywords: blind system identification, audio fingerprinting, blind deconvolution, blind dereverberation

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24 Genetic Characterization of Barley Genotypes via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat

Authors: Mustafa Yorgancılar, Emine Atalay, Necdet Akgün, Ali Topal

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In this study, polymerase chain reaction based Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) from DNA fingerprinting techniques were used to investigate the genetic relationships among barley crossbreed genotypes in Turkey. It is important that selection based on the genetic base in breeding programs via ISSR, in terms of breeding time. 14 ISSR primers generated a total of 97 bands, of which 81 (83.35%) were polymorphic. The highest total resolution power (RP) value was obtained from the F2 (0.53) and M16 (0.51) primers. According to the ISSR result, the genetic similarity index changed between 0.64–095; Lane 3 with Line 6 genotypes were the closest, while Line 36 were the most distant ones. The ISSR markers were found to be promising for assessing genetic diversity in barley crossbreed genotypes.

Keywords: barley, crossbreed, genetic similarity, ISSR

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23 A Review on Predictive Sound Recognition System

Authors: Ajay Kadam, Ramesh Kagalkar

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The proposed research objective is to add to a framework for programmed recognition of sound. In this framework the real errand is to distinguish any information sound stream investigate it & anticipate the likelihood of diverse sounds show up in it. To create and industrially conveyed an adaptable sound web crawler a flexible sound search engine. The calculation is clamor and contortion safe, computationally productive, and hugely adaptable, equipped for rapidly recognizing a short portion of sound stream caught through a phone microphone in the presence of frontal area voices and other predominant commotion, and through voice codec pressure, out of a database of over accessible tracks. The algorithm utilizes a combinatorial hashed time-recurrence group of stars examination of the sound, yielding ordinary properties, for example, transparency, in which numerous tracks combined may each be distinguished.

Keywords: fingerprinting, pure tone, white noise, hash function

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22 Microbial Biogeography of Greek Olive Varieties Assessed by Amplicon-Based Metagenomics Analysis

Authors: Lena Payati, Maria Kazou, Effie Tsakalidou

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Table olives are one of the most popular fermented vegetables worldwide, which along with olive oil, have a crucial role in the world economy. They are highly appreciated by the consumers for their characteristic taste and pleasant aromas, while several health and nutritional benefits have been reported as well. Until recently, microbial biogeography, i.e., the study of microbial diversity over time and space, has been mainly associated with wine. However, nowadays, the term 'terroir' has been extended to other crops and food products so as to link the geographical origin and environmental conditions to quality aspects of fermented foods. Taking the above into consideration, the present study focuses on the microbial fingerprinting of the most important olive varieties of Greece with the state-of-the-art amplicon-based metagenomics analysis. Towards this, in 2019, 61 samples from 38 different olive varieties were collected at the final stage of ripening from 13 well spread geographical regions in Greece. For the metagenomics analysis, total DNA was extracted from the olive samples, and the 16S rRNA gene and ITS DNA region were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools for the identification of bacterial and yeasts/fungal diversity, respectively. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed for data clustering based on the average microbial composition of all samples from each region of origin. According to the composition, results obtained, when samples were analyzed separately, the majority of both bacteria (such as Pantoea, Enterobacter, Roserbergiella, and Pseudomonas) and yeasts/fungi (such as Aureobasidium, Debaromyces, Candida, and Cladosporium) genera identified were found in all 61 samples. Even though interesting differences were observed at the relative abundance level of the identified genera, the bacterial genus Pantoea and the yeast/fungi genus Aureobasidium were the dominant ones in 35 and 40 samples, respectively. Of note, olive samples collected from the same region had similar fingerprint (genera identified and relative abundance level) regardless of the variety, indicating a potential association between the relative abundance of certain taxa and the geographical region. When samples were grouped by region of origin, distinct bacterial profiles per region were observed, which was also evident from the PCA analysis. This was not the case for the yeast/fungi profiles since 10 out of the 13 regions were grouped together mainly due to the dominance of the genus Aureobasidium. A second cluster was formed for the islands Crete and Rhodes, both of which are located in the Southeast Aegean Sea. These two regions clustered together mainly due to the identification of the genus Toxicocladosporium in relatively high abundances. Finally, the Agrinio region was separated from the others as it showed a completely different microbial fingerprinting. However, due to the limited number of olive samples from some regions, a subsequent PCA analysis with more samples from these regions is expected to yield in a more clear clustering. The present study is part of a bigger project, the first of its kind in Greece, with the ultimate goal to analyze a larger set of olive samples of different varieties and from different regions in Greece in order to have a reliable olives’ microbial biogeography.

Keywords: amplicon-based metagenomics analysis, bacteria, microbial biogeography, olive microbiota, yeasts/fungi

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21 The Mediterranean Migration Crisis: The North East Hotspot Policy

Authors: Loizos A. Hadjivasiliou, May Chehab

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Confronted with the human tragedy unfolding in the Mediterranean during the 2011-2016 period, the European Union introduced for the first time the “hotspot approach”, the establishment of facilities for initial reception, identification registration, and fingerprinting of asylum seekers and migrants arriving in the EU by sea, at the frontline Member States. However, the lack of a comprehensive collective policy on migration management and border security left the Mediterranean Member States, mainly Italy, Greece, and Cyprus, struggling to overcome these challenges. The current study sheds light on the implementation of the hotspot approach as the frontispiece of the European response to the migration challenges, which, limited to the operational and financial support of the hosting member states, leads to heterogeneous burden-sharing. Within this framework, it highlights the fact that the implementation of the hotspots as a panacea carries the risk of transforming the Mediterranean member states into giant hotspots with unpredictable consequences for the future of the Schengen area.

Keywords: asylum, burden sharing, hotspots, migration management policy, Schengen area

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20 Chemical Fingerprinting of the Ephedrine Pathway to Methamphetamine

Authors: Luke Andrighetto, Paul G. Stevenson, Luke C. Henderson, Jim Pearson, Xavier A. Conlan

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As pseudoephedrine, a common ingredient in cold and flu medications is closely monitored and restricted in Australia, alternative methods of accessing it are of interest. The impurities and by-products of every reaction step of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine and methamphetamine synthesis have been mapped in order to develop a chemical fingerprint based on synthetic route. Likewise, seized methamphetamine contains a combination of different cutting agents and starting materials. Therefore, in-silico optimised two-dimensional HPLC with DryLab® and OpenMS® software has been used to efficiently separate complex seizure samples. An excellent match between simulated and real separations was observed. Targeted separation of model compounds was completed with significantly reduced method development time. This study produced a two-dimensional separation regime that offers unprecedented separation power (separation space) while maintaining a rapid analysis time that is faster than those previously reported for gas chromatography, single dimension high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis.

Keywords: chemical fingerprint, ephedrine, methamphetamine, two-dimensional HPLC

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19 Impact of Chimerism on Y-STR DNA Determination: Sex Mismatch Analysis

Authors: Anupuma Raina, Ajay P. Balayan, Prateek Pandya, Pankaj Shrivastava, Uma Kanga, Tulika Seth

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DNA fingerprinting analysis aids in personal identification for forensic purposes and has always been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers (Y-STR) has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. A criminal/ person committing crime after bone marrow transplantation is a rare situation but not an impossible one. Keeping such a situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification, especially in forensic situation. We choose a female patient (recipient) and a male donor. The pre transplant sample (blood) and post transplant samples (blood, buccal swab, hair roots) were collected from the recipient (patient). The same were compared with the blood sample of the donor using DNA FP technique. Post transplant samples were collected at different interval of time (15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The study was carried out using Y-STR kit at 23 loci. The results determined discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on Y-STR. Hair sample was found the most suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling up to 90 days.

Keywords: bone marrow transplantation, chimerism, DNA profiling, Y-STR

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18 Three Tier Indoor Localization System for Digital Forensics

Authors: Dennis L. Owuor, Okuthe P. Kogeda, Johnson I. Agbinya

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Mobile localization has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to the introduction of wireless networks. Although several localization algorithms and systems have been implemented and discussed in the literature, very few researchers have exploited the gap that exists between indoor localization, tracking, external storage of location information and outdoor localization for the purpose of digital forensics during and after a disaster. The contribution of this paper lies in the implementation of a robust system that is capable of locating, tracking mobile device users and store location information for both indoor and partially outdoor the cloud. The system can be used during disaster to track and locate mobile phone users. The developed system is a mobile application built based on Android, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), JavaScript and MATLAB for the Android mobile users. Using Waterfall model of software development, we have implemented a three level system that is able to track, locate and store mobile device information in secure database (cloud) on almost a real time basis. The outcome of the study showed that the developed system is efficient with regard to the tracking and locating mobile devices. The system is also flexible, i.e. can be used in any building with fewer adjustments. Finally, the system is accurate for both indoor and outdoor in terms of locating and tracking mobile devices.

Keywords: indoor localization, digital forensics, fingerprinting, tracking and cloud

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17 Assessment of DNA Degradation Using Comet Assay: A Versatile Technique for Forensic Application

Authors: Ritesh K. Shukla

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Degradation of biological samples in terms of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) are the major challenges in the forensic investigation which misleads the result interpretation. Currently, there are no precise methods available to circumvent this problem. Therefore, at the preliminary level, some methods are urgently needed to solve this issue. In this order, Comet assay is one of the most versatile, rapid and sensitive molecular biology technique to assess the DNA degradation. This technique helps to assess DNA degradation even at very low amount of sample. Moreover, the expedient part of this method does not require any additional process of DNA extraction and isolation during DNA degradation assessment. Samples directly embedded on agarose pre-coated microscopic slide and electrophoresis perform on the same slide after lysis step. After electrophoresis microscopic slide stained by DNA binding dye and observed under fluorescent microscope equipped with Komet software. With the help of this technique extent of DNA degradation can be assessed which can help to screen the sample before DNA fingerprinting, whether it is appropriate for DNA analysis or not. This technique not only helps to assess degradation of DNA but many other challenges in forensic investigation such as time since deposition estimation of biological fluids, repair of genetic material from degraded biological sample and early time since death estimation could also be resolved. With the help of this study, an attempt was made to explore the application of well-known molecular biology technique that is Comet assay in the field of forensic science. This assay will open avenue in the field of forensic research and development.

Keywords: comet assay, DNA degradation, forensic, molecular biology

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16 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Embelia Ribes by RAPD Markers

Authors: Sabitha Rani A., Nagamani V.

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Embelia ribes Burm.f (Family-Myrsinaceae) commonly known as Vidanga or Baibirang, is one of the important medicinal plants of India. The seed extract is reported to be antidiabetic, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispermatogenic, free radical scavenging activities and widely used in more than 75 Ayurvedic commercial formulations. Among the 100 different species of Embelia, E. ribes is considered as a major source of Embelin, a bioactive compound. Because of high demand and low availability, the seeds of E. ribes are substituted with many cheaper alternatives. Therefore, the present study of RAPD-PCR analysis was undertaken to develop molecular markers for identification of E. ribes. A total of 13 different seed samples of Embelia were collected from different agro-climatic regions of India. The seeds of E.ribes were collected from Kalpetta, Kerala and three different seed samples were collected from traders of Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra. The other nine seed samples were collected from local traders which they have collected from different regions of India. Genomic DNA was isolated from different seed samples E. ribes and RAPD-PCR was performed on 13 different seed samples using 47 random primers. Out of all the primers, only 22 primers produced clear and highly-reproducible banding patterns. The 22 selected RAPD primers generated a total of 280 alleles with an average of 12 alleles per primer pair. In the present study, we have identified three RAPD-PCR markers i.e. OPF5_480 bp, OPH11_520 bp and OPH4_530 bp which can be used for genetic fingerprinting of E. ribes. This methodology can be employed for identification of original E. ribes and also distinguishing it from other substitutes and adulterants.

Keywords: Embelia ribes, RAPD-PCR, primers, genetic analysis

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15 Characterization of Bacteriophage for Biocontrol of Pseudomonas syringae, Causative Agent of Canker in Prunus spp.

Authors: Mojgan Rabiey, Shyamali Roy, Billy Quilty, Ryan Creeth, George Sundin, Robert W. Jackson

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Bacterial canker is a major disease of Prunus species such as cherry (Prunus avium). It is caused by Pseudomonas syringae species including P. syringae pv. syringae (Pss) and P. syringae pv. morsprunorum race 1 (Psm1) and race 2 (Psm2). Concerns over the environmental impact of, and developing resistance to, copper controls call for alternative approaches to disease management. One method of control could be achieved using naturally occurring bacteriophage (phage) infective to the bacterial pathogens. Phages were isolated from soil, leaf, and bark of cherry trees in five locations in the South East of England. The phages were assessed for their host range against strains of Pss, Psm1, and Psm2. The phages exhibited a differential ability to infect and lyse different Pss and Psm isolates as well as some other P. syringae pathovars. However, the phages were unable to infect beneficial bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens. A subset of 18 of these phages were further characterised genetically (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing) and using electron microscopy. The phages are tentatively identified as belonging to the order Caudovirales and the families Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae, with genetic material being dsDNA. Future research will fully sequence the phage genomes. The efficacy of the phage, both individually and in cocktails, to reduce disease progression in vivo will be investigated to understand the potential for practical use of these phages as biocontrol agents.

Keywords: bacteriophage, pseudomonas, bacterial cancker, biological control

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14 Chemical Fingerprinting of Complex Samples With the Aid of Parallel Outlet Flow Chromatography

Authors: Xavier A. Conlan

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Speed of analysis is a significant limitation to current high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/MS systems both of which are used in many forensic investigations. The flow rate limitations of MS detection require a compromise in the chromatographic flow rate, which in turn reduces throughput, and when using modern columns, a reduction in separation efficiency. Commonly, this restriction is combated through the post-column splitting of flow prior to entry into the mass spectrometer. However, this results in a loss of sensitivity and a loss in efficiency due to the post-extra column dead volume. A new chromatographic column format known as 'parallel segmented flow' involves the splitting of eluent flow within the column outlet end fitting, and in this study we present its application in order to interrogate the provenience of methamphetamine samples with mass spectrometry detection. Using parallel segmented flow, column flow rates as high as 3 mL/min were employed in the analysis of amino acids without post-column splitting to the mass spectrometer. Furthermore, when parallel segmented flow chromatography columns were employed, the sensitivity was more than twice that of conventional systems with post-column splitting when the same volume of mobile phase was passed through the detector. These finding suggest that this type of column technology will particularly enhance the capabilities of modern LC/MS enabling both high-throughput and sensitive mass spectral detection.

Keywords: chromatography, mass spectrometry methamphetamine, parallel segmented outlet flow column, forensic sciences

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13 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Camellia sinensis Linn. Leaves

Authors: Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Showkat Rasool Mir, Mohammad Ali, Saiba Shams

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Background: The plant Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Assam (India) and parts of China and Japan. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended green tea for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, enhancement of immune defense, detoxification, as an energizer and to prolong life. The leaves have more than 700 chemical constituents, among which flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E, K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Adulteration and substitution may affect the quality of formulation containing tea leaves. Standardization of medicinal preparation is essential for further therapeutic results and for global acceptance. Hence, chromatographic fingerprint profiles were carried out for establishing the standards. Materials and methods: TLC studies for methanolic extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis were carried out in a new developed solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:3:1). TLC plates were dried in air, visualized in UV at wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm and photographed. Results: Results provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis leaves revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in UV at 254 nm and 366 nm. Conclusion: Fingerprint profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards and thus to keep a check on intentional/unintentional adulteration. TLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective.

Keywords: Cammelia sinensis Linn., standardization, methanolic extract, thin layer chromatography

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12 Plasmonic Nanoshells Based Metabolite Detection for in-vitro Metabolic Diagnostics and Therapeutic Evaluation

Authors: Deepanjali Gurav, Kun Qian

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In-vitro metabolic diagnosis relies on designed materials-based analytical platforms for detection of selected metabolites in biological samples, which has a key role in disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. However, the basic challenge deals with developing a simple approach for metabolic analysis in bio-samples with high sample complexity and low molecular abundance. In this work, we report a designer plasmonic nanoshells based platform for direct detection of small metabolites in clinical samples for in-vitro metabolic diagnostics. We first synthesized a series of plasmonic core-shell particles with tunable nanoshell structures. The optimized plasmonic nanoshells as new matrices allowed fast, multiplex, sensitive, and selective LDI MS (Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) detection of small metabolites in 0.5 μL of bio-fluids without enrichment or purification. Furthermore, coupling with isotopic quantification of selected metabolites, we demonstrated the use of these plasmonic nanoshells for disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. For disease detection, we identified patients with postoperative brain infection through glucose quantitation and daily monitoring by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. For therapeutic evaluation, we investigated drug distribution in blood and CSF systems and validated the function and permeability of blood-brain/CSF-barriers, during therapeutic treatment of patients with cerebral edema for pharmacokinetic study. Our work sheds light on the design of materials for high-performance metabolic analysis and precision diagnostics in real cases.

Keywords: plasmonic nanoparticles, metabolites, fingerprinting, mass spectrometry, in-vitro diagnostics

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