Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Prabhu Rajagopal

42 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

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41 Stability Optimization of NABH₄ via PH and H₂O:NABH₄ Ratios for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

Authors: Parth Mehta, Vedasri Bai Khavala, Prabhu Rajagopal, Tiju Thomas


There is an increasing need for alternative clean fuels, and hydrogen (H₂) has long been considered a promising solution with a high calorific value (142MJ/kg). However, the storage of H₂ and expensive processes for its generation have hindered its usage. Sodium borohydride (NaBH₄) can potentially be used as an economically viable means of H₂ storage. Thus far, there have been attempts to optimize the life of NaBH₄ (half-life) in aqueous media by stabilizing it with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for various pH values. Other reports have shown that H₂ yield and reaction kinetics remained constant for all ratios of H₂O to NaBH₄ > 30:1, without any acidic catalysts. Here we highlight the importance of pH and H₂O: NaBH₄ ratio (80:1, 40:1, 20:1 and 10:1 by weight), for NaBH₄ stabilization (half-life reaction time at room temperature) and corrosion minimization of H₂ reactor components. It is interesting to observe that at any particular pH>10 (e.g., pH = 10, 11 and 12), the H₂O: NaBH₄ ratio does not have the expected linear dependence with stability. On the contrary, high stability was observed at the ratio of 10:1 H₂O: NaBH₄ across all pH>10. When the H₂O: NaBH₄ ratio is increased from 10:1 to 20:1 and beyond (till 80:1), constant stability (% degradation) is observed with respect to time. For practical usage (consumption within 6 hours of making NaBH₄ solution), 15% degradation at pH 11 and NaBH₄: H₂O ratio of 10:1 is recommended. Increasing this ratio demands higher NaOH concentration at the same pH, thus requiring a higher concentration or volume of acid (e.g., HCl) for H₂ generation. The reactions are done with tap water to render the results useful from an industrial standpoint. The observed stability regimes are rationalized based on complexes associated with NaBH₄ when solvated in water, which depend sensitively on both pH and NaBH₄: H₂O ratio.

Keywords: hydrogen, sodium borohydride, stability optimization, H₂O:NaBH₄ ratio

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40 Patient-Friendly Hand Gesture Recognition Using AI

Authors: K. Prabhu, K. Dinesh, M. Ranjani, M. Suhitha


During the tough times of covid, those people who were hospitalized found it difficult to always convey what they wanted to or needed to the attendee. Sometimes the attendees might also not be there. In that case, the patients can use simple hand gestures to control electrical appliances (like its set it for a zero watts bulb)and three other gestures for voice note intimation. In this AI-based hand recognition project, NodeMCU is used for the control action of the relay, and it is connected to the firebase for storing the value in the cloud and is interfaced with the python code via raspberry pi. For three hand gestures, a voice clip is added for intimation to the attendee. This is done with the help of Google’s text to speech and the inbuilt audio file option in the raspberry pi 4. All the five gestures will be detected when shown with their hands via the webcam, which is placed for gesture detection. The personal computer is used for displaying the gestures and for running the code in the raspberry pi imager.

Keywords: nodeMCU, AI technology, gesture, patient

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39 Development of Partial Sulphonated Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride - Hexafluoro Propylene)–Montmorillonite Nano-Composites as Proton Exchange Membranes

Authors: K. Selvakumar, J. Kalaiselvimary, B. Jansirani, M. Ramesh Prabhu


Proton conducting sulphonated poly (vinylidene fluoride- hexafluoro propylene) PVdF-HFP membranes were modified with nano – sized montmorillonite (MMT) through homogeneous dispersive mixing and solution casting technique for fuel cell applications. The prepared composite membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1HNMR technique. The suitability of the composite membranes for fuel cell application was evaluated in terms of water uptake, swelling behavior, and proton conductivity. These composites showed good conductivities and durability and expected to be used in the development of proton exchange membrane for fuel cells.

Keywords: composite, proton conduction, sulphonation, water uptake

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38 Implementation of the Interlock Protocol to Enhance Security in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Vikram Prabhu, Mohammad Shikh Bahaei


This paper depicts the implementation of a new infallible technique to protect an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle from cyber-attacks. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be vulnerable to cyber-attacks because of jammers or eavesdroppers over the network which pose as a threat to the security of the UAV. In the field of network security, there are quite a few protocols which can be used to establish a secure connection between UAVs and their Operators. In this paper, we discuss how the Interlock Protocol could be implemented to foil the Man-in-the-Middle Attack. In this case, Wireshark has been used as the sniffer (man-in-the-middle). This paper also shows a comparison between the Interlock Protocol and the TCP Protocols using cryptcat and netcat and at the same time highlights why the Interlock Protocol is the most efficient security protocol to prevent eavesdropping over the communication channel.

Keywords: interlock protocol, Diffie-Hellman algorithm, unmanned aerial vehicles, control station, man-in-the-middle attack, Wireshark

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37 Subjective versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance (MR) Images

Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.

Keywords: medical resonance (MR) images, difference mean opinion score (DMOS), full reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA)

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36 A Phase Field Approach to Model Crack Interface Interaction in Ceramic Matrix Composites

Authors: Dhaladhuli Pranavi, Amirtham Rajagopal


There are various failure modes in ceramic matrix composites; notable ones are fiber breakage, matrix cracking and fiber matrix debonding. Crack nucleation and propagation in microstructure of such composites requires an understanding of interaction of crack with the multiple inclusion heterogeneous system and interfaces. In order to assess structural integrity, the material parameters especially of the interface that governs the crack growth should be determined. In the present work, a nonlocal phase field approach is proposed to model the crack interface interaction in such composites. Nonlocal approaches help in understanding the complex mechanisms of delamination growth and mitigation and operates at a material length scale. The performance of the proposed formulation is illustrated through representative numerical examples. The model proposed is implemented in the framework of the finite element method. Several parametric studies on interface crack interaction are conducted. The proposed model is easy and simple to implement and works very well in modeling fracture in composite systems.

Keywords: composite, interface, nonlocal, phase field

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35 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa


This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

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34 A Prospective Study on the Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Authors: Prabhu Thangaraju, Manoj Deepak, A. Sivakumar


Removal of inter vertebral disc along with spinal fusion has many disadvantages such as causing stress fractures. If it is possible regenerate the spine it would be possible avoid the complications of the surgery and achieve better results. Our study involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerating the discs. Our study involved 10 patients who presented with degenerative disc disease between 2008-2011 in our hospital. After adequate pre-operative check prepared mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the disc spaces. These patients were subjected to conservative therapy for a minimum of six weeks before they were accepted into the study. They were followed up regularly for a minimum of 2years with serial radiographs and MRI. 8 out of the 10 patients had completed reduction in the pain. The T2 weighted MRI images in 9 out of the 10 patients showed a bright signal compared the previous Images which indicated that there was improvement in the hydration levels. From the case study of 10 patients who were subjected to mesenchymal cell therapy in our hospital, we can conclude that the use of mesenchymal cells in treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration in a safe and effective option.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, intervertebral disc, the spine, disc degeneration

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33 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal


Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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32 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri


The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

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31 Nutrient Foramina of the Lunate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: P.J. Jiji, B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai


Background: The lunate bone dislocation can lead to the compression of the median nerve and subsequent carpal tunnel syndrome. The dislocation can interrupt the vasculature and would cause avascular necrosis. The objective of the present study was to study the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried lunate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 28 lunate bones (13 right sided and 15 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the lunate bones. The foramen ranged between 2 and 10. The foramina were more in number over the dorsal surface (average number 3.3) in comparison to the palmar surface (average number 2.4). Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided important data about the nutrient foramina of the lunate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the lunatomalacia and Kienbock’s disease.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, foramen, lunate, nutrient

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30 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite

Authors: U. Achutha Kini, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, P. R. Prabhu, M. C. Gowri Shankar


Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.

Keywords: hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, heat treatment, pin on disc wear testing machine

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29 Behavioral and Electroantennographic Responses of the Tea Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus, Eichhoff (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) to Volatiles Compounds of Montanoa bipinnatifida (Compositae: Asteraceae) and Development of a Kairomone Trap

Authors: Sachin Paul James, Selvasundaram Rajagopal, Muraleedharan Nair, Babu Azariah


The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (= Xyleborus fornicatus) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) is one of the major pests of tea in southern India and Sri Lanka. The partially dried cut stem of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida (C.Koch) (Compositae: Asteraceae) reported to attract shot hole borer beetles in the field. Collection, isolation, identification and quantification of the emitted volatiles from the partially dried cut stems of M. bipinnatifida using dynamic head space and GC-MS revealed the presence of seven compounds viz. α- pinene, β- phellandrene, β - pinene, D- limonene, trans-caryophyllene, iso- caryophyllene and germacrene– D. Behavioural bioassays using electroantennogram (EAG) and wind tunnel proved that, among these identified compounds only α - pinene, trans-caryophyllene, β – phellandrene and germacrene-D evoked significant behavioral response and maximum response was obtained to a specific blend of these four compounds @ 10:1:0.1:3. Field trapping experiments of this blend conducted in the SHB infested field using multiple funnel traps further proved the efficiency of the blend with a mean trap catch of 176.7 ± 13.1 beetles. Mass trapping studies in the field helped to develop a kairomone trap for the management of SHB in the tea fields of southern India.

Keywords: electroantennogram, kairomone trap, Montanoa bipinnatifida, tea shot hole borer

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28 Investigation of Bubble Growth During Nucleate Boiling Using CFD

Authors: K. Jagannath, Akhilesh Kotian, S. S. Sharma, Achutha Kini U., P. R. Prabhu


Boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained is compared with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation and the equations in comparison with the established results.

Keywords: bubble growth, computational fluid dynamics, detachment diameter, terminal velocity

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27 Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

Authors: Nicole Nazario Bayon, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh


Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles have sparked interest over the past decade due to their characteristics such as thermal stability, extreme hardness, low production cost, and similar optical properties to gold. In this study, TiN nanoparticles were synthesized via a thermal benzene route to obtain a black powder of nanoparticles. The final product was drop cast onto conductive carbon tape and sputter coated with gold/palladium at a thickness of 4 nm for characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) that revealed they were spherical. ImageJ software determined the average size of the TiN nanoparticles was 79 nm in diameter. EDX revealed the elements present in the sample and showed no impurities. Further characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed characteristic peaks of cubic phase titanium nitride, and crystallite size was calculated to be 14 nm using the Debye-Scherrer method. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed the size and size distribution of the TiN nanoparticles, with average size being 154 nm. Zeta potential concluded the surface of the TiN nanoparticles is negatively charged. Biocompatibility studies using MTT(3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay showed TiN nanoparticles are not cytotoxic at low concentrations (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 mcg/well), and cell viability began to decrease at a concentration of 100 mcg/well.

Keywords: biocompatibility, characterization, cytotoxicity, nanoparticles, synthesis, titanium nitride

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26 Women's Menstrual Experience in India: A Psycho-Social Approach

Authors: Bhavna Rajagopal, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni


Today women experience more menstrual cycles than their ancestors did a hundred years ago, owing to early puberty, fewer pregnancies and dietary changes. Much of the research in menstruation is located in the medical domain with a focus on physical symptoms. The research in psychology is largely concerned with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), whereas the focus in sociology is on social and cultural practices relating to menstruation. Research that simultaneously studies the physical, psychological, social and cultural aspects is lacking. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify socio-cultural, psychological and physical factors that interact to influence a woman’s experience of menstruation in the urban setting. The study included seven unmarried women in the age group of 24-30 and data was obtained through a focus group discussion. The transcript of the focus group discussion was thematically analysed. Two major themes relating to the self and social experience of menstruation emerged. Themes relating to the self included menarcheal experiences, self-perception, mood and management of menstrual hygiene and symptoms while themes relating to social experience included the construction of menstruation by family and peers, and cultural factors. Attitudes towards the menstrual cycle appeared to be primarily influenced by severity of symptoms and the resulting disruption to daily life. Outcomes of this study have indicated that future research needs to study menstruation and its impact on women’s wellbeing by adopting a socio-ecological approach and by collecting data using the whole cycle approach across a woman’s reproductive years.

Keywords: India, menstrual cycle, psychosocial approach, wellbeing

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25 Effect of Diindolylmethane on BBN-Induced Bladder Carcinogenesis in Rats

Authors: Sundaresan Sivapatham, B. Prabhu


Cancer results from a multistage, multi-mechanism carcinogenesis process that involves mutagenic, cell death and epigenetic mechanisms, during the three distinguishable but closely allied stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Chemoprevention is promising in the realm of cancer prevention and it has been shown to reduce the risk of development of carcinoma in highly susceptible individuals such as those with known genetic mutations or high level of risk factors. The present study is aimed at the need of early detection of bladder cancer in order to improve performance in the treatment of this disease. Consumption of certain natural products like DIM is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence in humans. The study showed the protective effects of Diindolylmethane in N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine treated rats. Results of the study had shown the changes in the tumor markers, biomarkers and histopathological alterations in experimental rats when compared to control rats. The protective effects of DIM were shown from the results of cell proliferation, apoptotic markers and histopathological findings when compared with experimental control animals. Hence, our results speculate that the tumor markers, apoptotic markers, histopathological changes and cell proliferation index measured as PCNA serves as an indicator suggestive of protective effects of DIM in BBN induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Keywords: bladder cancer, N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, diindolylmethane, histopathology

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24 Non Interferometric Quantitative Phase Imaging of Yeast Cells

Authors: P. Praveen Kumar, P. Vimal Prabhu, Renu John


In biology most microscopy specimens, in particular living cells are transparent. In cell imaging, it is hard to create an image of a cell which is transparent with a very small refractive index change with respect to the surrounding media. Various techniques like addition of staining and contrast agents, markers have been applied in the past for creating contrast. Many of the staining agents or markers are not applicable to live cell imaging as they are toxic. In this paper, we report theoretical and experimental results from quantitative phase imaging of yeast cells with a commercial bright field microscope. We reconstruct the phase of cells non-interferometrically based on the transport of intensity equations (TIE). This technique estimates the axial derivative from positive through-focus intensity measurements. This technique allows phase imaging using a regular microscope with white light illumination. We demonstrate nano-metric depth sensitivity in imaging live yeast cells using this technique. Experimental results will be shown in the paper demonstrating the capability of the technique in 3-D volume estimation of living cells. This real-time imaging technique would be highly promising in real-time digital pathology applications, screening of pathogens and staging of diseases like malaria as it does not need any pre-processing of samples.

Keywords: axial derivative, non-interferometric imaging, quantitative phase imaging, transport of intensity equation

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23 Turmeric Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nicole Nazario Bayon, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh


Cerium oxide and turmeric have antioxidant properties, which have gained interest among researchers to study their applications in the field of biomedicine, such asanti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial applications. In this study, the turmeric extract was prepared and mixed with cerium nitrate hexahydrate, stirred continuously to obtain a homogeneous solution and then heated on a hot plate to get the supernatant evaporated, then calcinated at 600°C to obtain the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles through Scanning Electron Microscopy determined the particle size to be in the range of 70 nm to 250 nm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy determined the elemental composition of cerium and oxygen. Individual particles were identified through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, in which the particles were determined to be spherical and in the size of around 70 nm. The presence of cerium oxide was assured by analyzing the spectrum obtained through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be face-centered cubic by analyzing the peaks obtained through theX-Ray Diffraction method. The crystal size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be around 13 nm by using the Debye Scherer equation. This study confirmed the synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using turmeric extract.

Keywords: antioxidant, characterization, cerium oxide, synthesis, turmeric

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22 The Nutrient Foramen of the Scaphoid Bone – A Morphological Study

Authors: B. V. Murlimanju, P. J. Jiji, Latha V. Prabhu, Mangala M. Pai


Background: The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured bone of the wrist. The fracture may disrupt the vessels and end up as the avascular necrosis of the bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried scaphoid bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 46 scaphoid bones (26 right sided and 20 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular surfaces. The foramina were observed only over the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the scaphoid bones. The foramina were observed both proximal and distal to the mid waist of the scaphoid bone. The foramen ranged between 9 and 54 in each scaphoid bone. The foramina over the palmar surface ranged between, 2-24 in number. The foramina over the dorsal surface ranged between, 7-36 in number. The foramina proximal to the waist ranged between 2 and 24 in number and distal to the waist ranged between 3 and 39. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the scaphoid bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and their number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the proximal scaphoid and non-union of the fracture at the waist of the scaphoid.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, nutrient, scaphoid, vascular

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21 Vascular Foramina of the Capitate Bone of the Hand – an Anatomical Study

Authors: Latha V. Prabhu, B.V. Murlimanju, P.J. Jiji, Mangala M. Pai


Background: The capitate is the largest among the carpal bones. There exists no literature about the vascular foramina of the capitate bone. The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphology and number of the nutrient foramina in the cadaveric dried capitate bones of the Indian population. Methods: The present study included 59 capitate bones (25 right sided and 34 left sided) which were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The bones were macroscopically observed for the nutrient foramina and the data was collected with respect to their number. The tabulation of the data and analysis were done. Results: All of our specimens (100%) exhibited the nutrient foramina over the non-articular and articular surfaces. The foramina were observed at the medial, lateral, palmar and dorsal surfaces of the capitate bones. The foramina were ranged from 6 to 23 in each capitate bone. In the medial surface, the foramina ranged from 1 to 6, lateral surface from 0 to 7, the foramina ranged between 0 and 5 in the palmar surface. However most of the foramina were located at the dorsal surface which ranged from 3 to 11. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional data about the nutrient foramina of the capitate bones. The data is enlightening to the orthopedic surgeon and would help in the hand surgeries. The knowledge about the foramina is also important to the radiologists to prevent the misinterpretation of the findings in the x ray and computed tomogram scan films. The foramina may mimick like erosions and ossicles. The morphological knowledge of the vasculature, their foramina of entry and number is required to understand the concepts in the avascular necrosis of the capitate.

Keywords: avascular necrosis, capitate, morphology, nutrient foramen

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20 Prospective Study of the Evaluation of Autologous Blood Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis

Authors: Bheeshma B., Mathivanan N., Manoj Deepak M., Prabhu Thangaraju, K. Venkatachalam


This study involves the effect of autologous blood injection for patients who had degeneration of the origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis which was confirmed radio logically and by ultrasound examination and failed cortisone injections to the lateral epicondylitis. In this prospective longitudinal series involves pre-injection assessment of grip strength, pain, and function, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. In this study, blood from the contralateral limb is taken and injected into the affected limb with the help of ultrasound guidance and then the patient wore a customized wrist support for five days, after which they were commenced with stretching, strengthening, and massage programme with an occupational therapist. In these patients assessment was done after six months and then finally at 12 months after injection, using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation. 50 patients completed the study, showing significant improvement in pain; the worst pain decreased by two to five points out of a 10-point visual analogue for pain. Self-perceived function improved by 11–25 points out of 100. Women showed significant increase in grip, but men did not. Our study thus concludes that autologous blood injection show significant improvement in pain and function in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, who did not have relief with cortisone injection.

Keywords: lateral epicondylitis, autologous blood injection, conservative treatment, plasma-rich proteins (PRPs)

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19 Analysis of Gait Characteristics Using Dynamic Foot Scanner in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: C. G. Shashi Kumar, G. Arun Maiya, H. Manjunath Hande, K. V. Rajagopal


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with involvement of neurovascular and muscular system. Studies have documented that the gait parameter is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding the gait characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, the present study is focused on identifying gait changes in early type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To analyze the gait characteristics in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), 36 T2DM without peripheral neuropathy and 32 matched healthy subjects were recruited. Gait characteristics (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, stride duration, step length, double stance duration) of all the subjects were analyzed using Windtrack dynamic foot scanner. Data were analyzed using Independent‘t’ test to find the difference between the groups (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration) and Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the step length and double stance duration to find difference between the groups. Level of significance was kept at P<0.05. Results: Result analysis showed significant decrease in step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, step length, double stance duration in T2DM subjects as compared to healthy subjects. We also observed a mean increase in stride duration in T2DM subjects compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, dynamic foot scan, gait characteristics, medical and health sciences

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18 Binding Mechanism of Synthesized 5β-Dihydrocortisol and 5β-Dihydrocortisol Acetate with Human Serum Albumin to Understand Their Role in Breast Cancer

Authors: Monika Kallubai, Shreya Dubey, Rajagopal Subramanyam


Our study is all about the biological interactions of synthesized 5β-dihydrocortisol (Dhc) and 5β-dihydrocortisol acetate (DhcA) molecules with carrier protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The cytotoxic study was performed on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) normal human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293), the IC50 values for MCF-7 cells were 28 and 25 µM, respectively, whereas no toxicity in terms of cell viability was observed with HEK293 cell line. The further experiment proved that Dhc and DhcA induced 35.6% and 37.7% early apoptotic cells and 2.5%, 2.9% late apoptotic cells respectively. Morphological observation of cell death through TUNEL assay revealed that Dhc and DhcA induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The complexes of HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA were observed as static quenching, and the binding constants (K) was 4.7±0.03×104 M-1 and 3.9±0.05×104 M-1, and their binding free energies were found to be -6.4 and -6.16 kcal/mol, respectively. The displacement studies confirmed that lidocaine 1.4±0.05×104 M-1 replaced Dhc, and phenylbutazone 1.5±0.05×104 M-1 replaced by DhcA, which explains domain I and domain II are the binding sites for Dhc and DhcA. Further, CD results revealed that the secondary structure of HSA was altered in the presence of Dhc and DhcA. Furthermore, the atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the dimensions like height and molecular sizes of the HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA complex were larger compared to HSA alone. Detailed analysis through molecular dynamics simulations also supported the greater stability of HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA complexes, and root-mean-square-fluctuation interpreted the binding site of Dhc as domain IB and domain IIA for DhcA. This information is valuable for the further development of steroid derivatives with improved pharmacological significance as novel anti-cancer drugs.

Keywords: apoptosis, dihydrocortisol, fluorescence quenching, protein conformations

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17 Influence of Reinforcement Stiffness on the Performance of Back-to-Back Reinforced Earth Wall upon Rainwater Infiltration

Authors: Gopika Rajagopal, Sudheesh Thiyyakkandi


Back-to-back reinforced earth (RE) walls are extensively used in these days as bridge abutments and highway ramps, owing to their cost efficiency and ease of construction. High quality select fill is the most suitable backfill material due to its excellent engineering properties and constructability. However, industries are compelled to use low quality, locally available soil because of its ample availability on site. However, several failure cases of such walls are reported, especially subsequent to rainfall events. The stiffness of reinforcement is one of the major factors affecting the performance of RE walls. The present study focused on analyzing the effect of reinforcement stiffness on the performance of complete select fill, complete marginal fill, and hybrid-fill (i.e., combination of select and marginal fills) back-to-back RE walls, immediately after construction and upon rainwater infiltration through finite element modelling. A constant width to height (W/H) ratio of 3 and height (H) of 6 m was considered for the numerical analysis and the stiffness of reinforcement layers was varied from 500 kN/m to 10000 kN/m. Results showed that reinforcement stiffness had a noticeable influence on the response of RE wall, subsequent to construction as well as rainwater infiltration. Facing displacement was found to decrease and maximum reinforcement tension and factor of safety were observed to increase with increasing the stiffness of reinforcement. However, beyond a stiffness of 5000 kN/m, no significant reduction in facing displacement was observed. The behavior of fully marginal fill wall considered in this study was found to be reasonable even after rainwater infiltration when the high stiffness reinforcement layers are used.

Keywords: back-to-back reinforced earth wall, finite element modelling, rainwater infiltration, reinforcement stiffness

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16 Cache Analysis and Software Optimizations for Faster on-Chip Network Simulations

Authors: Khyamling Parane, B. M. Prabhu Prasad, Basavaraj Talawar


Fast simulations are critical in reducing time to market in CMPs and SoCs. Several simulators have been used to evaluate the performance and power consumed by Network-on-Chips. Researchers and designers rely upon these simulators for design space exploration of NoC architectures. Our experiments show that simulating large NoC topologies take hours to several days for completion. To speed up the simulations, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the hotspots in simulator source code. Among several simulators available, we choose Booksim2.0, as it is being extensively used in the NoC community. In this paper, we analyze the cache and memory system behaviour of Booksim2.0 to accurately monitor input dependent performance bottlenecks. Our measurements show that cache and memory usage patterns vary widely based on the input parameters given to Booksim2.0. Based on these measurements, the cache configuration having least misses has been identified. To further reduce the cache misses, we use software optimization techniques such as removal of unused functions, loop interchanging and replacing post-increment operator with pre-increment operator for non-primitive data types. The cache misses were reduced by 18.52%, 5.34% and 3.91% by employing above technology respectively. We also employ thread parallelization and vectorization to improve the overall performance of Booksim2.0. The OpenMP programming model and SIMD are used for parallelizing and vectorizing the more time-consuming portions of Booksim2.0. Speedups of 2.93x and 3.97x were observed for the Mesh topology with 30 × 30 network size by employing thread parallelization and vectorization respectively.

Keywords: cache behaviour, network-on-chip, performance profiling, vectorization

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15 Human Factors Considerations in New Generation Fighter Planes to Enhance Combat Effectiveness

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan


Role of fighter planes in modern network centric military warfare scenarios has changed significantly in the recent past. New generation fighter planes have multirole capability of engaging both air and ground targets with high precision. Multirole aircraft undertakes missions such as Air to Air combat, Air defense, Air to Surface role (including Air interdiction, Close air support, Maritime attack, Suppression and Destruction of enemy air defense), Reconnaissance, Electronic warfare missions, etc. Designers have primarily focused on development of technologies to enhance the combat performance of the fighter planes and very little attention is given to human factor aspects of technologies. Unique physical and psychological challenges are imposed on the pilots to meet operational requirements during these missions. Newly evolved technologies have enhanced aircraft performance in terms of its speed, firepower, stealth, electronic warfare, situational awareness, and vulnerability reduction capabilities. This paper highlights the impact of emerging technologies on human factors for various military operations and missions. Technologies such as ‘cooperative knowledge-based systems’ to aid pilot’s decision making in military conflict scenarios as well as simulation technologies to enhance human performance is also studied as a part of research work. Current and emerging pilot protection technologies and systems which form part of the integrated life support systems in new generation fighter planes is discussed. System safety analysis application to quantify the human reliability in military operations is also studied.

Keywords: combat effectiveness, emerging technologies, human factors, systems safety analysis

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14 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, P. J. Jiji , Vandana Blossom


Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: axis, articular facet, morphology, morphometry

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13 Human Factors Interventions for Risk and Reliability Management of Defence Systems

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ila Chauhan, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan


Reliability and safety are essential for the success of mission-critical and safety-critical defense systems. Humans are part of the entire life cycle of defense systems development and deployment. The majority of industrial accidents or disasters are attributed to human errors. Therefore, considerations of human performance and human reliability are critical in all complex systems, including defense systems. Defense systems are operating from the ground, naval and aerial platforms in diverse conditions impose unique physical and psychological challenges to the human operators. Some of the safety and mission-critical defense systems with human-machine interactions are fighter planes, submarines, warships, combat vehicles, aerial and naval platforms based missiles, etc. Human roles and responsibilities are also going through a transition due to the infusion of artificial intelligence and cyber technologies. Human operators, not accustomed to such challenges, are more likely to commit errors, which may lead to accidents or loss events. In such a scenario, it is imperative to understand the human factors in defense systems for better systems performance, safety, and cost-effectiveness. A case study using Task Analysis (TA) based methodology for assessment and reduction of human errors in the Air and Missile Defense System in the context of emerging technologies were presented. Action-oriented task analysis techniques such as Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) and Operator Action Event Tree (OAET) along with Critical Action and Decision Event Tree (CADET) for cognitive task analysis was used. Human factors assessment based on the task analysis helps in realizing safe and reliable defense systems. These techniques helped in the identification of human errors during different phases of Air and Missile Defence operations, leading to meet the requirement of a safe, reliable and cost-effective mission.

Keywords: defence systems, reliability, risk, safety

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