Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 305

Search results for: breeding

305 Domestic and Foreign Terrorism: Evaluation of the Breeding Ground

Authors: T. K. Hung

Abstract:

Terrorism acts have occurred across both developed and developing states, with well-identified motivation and causes. For many years, terrorism eradication has become a major topic yet only passive actions were taken in response to acts. The linkage between the location of terrorism occurrence and breeding ground is not well-documented, resulting in the passive approach used in counter-terrorism nowadays. The evaluation investigates all post-9/11 terrorism affairs considering their state capacity, safety, ease of border access control, religion diversity, and technology access, to measure the level of breeding ground of the states. Those "weak" states with poor border access control, resources capacity and domestic safety are the best breeding ground for terrorists. Although many attacks were caused by religious motivation, religion diversity does not predict the breeding ground. States with censored technology access, particular computer-mediated communication, predict on the terrorism breeding ground, moderated by the level of breeding ground of neighboring states.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, lethality, security, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
304 Breeding Biology and Induced Breeding Status of Freshwater Mud Eel, Monopterus cuchia

Authors: Faruque Miah, Hafij Ali, Enaya Jannat, Tanmoy Modok Shuvra, M. Niamul Naser

Abstract:

In this study, breeding biology and induced breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was observed during the experimental period from February to June, 2013. Breeding biology of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was considered in terms of gonadosomatic index, length-weight relationship of gonad, ova diameter and fecundity. The ova diameter was recorded from 0.3 mm to 4.30 mm and the individual fecundity was recorded from 155 to 1495 while relative fecundity was found from 2.64 to 12.45. The fecundity related to body weight and length of fish was also discussed. A peak of GSI was observed 2.14±0.2 in male and 5.1 ±1.09 in female. Induced breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was also practiced with different doses of different inducing agents like pituitary gland (PG), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and Ovuline-a synthetic hormone in different environmental conditions. However, it was observed that the artificial breeding of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia was not yet succeeded through inducing agents in captive conditions, rather the inducing agent showed negative impacts on fecundity and ovarian tissues. It was seen that mature eggs in the oviduct were reduced, absorbed and some eggs were found in spoiled condition.

Keywords: breeding biology, induced breeding, Monopterus cuchia, human chorionic gonadotropin

Procedia PDF Downloads 685
303 New Strategy for Breeding of Artemisia annua L. for a Sustainable Production of the Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin

Authors: Nadali Babaeian Jelodar, Chan Lai Keng, Arvind Bhatt, Laleh Bordbar, Leow E Shuen, Kamaruzaman Mohamed

Abstract:

Recently artemisinin (the endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone) has received considerable attention because of its antimalarial activity. It is isolated from the aerial part of the Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin is very difficult to synthesise also its production by mean of cell, tissue or organ cultures is very low. Presently, only its extraction from A. annua L. plants remains the only source of the drug. The reported yield of artemisinin from leaves of A. annua L. is very low and unstable, with yields typically less than 1% of leaf dry weight. To increase the percentage of artemisinin, researchers have been engaged in developing new varieties. A review concerning the breeding of A. annua L. is presented. The aim of this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research papers about the breeding conducted on the genus A. annua L., which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of breeders throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of A. annua L. species. Also the future scope of this plant has been emphasized with a view of the importance of breeding of A. annua L. for increasing of artemisinin content. By releasing of new cultivar of A. annua L. and cultivation of this plant offers the opportunity to optimize yield and achieve a uniform, high quality product.

Keywords: Artemisia annua L., breeding, artemisinin, cultivation, medicinal plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
302 Assessment of Breeding Soundness by Comparative Radiography and Ultrasonography of Rabbit Testes

Authors: Adenike O. Olatunji-Akioye, Emmanual B Farayola

Abstract:

In order to improve the animal protein recommended daily intake of Nigerians, there is an upsurge in breeding of hitherto shunned food animals one of which is the rabbit. Radiography and ultrasonography are tools for diagnosing disease and evaluating the anatomical architecture of parts of the body non-invasively. As the rabbit is becoming a more important food animal, to achieve improved breeding of these animals, the best of the species form a breeding stock and will usually depend on breeding soundness which may be evaluated by assessment of the male reproductive organs by these tools. Four male intact rabbits weighing between 1.2 to 1.5 kg were acquired and acclimatized for 2 weeks. Dorsoventral views of the testes were acquired using a digital radiographic machine and a 5 MHz portable ultrasound scanner was used to acquire images of the testes in longitudinal, sagittal and transverse planes. Radiographic images acquired revealed soft tissue images of the testes in all rabbits. The testes lie in individual scrotal sacs sides on both sides of the midline at the level of the caudal vertebrae and thus are superimposed by caudal vertebrae and the caudal limits of the pelvic girdle. The ultrasonographic images revealed mostly homogenously hypoechogenic testes and a hyperechogenic mediastinum testis. The dorsal and ventral poles of the testes were heterogeneously hypoechogenic and correspond to the epididymis and spermatic cord. The rabbit is unique in the ability to retract the testes particularly when stressed and so careful and stressless handling during the procedures is of paramount importance. The imaging of rabbit testes can be safely done using both imaging methods but ultrasonography is a better method of assessment and evaluation of soundness for breeding.

Keywords: breeding soundness, rabbit, radiography, ultrasonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
301 Pathology of the Partridge Gambra Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding in the Algiers Sahel

Authors: H. Saadi-Idouhar, A. Smai, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, A. Saadi, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji

Abstract:

In Algeria, the Partridge gambra is a highly sought-after game species and is appreciated for its meat. Game birds are of interest because they play an important role for hunting federations and for the economy of a country. The breeding of indigenous breeds is necessary because it is of great economic interest. However, gambra breeding in the hunting centre of Zeralda (northern west of Algiers) is not easy, several diseases affecting Perdreaux and reproducing adults have been noted. Most of the diseases observed are parasitic in origin. This study is conducted during the 2010 breeding season. It is based on the autopsy of cadavers collected at the hunting centre and parasitic coprology. Indeed, the flotation enrichment method has identified several parasites such as Eimeria spp., Capillaria spp., and Ascaridia spp. Autopsied corpses show the importance of two major diseases, syngamosis caused to Syngamus trachea and histomonosis caused to Histomonas meleagridis.

Keywords: partridge, livestock, eggs, affections pathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
300 Analysis of Persian Fallow Deer Semen Parameters in Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh-Nava, Behrang Ekrami

Abstract:

Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) is belonging to the family Cervidae and is only found in a few protected areas in the northwest, north, and southwest of Iran. The aims of this study were the analysis of inbreeding and morphometric parameters of semen in male Persian fallow deer to investigate the cause of reduced fertility of this endangered species in Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge, Sari, Iran. The Persian fallow deer semen was collected from four adult bucks randomly during the breeding and non-breeding season from five dehorned and horned deer's by using a ram electroejaculator. The post-mating season collected ejaculates contained abnormal spermatozoa, debris and secretion of accessory glands in horned bucks and accessory glands secretion free of any spermatozoa in dehorned or early velvet budding bucks. Many dag defect abnormalities observed in all samples may be the cause of high rate of polymorphism because of small primary herd size of Persian fallow deer in this area, so needs be evaluated genetically.

Keywords: electroejaculator, Persian fallow deer, reproductive characteristics, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
299 Breeding for Hygienic Behavior in Honey Bees

Authors: Michael Eickermann, Juergen Junk

Abstract:

The Western honey (Apis mellifera) is threatened by a number of parasites, especially the devastating Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is responsible for a high level of mortality over winter, e.g., in Europe and USA. While the use of synthetic pesticides or organic acids has been preferred so far to control this parasite, breeding strategies for less susceptible honey bees are in early stages. Hygienic behavior can be an important tool for controlling Varroa destructor. Worker bees with a high level of this behavior are able to detect infested brood in the cells under the wax lid during pupation and remove them out of the hive. The underlying processes of this behavior are only partly investigated, but it is for sure that hygienic behavior is heritable and therefore, can be integrated into commercial breeding lines. In a first step, breeding lines with a high level of phenotypic hygienic behavior have been identified by using a bioassay for accurate assessment of this trait in a long-term national breeding program in Luxembourg since 2015. Based on the artificial infestation of nucleus colonies with 150 phoretic Varroa destructor mites, the level of phenotypic hygienic behavior was detected by counting the number of mites in all stages, twelve days after infestation. A nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior was overwintered and used for breeding activities in the following years. Artificial insemination was used to combine different breeding lines. Buckfast lines, as well as Carnica lines, were used. While Carnica lines offered only a low increase of hygienic behavior up to maximum 62.5%, Buckfast lines performed much better with mean levels of more than 87.5%. Some mating ends up with a level of 100%. But even with a level of 82.5% Varroa mites are not able to reproduce in the colony anymore. In a final step, a nucleus with a high level of hygienic behavior were build up to full colonies and located at two places in Luxembourg to build up a drone congregation area. Local beekeepers can bring their nucleus to this location for mating the queens with drones offering a high level of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: agiculture, artificial insemination, honey bee, varroa destructor

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
298 Performance and Breeding Potency of Local Buffalo in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Nurgiartiningsih, G. Ciptadi, S. B. Siswijono

Abstract:

This research was done to identify the performance and breeding potency of Local Buffalo in Kangean Island, Sumenep, East Java, Indonesia. Materials used were buffalo and farmer in Kangean Island. Method used was survey with purposive sampling method. Qualitative trait and existing breeding system including the type of production system were directly observed. Quantitative trait consisted of chest girth, body weight and wither height were measured and recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance applying software GENSTAT 14. Results showed the purposes of buffalo breeding in Kangean Island were for production of calves, saving, religion tradition, and buffalo racing. The combination between grazing and cut and carry system were applied in Kangean Island. Forage, grass and agricultural waste product were available abundantly especially, during the wet season. Buffalo in Kangean Island was categorized as swamp buffalo with 48 chromosomes. Observation on qualitative trait indicated that there were three skin color types: gray (81.25%), red (10.42%) and white/albino (8.33%). Analysis on quantitative trait showed that there was no significant difference between male and female buffalo. The performance of male buffalo was 132.56 cm, 119.33 cm and 174.11 cm, for the mean of body length, whither height and chest girth, respectively. The performance of female buffalo were 129.8 cm, 114.0 cm and 166.2 cm, for mean of body length, wither height and chest girth (CG), respectively. The performance of local buffalo in Kangean Island was categorized well. Kangean Island could be promoted as center of buffalo breeding and conservation. For optimal improvement of population number and its genetics value, government policy in buffalo breeding program should be implemented.

Keywords: chromosome, qualitative trait, quantitative trait, swamp buffalo

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
297 The Economic Value of Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle in Kenya

Authors: Caleb B. Sagwa, Tobias O. Okeno, Alexander K. Kahi

Abstract:

Dairy cattle production plays an important role in the Kenyan economy. However, high incidences of mastitis is a major setback to the productivity in this industry. The current dairy cattle breeding objective in Kenya does not include mastitis resistance, mainly because the economic value of mastitis resistance has not been determined. Therefore this study aimed at estimating the economic value of mastitis resistance in dairy cattle in Kenya. Initial input parameters were obtained from literature on dairy cattle production systems in the tropics. Selection index methodology was used to derive the economic value of mastitis resistance. Somatic cell count (SCC) was used an indicator trait for mastitis resistance. The economic value was estimated relative to milk yield (MY). Economic values were assigned to SCC in a selection index such that the overall gain in the breeding goal trait was maximized. The option of estimating the economic value for SCC by equating the response in the trait of interest to its index response was considered. The economic value of mastitis resistance was US $23.64 while maximum response to selection for MY was US $66.01. The findings of this study provide vital information that is a pre-requisite for the inclusion of mastitis resistance in the current dairy cattle breeding goal in Kenya.

Keywords: somatic cell count, milk quality, payment system, breeding goal

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
296 Discrete Breeding Swarm for Cost Minimization of Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Hanan Farag

Abstract:

Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSP) is a multi-objective and multi constrains NP- optimization problem. Traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques have been widely used; however, they could be trapped into the local minimum without reaching the optimum solution, so we propose a hybrid Artificial Intelligence model (AI) with Discrete Breeding Swarm (DBS) added to traditional Artificial Intelligence to avoid this trapping. This model is applied in the cost minimization of the Car Sequencing and Operator Allocation (CSOA) problem. The practical experiment shows that our model outperforms other techniques in cost minimization.

Keywords: parallel job shop scheduling problem, artificial intelligence, discrete breeding swarm, car sequencing and operator allocation, cost minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
295 Estimating Interdependence of Social Statuses in a Cooperative Breeding Birds through Mathematical Modelling

Authors: Sinchan Ghosh, Fahad Al Basir, Santanu Ray, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The cooperatively breeding birds have two major ranks for the sexually mature birds. The breeders mate and produce offspring while the non-breeding helpers increase the chick production rate through help in mate-finding and allo-parenting. However, the chicks also cooperate to raise their younger siblings through warming, defending and food sharing. Although, the existing literatures describes the evolution of allo-parenting in birds but do not differentiate the significance of allo-parenting in sexually immature and mature helpers separately. This study addresses the significance of both immature and mature helpers’ contribution to the total sustainable bird population in a breeding site using Blue-tailed bee-eater as a test-bed species. To serve this purpose, a mathematical model has been built considering each social status and chicks as separate but interactive compartments. Also, to observe the dynamics of each social status with changing prey abundance, a prey population has been introduced as an additional compartment. The model was analyzed for stability condition and was validated using field-data. A simulation experiment was then performed to observe the change in equilibria with a varying helping rate from both the helpers. The result from the simulation experiment suggest that the cooperative breeding population changes its population sizes significantly with a change in helping rate from the sexually immature helpers. On the other hand, the mature helpers do not contribute to the stability of the population equilibrium as much as the immature helpers.

Keywords: Blue-tailed bee eater, Altruism, Mathematical Ethology, Behavioural modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
294 Enhancement of Genetic Diversity through Cross Breeding of Two Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, A. Chakrabarty

Abstract:

Two popular and highly valued fish, Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) are considered for observing genetic enhancement. Cross breeding was performed considering wild and farmed fish through inducing agent. Five RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity among parents and offspring of these two catfish for evaluating genetic enhancement in F1 generation. Considering different genetic data such as banding pattern of DNA, polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC), inter individual pair wise similarity, Nei genetic similarity, genetic distance, phylogenetic relationships, allele frequency, genotype frequency, intra locus gene diversity and average gene diversity of parents and offspring of these two fish were analyzed and finally in both cases higher genetic diversity was found in F1 generation than the parents.

Keywords: Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, cross breeding, genetic enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
293 Recent Advances of Isolated Microspore Culture Response in Durum Wheat

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

Many biotechnology methods have been used in plant breeding programs. The in vitro isolated microspore culture is the one of these methods. For durum wheat, the use of this technology has been limited for a long time due to the low number of embryos produced and also most regeneration plants are albina. The objective of this paper is to show that using isolated microspores culture on durum wheat is possible due to the development of the new methods using the new pretreatment of the microspores before their isolation and cultivation.

Keywords: isolated microspore culture, pretreatments, in vitro embryogenesis, plant breeding program

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
292 The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in the Wetlands of North East of Algeria

Authors: Aicha Beya Mammeria, Idir Bitam

Abstract:

Our study focuses on the distribution of the white stork "Ciconia ciconia L. 1758" in the wetlands of El Tarf (North eastern of Algeria): recognized by its remarkable number of breeding pairs, monitoring of nesting, using a GPS has been performed in an attempt to explain the functioning of populations and population strategies for an overall design of its distribution, which has not so far been investigated in this region. Between 2012 and 2013, the number of breeding pairs has increased considerably from 174 in 1996 to 475 in 2007 and 968 in 2013. It should be noted that in the distribution of breeding pairs between 1996 and 2011, there is a significant development since the density of nests increased from 25.22 in 1996 to 84.16 couples/100 km² in 2013. More endemic bread apears in the region, this fluctuation is related to climatic change and changing season. Changes related to local climatic conditions might induce binding conditions for the development of this species.

Keywords: white stork, Ciconia ciconia, wetland El Tarf, northeast Algeria, climatic changing, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
291 Manganese Contamination Exacerbates Reproductive Stress in a Suicidally-Breeding Marsupial

Authors: Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Amanda C. Niehaus, Skye F. Cameron, Frank A. Von Hippel, John Postlethwait​, Robbie S. Wilson

Abstract:

For suicidal breeders, the physiological stresses and energetic costs of breeding are fatal. Environmental stressors such as pollution should compound these costs, yet suicidal breeding is so rare among mammals that this is unknown. Here, we explored the consequences of metal contamination to the health, aging and performance of endangered, suicidally-breeding northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus) living near an active manganese mine on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, Australia. We found respirable manganese dust at levels exceeding international recommendations even 20km from mining sites and substantial accumulation of manganese within quolls’ hair, testes, and in two brain regions—the neocortex and cerebellum, responsible for sensory perception and motor function, respectively. Though quolls did not differ in sprint speeds, motor skill, or manoeuvrability, those with higher accumulation of manganese crashed at lower speeds during manoeuvrability tests, indicating a potential effect on sight or cognition. Immune function and telomere length declined over the breeding season, as expected with ageing, but manganese contamination exacerbated immune declines and suppressed cortisol. Unexpectedly, male quolls with higher levels of manganese had longer telomeres, supporting evidence of unusual telomere dynamics among Dasyurids—though whether this affects their lifespan is unknown. We posit that sublethal contamination via pollution, mining, or urbanisation imposes physiological costs on wildlife that may diminish reproductive success or survival.

Keywords: ecotoxicology, heavy metal, manganese, telomere length, cortisol, locomotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
290 Incidence and Etiology of Neonatal Calf Diarrhea in the Region of Blida, Algeria

Authors: A. Dadda, D. Khelef, K. Ait-Oudia, R. Kaidi

Abstract:

Neonatal calf diarrhea is the most important disease of neonatal calves and results in the greatest economic losses due to disease in this age group in both dairy and beef calves. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the morbidity and the mortality of neonatal diarrhea in dairy calves also to determine aetiology and risk factors were caused diarrhea in dairy veal under 60 days old. A total of 324 claves, housed in 30 dairy breeding were followed during two velage season from January to Juan 2013. The total mortality was 5,9% and was significantly higher in calves had less than 15 days of age. The incidence rate of diarrhea was 31,5% and peaked in the first two weeks after velage. The main causes were breeding controls, defect of passive immunity, old of calf, production season, and nutrient of pregnant cattle, veal’s housing and infectious agents. ELISA test on 22 fecal samples revealed that the 31, 82% of dairy breeding were infected, by cryptosporidium parvum in 13, 6% of study population, E.Coli F5 in 9% and Rotavirus with rate of 4, 5%.

Keywords: diarrhoea, neonatal, mortality, aetiology, risk factors, incidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 557
289 Breeding Biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens at Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Awais

Abstract:

Study on the nesting biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens was conducted at Hazara University, Garden Campus (125 acres), Mansehra during the 2013 breeding season (June to September). Details about nest locations, tree characteristics, nest and egg characteristics were recorded. Mean nest density of House Crow was 2.4 nests/ acre. Mean tree and nest height were 14.8±6.30 and 11.8±5.42m. Mean tree canopy spread 9.5±2.48m. Mean maximum and minimum nest diameters were 42.3±2.08 and 39.0±1.73cm respectively while maximum and minimum diameters of nest cup were 15.6±1.52 and 13.3±1.15cm respectively. Nest depth and nest cup depth were measured 19.3±2.08 and 8.3±1.15cm respectively. Mean nest weight was 1.4±0.24 kg. Mean clutch size was 4.0 (ranged 1–6). Mean egg length was 38.6±0.69mm, breadth 26.0±0.69mm, egg volume 13.3±0.83cm3 and egg shape index 1.42±0.83. Mean egg weight was 12.3±0.70g. Egg and nest success was calculated 55.1% and 69.0%. Hatchlings and fledglings produced per nest were 2.20 and 1.44 respectively. Main reasons for reproductive failures were unhatched eggs, poor nest construction, bad weather conditions and observer’s disturbance.

Keywords: breeding, Corvus splendens, fledglings, Hazara university, house crow, Mansehra, populus orientalis

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
288 Japanese Quail Breeding: The Second in Poultry Industry

Authors: A. Smaï, H. Idouhar-Saadi, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, A. Aboun, S.Doumandji

Abstract:

The quail is the smallest member of the order fowl. His captive breeding has been practiced for centuries by the Japanese. Knowing that in the literature, it is mentioned that the end of lay is noted for the age of 6 months, our work has revealed a good egg production by females aged up to 35 weeks of age. In the same vein, our study focused on various parameters such as weight, diet and the number of eggs laid and this in order to better know the potential production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg production has started from the 8th week of age of breeding, crop them and their counts are conducted daily basis until the age of 35 weeks. Indeed, biometric parameters are studied such as weight, length, and the largest diameter, the shape index, the index of shell, in order to analyze the physical condition of eggs by females of age. Until the age of 22 weeks, the eggs have maintained good biometric features. Japanese quail are best producing eggs. Hatchability is also considered. They are excellent poultry yields, since they begin laying eggs in two months and can provide abundant nesting with females over 8 months in our study. Other farms results reveal conclusions. Indeed, one aspect remains to be developed; it is the analysis of nutritional and therapeutic values of eggs over the age of females. The latter, given their wealth is a dietary supplement of animal origin with dietary value (it contains 0 cholesterol) that characterizes the quail eggs. Raising quail among other reproduction requires minimal when compared to other domestic birds space, this is the second breeding, in terms of importance after the chicken. Therefore, in the case of a farm that works exclusively in the production of eggs, requires minimal work and free space, as well as reduced costs.

Keywords: Japanese quail, reproduction, eggs, biometrics, reproductive age

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
287 Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province

Authors: Serife Gulden Yilmaz, Suleyman Karaman

Abstract:

Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).

Keywords: sheep breeds, local, spatial distribution, agglomeration, Antalya

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
286 Income Analysis of Beef Cattle Breeders for Traditional Profit-Sharing System, Tesang, in South Sulawesi Province

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Muh. Aminawar, Siti Nurlaelah, Amidah Amrawaty

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the income of beef cattle breeders from the traditional profit-sharing system named Tesang. This study was conducted in the province of South Sulawesi start from April to July 2014, used quantitative methods and data analysis is of income. The population is all beef cattle breeders who perform for the traditional profit-sharing system (Tesang) in Barru Regency and Bone Regency, province of South Sulawesi. Samples are beef cattle breeders who breeding the cattle with the traditional profit-sharing system (Tesang) in Barru Regency and Bone Regency using breeding system and cattle enlargement system (expense) by fifty breeders. The results showed beef cattle breeder’s income from the profit-sharing system (Tesang) where enlargement system (expense) at6th month maintenance periods higher than the profit-sharing system (Tesang) with using breeding the cattle.

Keywords: income, beef cattle, profit-sharing system, Teseng

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
285 Across-Breed Genetic Evaluation of New Zealand Dairy Goats

Authors: Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Dorian J. Garrick, Hugh T. Blair

Abstract:

Many dairy goat farmers of New Zealand milk herds of mixed breed does. Simultaneous evaluation of sires and does across breed is required to select the best animals for breeding on a common basis. Across-breed estimated breeding values (EBV) and estimated producing values for 208-day lactation yields of milk (MY), fat (FY), protein (PY) and somatic cell score (SCS; LOG2(SCC) of Saanen, Nubian, Alpine, Toggenburg and crossbred dairy goats from 75 herds were estimated using a test day model. Evaluations were based on 248,734 herd-test records representing 125,374 lactations from 65,514 does sired by 930 sires over 9 generations. Averages of MY, FY and PY were 642 kg, 21.6 kg and 19.8 kg, respectively. Average SCC and SCS were 936,518 cells/ml milk and 9.12. Pure-bred Saanen does out-produced other breeds in MY, FY and PY. Average EBV for MY, FY and PY compared to a Saanen base were Nubian -98 kg, 0.1 kg and -1.2 kg; Alpine -64 kg, -1.0 kg and -1.7 kg; and Toggenburg -42 kg, -1.0 kg and -0.5 kg. First-cross heterosis estimates were 29 kg MY, 1.1 kg FY and 1.2 kg PY. Average EBV for SCS compared to a Saanen base were Nubian 0.041, Alpine -0.083 and Toggenburg 0.094. Heterosis for SCS was 0.03. Breeding values are combined with respective economic values to calculate an economic index used for ranking sires and does to reflect farm profit.

Keywords: breed effects, dairy goats, milk traits, test-day model

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
284 Reliability of Swine Estrous Detector Probe in Dairy Cattle Breeding

Authors: O. O. Leigh, L. C. Agbugba, A. O. Oyewunmi, A. E. Ibiam, A. Hassan

Abstract:

Accuracy of insemination timing is a key determinant of high pregnancy rates in livestock breeding stations. The estrous detector probes are a recent introduction into the Nigerian livestock farming sector. Many of these probes are species-labeled and they measure changes in the vaginal mucus resistivity (VMR) during the stages of the estrous cycle. With respect to size and shaft conformation, the Draminski® swine estrous detector probe (sEDP) is quite similar to the bovine estrous detector probe. We investigated the reliability of the sEDP at insemination time on two farms designated as FM A and FM B. Cows (Bunaji, n=20 per farm) were evaluated for VMR at 16th h post standard OvSynch protocol, with concurrent insemination on FM B only. The difference in the mean VMR between FM A (221 ± 24.36) Ohms and FM B (254 ± 35.59) Ohms was not significant (p > 0.05). Sixteen cows (80%) at FM B were later (day 70) confirmed pregnant via rectal palpation and calved at term. These findings suggest consistency in VMR evaluated with sEDP at insemination as well as a high predictability for VMR associated with good pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. We conclude that Draminski® swine estrous detector probe is reliable in determining time of insemination in cattle breeding stations.

Keywords: dairy cattle, insemination, swine estrous probe, vaginal mucus resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
283 First Breeding Populations of The Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in a Peri-Urban Wetland Areas (Marsh of Boussedra; North-East of Algeria)

Authors: Boudraa Wahiba, Chettibi Farah, Lahlah Naouel, Bouslama Zihad, Houhamdi Moussa

Abstract:

The marsh of Boussedra (55 ha) is a peri-urban wetland, located in the city of El - Bouni, wilaya of Annaba (North-east of the Algeria). This city hosts every year, 53 species of waterfowl, belonging to 15 different families, of which the most represented family is the Anatidae with almost 12 species. The Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) is the only representative of the family of the threskiornithidae. After a total absence for almost a decade, this species has established in North Africa and started breeding since 2000. The Glossy ibis (plegadis falcinellus), breeds with low numbers in distant areas. At the wetland of Boussedra, the population of this species was observed with numbers approaching 160 individuals. During the breeding season of 2014 (between march and july), this species bred in mixed heronries (Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis , Little egret Egretta garzetta, The black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax , Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides and Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus), where a total of 120 nests were counted. This represents the largest colony observed in North Africa. The reproduction of the studied species took place on a Tamaricaceae (Tamarix gallica), where more than 2000 nest were constructed. During this breeding season, we have monitored the colony's installation and evolution and tried to characterize the reproduction, at the urban water plan of Boussedra (measurements of nests, measurements of eggs and monitoring the growing rate and weight gaining of the chicks, since their birth until their flight).

Keywords: glossy ibis, reproduction, peri-urban wetland, mixed heronry, Boussedra, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
282 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand

Abstract:

The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
281 Genetic Characterization of Barley Genotypes via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat

Authors: Mustafa Yorgancılar, Emine Atalay, Necdet Akgün, Ali Topal

Abstract:

In this study, polymerase chain reaction based Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) from DNA fingerprinting techniques were used to investigate the genetic relationships among barley crossbreed genotypes in Turkey. It is important that selection based on the genetic base in breeding programs via ISSR, in terms of breeding time. 14 ISSR primers generated a total of 97 bands, of which 81 (83.35%) were polymorphic. The highest total resolution power (RP) value was obtained from the F2 (0.53) and M16 (0.51) primers. According to the ISSR result, the genetic similarity index changed between 0.64–095; Lane 3 with Line 6 genotypes were the closest, while Line 36 were the most distant ones. The ISSR markers were found to be promising for assessing genetic diversity in barley crossbreed genotypes.

Keywords: barley, crossbreed, genetic similarity, ISSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
280 Wheat Dihaploid and Somaclonal Lines Screening for Resistance to P. nodorum

Authors: Lidia Kowalska, Edward Arseniuk

Abstract:

Glume and leaf blotch is a disease of wheat caused by necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. It is a serious pathogen in many wheat-growing areas throughout the world. Use of resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical means to control the above-mentioned disease. Plant breeders and pathologists have worked intensively to incorporate resistance to the pathogen in new cultivars. Conventional methods of breeding for resistance can be supported by using the biotechnological ones, i.e., somatic embryogenesis and androgenesis. Therefore, an effort was undertaken to compare genetic variation in P. nodorum resistance among winter wheat somaclones, dihaploids and conventional varieties. For the purpose, a population of 16 somaclonal and 4 dihaploid wheat lines from six crosses were used to assess their resistance to P. nodorum under field conditions. Lines were grown in disease-free (fungicide protected) and inoculated micro plots in 2 replications of a split-plot design in a single environment. The plant leaves were inoculated with a mixture of P. nodorum isolates three times. Spore concentrations were adjusted to 4 x 10⁶ of viable spores per one milliliter. The disease severity was rated on a scale, where > 90% – susceptible, < 10% - resistant. Disease ratings of plant leaves showed statistically significant differences among all lines tested. Higher resistance to P. nodorum was observed more often on leaves of somaclonal lines than on dihaploid ones. On average, disease, severity reached 15% on leaves of somaclones and 30% on leaves of dihaploids. Some of the genotypes were showing low leaf infection, e.g. dihaploid D-33 (disease severity 4%) and a somaclone S-1 (disease severity 2%). The results from this study prove that dihaploid and somaclonal variation might be successfully used as an additional source of wheat resistance to the pathogen and it could be recommended to use in commercial breeding programs. The reported results prove that biotechnological methods may effectively be used in breeding for disease resistance of wheat to fungal necrotrophic pathogens.

Keywords: glume and leaf blotch, somaclonal, androgenic variation, wheat, resistance breeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
279 A Review on the Challenge and Need of Goat Semen Production and Artificial Insemination in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj K. Jha, Ajeet K. Jha, Pravin Mishra

Abstract:

Goat raising is a popular livestock sub-commodity of mixed farming system in Nepal. Besides food and nutritional security, it has an important role in the economy of many peoples. Goat breeding through AI is commonly practiced worldwide. It is a very basic tool to speed up genetic improvement and increase productivity. For the goat genetic improvement program, the government of Nepal has imported some specialized exotic goat breeds and semen. Some progress has been made in the initiation of selective breeding within the local breeds and practice of AI with imported semen. Importance of AI in goats has drawn more attention among goat farmers. However, importing semen is not a permanent solution at national level; rather, it is more important to develop and establish its own frozen semen production technique. Semen quality and its relationship with fertility are said to be a major concern in animal production, hence accurate measurement of semen fertilizing potential is of great importance. The survivability of sperm cells depends on semen quality. Survivability of sperm cells is assessed through visual and microscopic evaluation of spermatozoal progressive motility and morphology. In Nepal, there is lack of scientific information on seminal attributes of buck semen, its dilution, cooling and freezing technique under management conditions of Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide brief information about breeding system, semen production and artificial insemination in Nepalese goat.

Keywords: artificial insemination, goat, Nepal, semen

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
278 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage, manure management

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
277 RNA Interference Technology as a Veritable Tool for Crop Improvement and Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance

Authors: M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The recent discovery of the phenomenon of RNA interference has led to its application in various aspects of plant improvement. Crops can be modified by engineering novel RNA interference pathways that create small RNA molecules to alter gene expression in crops or plant pests. RNA interference can generate new crop quality traits or provide protection against insects, nematodes and pathogens without introducing new proteins into food and feed products. This is an advantage in contrast with conventional procedures of gene transfer. RNA interference has been used to develop crop varieties resistant to diseases, pathogens and insects. Male sterility has been engineered in plants using RNA interference. Better quality crops have been developed through the application of RNA interference etc. The objective of this paper is to highlight the application of RNA interference in crop improvement and to project its potential future use to solve problems of agricultural production in relation to plant breeding.

Keywords: RNA interference, application, crop Improvement, agricultural production

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
276 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality, polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 378