Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20411

Search results for: highly patterned development environment

20411 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae

Abstract:

Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

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20410 The Primitive Code-Level Design Patterns for Distributed Programming

Authors: Bing Li

Abstract:

The primitive code-level design patterns (PDP) are the rudimentary programming elements to develop any distributed systems in the generic distributed programming environment, GreatFree. The PDP works with the primitive distributed application programming interfaces (PDA), the distributed modeling, and the distributed concurrency for scaling-up. They not only hide developers from underlying technical details but also support sufficient adaptability to a variety of distributed computing environments. Programming with them, the simplest distributed system, the lightweight messaging two-node client/server (TNCS) system, is constructed rapidly with straightforward and repeatable behaviors, copy-paste-replace (CPR). As any distributed systems are made up of the simplest ones, those PDAs, as well as the PDP, are generic for distributed programming.

Keywords: primitive APIs, primitive code-level design patterns, generic distributed programming, distributed systems, highly patterned development environment, messaging

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20409 Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetic Properties in Bit Patterned Media

Authors: O. D. Arbeláez-Echeverri, E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas

Abstract:

A two dimensional geometric model of Bit Patterned Media is proposed, the model is based on the crystal structure of the materials commonly used to produce the nano islands in bit patterned materials and the possible defects that may arise from the interaction between the nano islands and the matrix material. The dynamic magnetic properties of the material are then computed using time aware integration methods for the multi spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian takes into account both the spatial and topological disorder of the sample as well as the high perpendicular anisotropy that is pursued when building bit patterned media. The main finding of the research was the possibility of replicating the results of previous experiments on similar materials and the ability of computing the switching field distribution given the geometry of the material and the parameters required by the model.

Keywords: nanostructures, Monte Carlo, pattern media, magnetic properties

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20408 Development of People's Participation in Environmental Development in Pathumthani Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

Study on the development of people's participation in environmental development was a qualitative research method. Data were collected by participant observation, in-depth interview and discussion group in Pathumthani province. The study indicated that 1) People should be aware of environmental information from government agencies. 2) People in the community should be able to brainstorm information, exchange information about community environment development. 3) People should have a role with community leaders. 4) People in the community should have a role to play in the implementation of projects and activities in the development of the environment and 5) citizens, community leaders, village committee have directed the development of the area. Maintaining a community environment with a shared decision. By emphasizing the process of participation, self-reliance, mutual help, and responsibility for one's own community. Community empowerment strengthens the sustainable spatial development of the environment.

Keywords: people, participation, community, environment

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20407 Geochemical Composition of Deep and Highly Weathered Soils Leyte and Samar Islands Philippines

Authors: Snowie Jane Galgo, Victor Asio

Abstract:

Geochemical composition of soils provides vital information about their origin and development. Highly weathered soils are widespread in the islands of Leyte and Samar but limited data have been published in terms of their nature, characteristics and nutrient status. This study evaluated the total elemental composition, properties and nutrient status of eight (8) deep and highly weathered soils in various parts of Leyte and Samar. Sampling was done down to 3 to 4 meters deep. Total amounts of Al₂O₃, As₂O₃, CaO, CdO, Cr₂O₃, CuO, Fe₂O₃, K₂O, MgO, MnO, Na₂O, NiO, P₂O₅, PbO, SO₃, SiO₂, TiO₂, ZnO and ZrO₂ were analyzed using an X-ray analytical microscope for eight soil profiles. Most of the deep and highly weathered soils have probably developed from homogenous parent materials based on the regular distribution with depth of TiO₂ and ZrO₂. Two of the soils indicated high variability with depth of TiO₂ and ZrO₂ suggesting that these soils developed from heterogeneous parent material. Most soils have K₂O and CaO values below those of MgO and Na₂O. This suggests more losses of K₂O and CaO have occurred since they are more mobile in the weathering environment. Most of the soils contain low amounts of other elements such as CuO, ZnO, PbO, NiO, CrO and SO₂. Basic elements such as K₂O and CaO are more mobile in the weathering environment than MgO and Na₂O resulting in higher losses of the former than the latter. Other elements also show small amounts in all soil profile. Thus, this study is very useful for sustainable crop production and environmental conservation in the study area specifically for highly weathered soils which are widespread in the Philippines.

Keywords: depth function, geochemical composition, highly weathered soils, total elemental composition

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20406 The Development and Testing of Greenhouse Comprehensive Environment Control System

Authors: Mohammed Alrefaie, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

Greenhouses provide a convenient means to grow plants in the best environment. They achieve this by trapping heat from the sunlight and using artificial means to enhance the environment of the greenhouse. This includes controlling factors such as air flow, light intensity and amount of water among others that can have a big impact on plant growth. The aim of the greenhouse is to give maximum yield from plants possible. This report details the development and testing of greenhouse environment control system that can regulate light intensity, airflow and power supply inside the greenhouse. The details of the module development to control these three factors along with results of testing are presented.

Keywords: greenhouse, control system, light intensity, comprehensive environment

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20405 Economic Environment and Entrepreneurial Development in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria

Authors: Jayeola Olabisi, T. Olawale Oladunjoye, Ademola A. Adewumi

Abstract:

The study empirically examines the relationship that exists between the economic environment and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire is administered on the study and data collected are analysed using Analysis of Variance and Regression. The following variables are indices of determination; Interest Rate (IR); Income Tax (IT). The results of the study show that there is a significant relationship between IR and ED in Nigeria (p < 0.5) with a positive correlation (r=0.526, r2=0.276). Also, there is a significant relationship between IT and ED in Nigeria (p < 0.05), with a positive association (r=0.546; r2=0.299). The study concludes that the emergence of the higher level of the stable economic environment is critical to entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. Therefore, government involvement in public private partnership for infrastructural development, enlargement of productive, judicious and transparent use of funds collected from income tax and affordable interest rate will galvanise the inward sourcing of raw materials that boost entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.

Keywords: interest rate, income tax, business environment and entrepreneurial development

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20404 A Sociological Exploration of How Chinese Highly Educated Women Respond to the Gender Stereotype in China

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In this study, Chinese highly educated women referred to those women who are currently doing their Ph.D. studies, and those who have already had Ph.D. degrees. In ancient Chinese society, women were subordinated to men. The only gender role of women was to be a wife and a mother. With the rapid development of China, women are encouraged to pursue higher education. As a result of this, the number of highly educated women is growing very quickly. However, people, especially men, believe that highly educated women are challenging the traditional image of Chinese women. It is thus believed that highly educated women are very different with the traditional women. They are demonstrating an image of independent and confident women with promising careers. Plus, with the reinforcement of mass media, highly educated women are regarded as non-traditional women. People stigmatize them as the 'third gender' on the basis of male and female. Now, the 'third gender' has become a gender stereotype of highly educated women. In this study, 20 participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions of self and how these highly educated women respond to the stereotype. The study finds that Chinese highly educated women are facing a variety of problems and difficulties in their daily life, and they believe that one of the leading causes is the contradiction between patriarchal values and the views of gender equality in contemporary China. This study gives rich qualitative data in the research of Chinese women and will help to extend the current Chinese gender studies.

Keywords: Chinese highly educated women, gender stereotype, self, the ‘third gender’

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20403 Energy Service Companies as a Facilitator for Implementation of Energy-Environment Conventions

Authors: Bahareh Arghand

Abstract:

The establishment of rules and regulations for more effective energy-environment interactions are essential to achieving sustainable development. Sustainable development requires mechanisms that can promote compliance in energy-environment conventions. There are many binding agreements and non-binding instruments at regional and international levels on energy and the environment. These conventions try to decrease conflicts of interest between energy, environment and economic by legal principles and practical mechanisms. The major core of conventions is their implementations because the poor implementation and enforcement power affect their success. In this regard, the main goal of this study is proposing the effective implementation mechanisms. Energy service companies' (ESCOs) activities can improve energy efficiency and decrease the environmental degradations. Therefore, it can be proposed and assessed the merit mechanism of ESCO performance as a facilitator to implement energy-environment conventions. An assessment of ESCO performance, including its potentials, problems, and limitations, as a facilitator for effective implementation of the energy-environment convention, is included. This study is oriented towards effective development and application of laws and the function of ESCOs as appropriate economic instruments and facilitator for implementation of energy-environment conventions. The resulting system of close cooperation between the energy-environment conventions and ESCOs is geared toward advancing environmental protection and economic factors by the transfer of environmentally-sound technologies that meet sustainable development objectives.

Keywords: energy-environment conventions, energy service company, facilitator mechanism, sustainable development

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20402 FreGsd: A Framework for Golbal Software Requirement Engineering

Authors: Alsahli Abdulaziz Abdullah, Hameed Ullah Khan

Abstract:

Software development nowadays is more and more using global ways of development instead of normal development enviroment where development occur in one location. This paper is a aimed to propose a Requirement Engineering framework to support Global Software Development environment with regards to all requirment engineering activities from elicitation to fially magning requirment change. Global software enviroment is more and more gaining better reputation in software developmet with better quality is resulting from developing in this eviroment yet with lower cost.However, failure rate developing in this enviroment is high due to inapproprate requirment development and managment.This paper will add to the software engineering development envrioments discipline and many developers in GSD will benefit from it.

Keywords: global software development environment, GSD, requirement engineering, FreGsd, computer engineering

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20401 Ecorium: The Ecological Project in Montevideo Uruguay

Authors: Chettou Souhaila, Soufi Omar, Roumia Mohammed Ammar

Abstract:

Protecting the environment is to preserve the survival and future of humanity. Indeed, the environment is our source of food and drinking water, the air is our source of oxygen, the climate allows our survival and biodiversity are a potential drug reservoir. Preserving the environment is, therefore, a matter of survival. The objective of this project is to familiarize the general public with environmental problems not only with the theme of environmental protection, but also with the concept of biodiversity in different ecosystems. For it, the aim of our project was to create the Ecorium which is a place that preserves many species of plants of different ecosystems, schools, malls, buildings, offices, ecological transports, gardens, and many familial activities that participated in the ecosystems development, strategic biodiversity and sustainable development.

Keywords: ecological system, ecorium, environment, sustainable development

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20400 A Study of the Planning and Designing of the Built Environment under the Green Transit-Oriented Development

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey

Abstract:

In recent years, the problems of global climate change and natural disasters have induced the concerns and attentions of environmental sustainability issues for the public. Aside from the environmental planning efforts done for human environment, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has been widely used as one of the future solutions for the sustainable city development. In order to be more consistent with the urban sustainable development, the development of the built environment planning based on the concept of Green TOD which combines both TOD and Green Urbanism is adapted here. The connotation of the urban development under the green TOD including the design toward environment protect, the maximum enhancement resources and the efficiency of energy use, use technology to construct green buildings and protected areas, natural ecosystems and communities linked, etc. Green TOD is not only to provide the solution to urban traffic problems, but to direct more sustainable and greener consideration for future urban development planning and design. In this study, we use both the TOD and Green Urbanism concepts to proceed to the study of the built environment planning and design. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) is utilized to screen suitable criteria of the green TOD. Furthermore, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) were then developed to evaluate the criteria and prioritize the alternatives. The study results can be regarded as the future guidelines of the built environment planning and designing under green TOD development in Taiwan.

Keywords: green TOD, built environment, fuzzy delphi technique, quality function deployment, fuzzy analytic network process

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20399 Relevance of History to National Development

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

Abstract:

Achievement of one age serves as a starting point for the next generation. History explains the significance of past and present achievement which serves a guide principle for great minds to determine the next line of action in personal life which translate to national development. If history does this in human life, it is not out of place to accept history as a vanguard of national development. History remained the only relevant discipline which shapes the affairs of developed society. It gives adequate knowledge of great people in any society, how they used their ability and leadership prowess to develop their environment. As a result of this people use the idea of those heroes as guiding principle to determine the present issues. The custodian of identity is history, while identity builds confidence in man; it also makes man to master his environment for rapid development. Adequate developments of man’s environment translate to national development.

Keywords: history, national development, leadership prowess, identity

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20398 Software Cloning and Agile Environment

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Dhrubajit Barman, Nomi Baruah

Abstract:

Software Cloning has grown an active area in software engineering research community yielding numerous techniques, various tools and other methods for clone detection and removal. The copying, modifying a block of code is identified as cloning as it is the most basic means of software reuse. Agile Software Development is an approach which is currently being used in various software projects, so that it helps to respond the unpredictability of building software through incremental, iterative, work cadences. Software Cloning has been introduced to Agile Environment and many Agile Software Development approaches are using the concept of Software Cloning. This paper discusses the various Agile Software Development approaches. It also discusses the degree to which the Software Cloning concept is being introduced in the Agile Software Development approaches.

Keywords: agile environment, refactoring, reuse, software cloning

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20397 The Effect of Family SES (Income) On Children’s Socio-Emotional Development

Authors: Xiao Hu

Abstract:

Children’s social and emotional development is critical for developing their future relationships and behaviors, and poor social skills may result in serious emotional externalizations such as anxiety, distress and aggression. Recent research has emphasized the role of family socio-economic status on children’s emotional development, and this study contributes to this academic discussion by reviewing how socio-economic status affects children at three critical development stages: infancy (0-3months), pre-school (4 months-5 years) and school aged (6-10 years). Results show a consensus in the research literature on a positive relationship between family socio-economic status and children’s emotional development. Socialization, a crucial development milestone, is highly affected by a family’s socio-economic status, as families with higher incomes have access to improved social environments, healthier parenting styles and greater access to social capital and peer support. In contrast, families with lower income and SES (socio-economic status) have lower access to these benefits and are frequently ignored within social environments. This review concludes with a critical discussion on how family income affects children’s social environment, highlighting the important role that “permanent” income plays in children’s development. Consequently, the review suggests that future governments should provide temporary economic support for lower-income families, allowing children to be raised in a healthy social environment with limited economic fluctuation.

Keywords: family socio-economic status, parenting style, children’s emotional development, family permanent income

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20396 Integrating Sustainable Construction Principles into Curriculum Design for Built Environment Professional Programs in Nigeria

Authors: M. Yakubu, M. B. Isah, S. Bako

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of a research which sought to investigate the readiness to integrate sustainable construction principles into curriculum design for built environment professional programs in the Nigerian Universities. Developing the knowledge and understanding that construction professionals acquire of sustainable construction practice leads to considerable improvement in the environmental performance of the construction sector. Integrating sustainable environmental issues within the built environment education curricula provide the basis of this research. An integration of sustainable development principles into the universities built environment professional programmes are carried out with a view of finding solutions to the key issues identified. The perspectives of academia have been assessed and findings tested for validity through the analysis of primary quantitative data that has been collected. The secondary data generated has shown that there are significant differences in the approach to curriculum design within the built environment professional programmes, and this reveals that there is no ‘best practice’ that is clearly identifiable. Sequel to the above, this research reveals that engaging all stakeholders would be a useful component of built environment curriculum development, and that the curriculum be negotiated with interested parties. These parties have been identified as academia, government, construction industry and built environment professionals.

Keywords: built environment, curriculum development, sustainable construction, sustainable development

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20395 Debt Reconstruction, Career Development and Famers Household Well-Being in Thailand

Authors: Yothin Sawangdee, Piyawat Katewongsa, Chutima Yousomboon, Kornkanok Pongpradit, Sakapas Saengchai, Phusit Khantikul

Abstract:

Debts reconstruction under some of moratorium projects is one of important method that highly benefits to both the Banks and farmers. The method can reduce probabilities for nonprofits loan. This paper discuss about debts reconstruction and career development training for farmers in Thailand between 2011 and 2013. The research designed is mix-method between quantitative survey and qualitative survey. Sample size for quantitative method is 1003 cases. Data gathering procedure is between October and December 2013. Main results affirmed that debts reconstruction is needed. And there are numerous benefits from farmers’ career development training. Many of farmers who attend field school activities able to bring knowledge learned to apply for the farms’ work. They can reduce production costs. Framers’ quality of life and their household well-being also improve. This program should apply in any countries where farmers have highly debts and highly risks for not return the debts.

Keywords: career development, debts reconstruction, farmers household well-being, Thailand

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20394 Learning Environments in the Early Years: A Case Study of an Early Childhood Centre in Australia

Authors: Mingxi Xiao

Abstract:

Children’s experiences in the early years build and shape the brain. The early years learning environment plays a significantly important role in children’s development. A well-constructed environment will facilitate children’s physical and mental well-being. This case study used an early learning centre in Australia called SDN Hurstville as an example, describing the learning environment in the centre, as well as analyzing the functions of the affordances. In addition, this report talks about the sustainability of learning in the centre, and how the environment supports cultural diversity and indigenous learning. The early years for children are significant. Different elements in the early childhood centre should work together to help children develop better. This case study found that the natural environment and the artificial environment are both critical to children; only when they work together can children have better development in physical and mental well-being and have a sense of belonging when playing and learning in the centre.

Keywords: early childhood center, early childhood education, learning environment, Australia

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20393 Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer Using Wettability Patterned Surfaces

Authors: Dong Il Shim, Geehong Choi, Donghwi Lee, Namkyu Lee, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Effective cooling technology is required to secure thermal stability in extreme heat generated systems such as integrated electronic devices and power generated systems. Pool boiling heat transfer is one of the powerful cooling mechanisms using phase change phenomena. Critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are main factors to evaluate the performance of boiling heat transfer. CHF is the limitation of boiling heat transfer before film boiling which occurs thermal failure. Surface wettability is an important surface characteristic of boiling heat transfer. A hydrophilic surface has higher CHF through effective working fluid supply to local hot spots. A hydrophobic surface promotes the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) to enhance HTC. In this study, superbiphilic surfaces, which is combined with superhydrophillic and superhydrophobic, are applied on boiling experiments to maximize boiling performance. We conducted pool boiling heat transfer using DI water at a saturated temperature and recorded bubble dynamics using a high-speed camera with 2000 fps. As a result, superbiphilic patterned surfaces promote ONB and enhance both CHF and HTC. This study demonstrates the enhanced boiling performance using superbiphilic surfaces by effective nucleation and separation of liquid/vapor pathway. We expect that further enhancement of heat transfer could be achieved in future work using optimized patterned surfaces.

Keywords: boiling heat transfer, wettability, critical heat flux, heat transfer coefficient

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20392 Research on Adaptable Development Strategy of Medical Architecture Based on the Background of Current Era

Authors: Jiani Gao, Qingping Luo, Xinlei Fang

Abstract:

In order to try to achieve better rights and interests for both doctors and patients in the new medical environment, the paper will focus on the renewal and development of medical buildings. In today's highly developed society, many factors have a profound guiding significance for the development of medical buildings. By doing social research, the paper has found that these factors come from all aspects. These factors include the optimization of traditional medical model, rapid alternation of medical technology and equipment, the reform of the social, medical security system, changes in the age structure of the population, the birth of intelligent medical care under the Internet, and the deepening of the concept of green sustainable building development, etc. The purpose of this paper is to capture sensitively these various factors that may affect the evolution of medical buildings in the context of the current era, and to put forward, by using an adaptable development strategy, some feasible suggestions on the design of medical buildings when facing these changes and challenges. Specifically speaking, the adaptable development strategy includes some basic principles and methods, such as using modular design, adopting scalable streamline, selecting a long-span structural system and using replaceable materials and components, etc.

Keywords: medical architecture, adaptable development, medical model, space design

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20391 A Study of Quality Assurance and Unit Verification Methods in Safety Critical Environment

Authors: Miklos Taliga

Abstract:

In the present case study we examined the development and testing methods of systems that contain safety-critical elements in different industrial fields. Consequentially, we observed the classical object-oriented development and testing environment, as both medical technology and automobile industry approaches the development of safety critical elements that way. Subsequently, we examined model-based development. We introduce the quality parameters that define development and testing. While taking modern agile methodology (scrum) into consideration, we examined whether and to what extent the methodologies we found fit into this environment.

Keywords: safety-critical elements, quality managent, unit verification, model base testing, agile methods, scrum, metamodel, object-oriented programming, field specific modelling, sprint, user story, UML Standard

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20390 Linkages of Environment with the Health Condition of Poor Women and Children in the Urban Areas of India

Authors: Barsharani Maharana

Abstract:

India is the country that shelters the largest number of poor. One of the major areas of concern in India is the unsatisfactory situation of the poor in social developmental and health parameters, not only in rural areas which are partly devoid of the facilities but also in the urban areas where the facilities are insufficient to provide services of a satisfactory quality. Objectives: 1) to examine the association between the environmental condition and health condition among poor women in urban areas. 2) to find out the significance of the effect of environment on the child health among the poor children. 3) to present the scenario of poor among highly urbanized and less urbanized states with respect to the health and environment. Data: data from National Family Health survey-3 and census are used to fulfill the objectives. Methodology: In this study, the standard of living condition of people living in urban areas is computed by taking some household characteristics and assets. People possessing low standard of living are considered as poor. Bivariate and multivariate analysis are employed to examine the effect of environment on poor women and children. A geographical information system is used to present the health and environmental condition of poor in highly and less urbanized states. Results: The findings reveal that the poor women who are not accessed to improved source of water, and sanitation facility are facing more health problems. Children who are living in a dirty environment and are not accessed to improved source of drinking water, among them prevalence of diarrhea and fever is found to be high. As well, the health condition of poor in highly urbanized states is dreadful. Policy implications: Government should emphasize on the implementation of programs regarding the improvement in the infrastructural facilities and health care treatment of urban poor.

Keywords: environment, urban poor, health, sanitation

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20389 Optimising GIS in Cushioning the Environmental Impact of Infrastructural Projects

Authors: Akerele Akintunde Hareef

Abstract:

GIS is an integrating tool for storing, retrieving, manipulating, and analyzing spatial data. It is a tool which defines an area with respect to features and other relevant thematic delineations. On the other hand, Environmental Impact Assessment in short is both positive and negative impact of an infrastructure on an environment. Impact of infrastructural projects on the environment is an aspect of development that barely get extensive portion of pre-project execution phase and when they do, the effects are most times not implemented to cushion the impact they have on human and the environment. In this research, infrastructural projects like road constructions, water reticulation projects, building constructions, bridge etc. have immense impact on the environment and the people that reside in location of construction. Hence, the need for this research tends to portray the relevance of Environmental Impact assessment in calculating the vulnerability of human and the environment to imbalance necessitated by this infrastructural development and how the use of GIS application can be optimally applied to annul or minimize the effect.

Keywords: environmental impact assessment (EIA), geographic information system (GIS), infrastructural projects, environment

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20388 A Critical Analysis of Environmental Investment in India

Authors: K. Y. Chen, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Environmental investment is an important issue in many countries. In this study, we will first review the environmental issues related to India and their effect on the economical development. Secondly, economic data would be collected from government yearly statistics. The statistics would also include the environmental investment information of India. Finally, we would co-relate the data in order to find out the relationship between environmental investment and sustainable development in India. Therefore, in the paper, we aim to analyse the effect of an environmental investment on the sustainable development in India. Based on the economic data collected, India is in development status with fast population and GDP growth speed. India is facing the environment problems due to its high-speed development. However, the environment investment could give a positive impact on the sustainable development in India. The environmental investment is keeping in the same growth rate with GDP. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: India, environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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20387 Incorporation of Growth Factors onto Hydrogels via Peptide Mediated Binding for Development of Vascular Networks

Authors: Katie Kilgour, Brendan Turner, Carly Catella, Michael Daniele, Stefano Menegatti

Abstract:

In vivo, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides biochemical and mechanical properties that are instructional to resident cells to form complex tissues with characteristics to develop and support vascular networks. In vitro, the development of vascular networks can be guided by biochemical patterning of substrates via spatial distribution and display of peptides and growth factors to prompt cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. We have developed a technique utilizing peptide ligands that specifically bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), or angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) to spatiotemporally distribute growth factors to cells. This allows for the controlled release of each growth factor, ultimately enhancing the formation of a vascular network. Our engineered tissue constructs (ETCs) are fabricated out of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), which is an ideal substrate for tailored stiffness and bio-functionality, and covalently patterned with growth factor specific peptides. These peptides mimic growth factor receptors, facilitating the non-covalent binding of the growth factors to the ETC, allowing for facile uptake by the cells. We have demonstrated in the absence of cells the binding affinity of VEGF, EPO, and ANG1 to their respective peptides and the ability for each to be patterned onto a GelMA substrate. The ability to organize growth factors on an ETC provides different functionality to develop organized vascular networks. Our results demonstrated a method to incorporate biochemical cues into ETCs that enable spatial and temporal control of growth factors. Future efforts will investigate the cellular response by evaluating gene expression, quantifying angiogenic activity, and measuring the speed of growth factor consumption.

Keywords: growth factor, hydrogel, peptide, angiogenesis, vascular, patterning

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20386 Structuring Highly Iterative Product Development Projects by Using Agile-Indicators

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Michael Riesener, Frederic Diels

Abstract:

Nowadays, manufacturing companies are faced with the challenge of meeting heterogeneous customer requirements in short product life cycles with a variety of product functions. So far, some of the functional requirements remain unknown until late stages of the product development. A way to handle these uncertainties is the highly iterative product development (HIP) approach. By structuring the development project as a highly iterative process, this method provides customer oriented and marketable products. There are first approaches for combined, hybrid models comprising deterministic-normative methods like the Stage-Gate process and empirical-adaptive development methods like SCRUM on a project management level. However, almost unconsidered is the question, which development scopes can preferably be realized with either empirical-adaptive or deterministic-normative approaches. In this context, a development scope constitutes a self-contained section of the overall development objective. Therefore, this paper focuses on a methodology that deals with the uncertainty of requirements within the early development stages and the corresponding selection of the most appropriate development approach. For this purpose, internal influencing factors like a company’s technology ability, the prototype manufacturability and the potential solution space as well as external factors like the market accuracy, relevance and volatility will be analyzed and combined into an Agile-Indicator. The Agile-Indicator is derived in three steps. First of all, it is necessary to rate each internal and external factor in terms of the importance for the overall development task. Secondly, each requirement has to be evaluated for every single internal and external factor appropriate to their suitability for empirical-adaptive development. Finally, the total sums of internal and external side are composed in the Agile-Indicator. Thus, the Agile-Indicator constitutes a company-specific and application-related criterion, on which the allocation of empirical-adaptive and deterministic-normative development scopes can be made. In a last step, this indicator will be used for a specific clustering of development scopes by application of the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. The FCM-method determines sub-clusters within functional clusters based on the empirical-adaptive environmental impact of the Agile-Indicator. By means of the methodology presented in this paper, it is possible to classify requirements, which are uncertainly carried out by the market, into empirical-adaptive or deterministic-normative development scopes.

Keywords: agile, highly iterative development, agile-indicator, product development

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20385 Environmental Degradation in Niger-Delta and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Issues for Consideration

Authors: Peter Okpamen

Abstract:

The issue of environmental degradation in Nigeria is of serious concern. The colonial period brought a major change in environmental awareness and relationship with the environment. This period introduced a model of development, the major thrust of which was the exploration and transformation of natural and human resources for the benefit of the colonial masters. There is abundant evidence in the literature that there are various manifestations of environmental degradation in Nigeria, which have resulted in the various problems found throughout the Nigeria national space. The idea of the environment acting as a constraint to the growth of human activity has given way to the contrary. Environmental education, going by the literature, exists at the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. In short, the 1st National conference on environmental education gave several suggestions on how it could be realised. Thus, to realise sustainable environmental development we need to accelerate the process of providing basic education for both the old and young. Environmental education should cover the whole federation, and resources should be made available for the training of environmental education teachers and research into environmental education for the development of appropriate learning resources.

Keywords: degradation, development, education, environment, sustainable

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20384 A Review of Information Systems Development in Developing Countries

Authors: B. N. Asare, O. A. Ajigini

Abstract:

Information systems (IS) are highly important in the operation of private and public organisations in developing and developed countries. Developing countries are saddled with many project failures during the implementation of information systems. However, successful information systems are greatly needed in developing countries in order to enhance their economies. This paper is highly important in view of the high failure rate of information systems in developing countries which needs to be reduced to minimum acceptable levels by means of recommended interventions. This paper centres on a review of IS development in developing countries. The paper presents evidences of the IS successes and failures in developing countries and posits a model to address the IS failures. The proposed model can then be utilised by developing countries to reduce their IS project implementation failure rate. A comparison is drawn between IS development in developing countries and developed countries. The paper provides valuable information to assist in reducing IS failure, and developing IS models and theories on IS development for developing countries.

Keywords: developing countries, information systems, IS development, information systems failure, information systems success, information systems success model

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
20383 The Development of Micro Patterns Using Benchtop Lithography for Marine Antifouling Applications

Authors: Felicia Wong Yen Myan, James Walker

Abstract:

Development of micro topographies usually begins with the fabrication of a master stamp. Fabrication of such small structures can be technically challenging and expensive. These techniques are often used for applications where patterns only cover a small surface area (e.g. semiconductors, microfluidic channels). This research investigated the use of benchtop lithography to fabricate patterns with average widths of 50 and 100 microns on silicon wafer substrates. Further development of this method will attempt to layer patterns to create hierarchical structures. Photomasks consisted of patterns printed onto transparency films with a high resolution printer and a fully patterned 10cm by 10cm area has been successfully developed. UV exposure was carried out with a self-made array of ultraviolet LEDs that was positioned a distance above a glass diffuser. Observations under a light microscope and SEM showed that developed patterns exhibit an adequate degree of fidelity with patterns from the master stamp.

Keywords: lithography, antifouling, marine, microtopography

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
20382 Sustainable Development: Evaluation of an Urban Neighborhood

Authors: Harith Mohammed Benbouali

Abstract:

The concept of sustainable development is becoming increasingly important in our society. The efforts of specialized agencies, cleverly portrayed in the media, allow a widespread environmental awareness. Far from the old environmental movement in the backward-looking nostalgia, the environment is combined with today's progress. Many areas now include these concerns in their efforts, this in order to try to reduce the negative impact of human activities on the environment. The quantitative dimension of development has given way to the quality aspect. However, this feature is not common, and the initial target was abandoned in favor of economic considerations. Specialists in the field of building and construction have constantly sought to further integrate the environmental dimension, creating a seal of high environmental quality buildings. The pursuit of well-being of neighborhood residents and the quality of buildings are also a hot topic in planning. Quality of life is considered so on, since financial concerns dominate to the detriment of the environment and the welfare of the occupants. This work concerns the development of an analytical method based on multiple indicators of objectives across the district. The quantification of indicators related to objectives allows the construction professional, the developer or the community, to quantify and compare different alternatives for development of a neighborhood. This quantification is based on the use of simulation tools and a multi-criteria aggregation.

Keywords: sustainable development, environment, district, indicators, multi-criteria analysis, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245