Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Krishnan Balasubramaniam

30 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature

Authors: Sumeet Kumar, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, high temperature, normal spectral emissivity, surface roughness

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29 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

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28 Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation

Authors: Edamana Vasudevan Krishnan


This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.

Keywords: solitons, integrability, metamaterials, mapping method

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27 Exact Solutions of K(N,N)-Type Equations Using Jacobi Elliptic Functions

Authors: Edamana Krishnan, Khalil Al-Ghafri


In this paper, modified K(n,n) and K(n+1,n+1) equations have been solved using mapping methods which give a variety of solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. The solutions when m approaches 0 and 1, with m as the modulus of the JEFs have also been deduced. The role of constraint conditions has been discussed.

Keywords: travelling wave solutions, solitary wave solutions, compactons, Jacobi elliptic functions, mapping methods

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26 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing

Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat


Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstore

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25 Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Mahesh Hariharan, Rajan Balasubramaniam, Sharath Kumar Shetty, Shanthala Yadavalli, Mohammed Ahetasham, Sravya Devarapalli


Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected to mandate a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis.

Keywords: acute abdomen, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, plain radiographs, ultrasound

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24 Exergy Model for a Solar Water Heater with Flat Plate Collector

Authors: P. Sathyakala, G. Sai Sundara Krishnan


The objective of this paper is to derive an exergy model for a solar water heater with honey comb structure in order to identify the element which has larger irreversibility in the system. This will help us in finding the means to reduce the wasted work potential so that the overall efficiency of the system can be improved by finding the ways to reduce those wastages.

Keywords: exergy, energy balance, entropy balance, work potential, degradation, honey comb, flat plate collector

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23 Mapping Methods to Solve a Modified Korteweg de Vries Type Equation

Authors: E. V. Krishnan


In this paper, we employ mapping methods to construct exact travelling wave solutions for a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. We have derived periodic wave solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, kink solutions and singular wave solutions in terms of hyperbolic functions.

Keywords: travelling wave solutions, Jacobi elliptic functions, solitary wave solutions, Korteweg-de Vries equation

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22 Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites

Authors: Santhana Krishnan R, Preetha C


Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.

Keywords: sandwich composites, perforated cores, flexural test, single and divided core perforated

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21 Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Smita Krishnan, Krittika Chandran, Chandra Mohan Sinnathambi


Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, photochemical processes, degradation, organic contaminants

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20 Entrepreneurship and the Discovery and Exploitation of Business Opportunities: Empirical Evidence from the Malawian Tourism Sector

Authors: Aravind Mohan Krishnan


This paper identifies a research gap in the literature on tourism entrepreneurship in Malawi, Africa, and investigates how entrepreneurs from the Malawian tourism sector discover and exploit business opportunities. In particular, the importance of prior experience and business networks in the opportunity development process is debated. Another area of empirical research examined here is the opportunity recognition-venture creation sequence. While Malawi presents fruitful business opportunities, exploiting these opportunities into fully realized business ideas is a real challenge due to the country’s difficult business environment and poor promotional and marketing efforts. The study concludes by calling for further research in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop our understanding of entrepreneurship in this (African) context.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Malawi, opportunities, tourism

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19 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity

Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan


A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.

Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh method

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18 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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17 Power Quality Audit Using Fluke Analyzer

Authors: N. Ravikumar, S. Krishnan, B. Yokeshkumar


In present days, the power quality issues are increases due to non-linear loads like fridge, AC, washing machines, induction motor, etc. This power quality issues will affects the output voltages, output current, and output power of the total performance of the generator. This paper explains how to test the generator using the Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser. This Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser is used to measure the voltage, current, power, energy, total harmonic distortion (THD), current harmonics, voltage harmonics, power factor, and frequency. The Fluke 435 II series power quality analyser have several advantages. They are i) it will records output in analog and digital format. ii) the fluke analyzer will records at every 0.25 sec. iii) it will also measure all the electrical parameter at a time.

Keywords: THD, harmonics, power quality, TNEB, Fluke 435

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16 Integration of Sustainable Development into the Bachelor of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Degree Program in UNITEN

Authors: Nagaletchumi Balasubramaniam, A. Mohd Isa


Engineers have a leading role in planning, designing, building and ensuring a sustainable future. Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) acknowledges this role by assigning sustainable development as one of the expected traits that a UNITEN student should have upon graduation, formalized as the Programme Outcomes 7 (PO7): Students graduating from the Bachelor of Electrical and Electronics (BEEE) program will have the ability to demonstrate knowledge of the impact of professional engineering solutions in environmental contexts and the need for sustainable development. This paper explores how PO7 is integrated within the BEEE (Hons) program in UNITEN under the framework of Outcome Base Education (OBE). Five technical core courses were specifically assigned by UNITEN to reflect attainment of PO7. Under UNITEN’s definition, the attainment criterion of a PO is set as 70/40. This means that 70% of the students taking the course achieve at least 40% of the full marks. The paper first gives an overview of the overall OBE system as applied in UNITEN, particularly describing the key and supporting courses approach adopted for each PO. Then, the paper reviews the mechanism in which PO7 is taught and assessed in the five assigned courses. Data on PO7 attainment from four of the five courses are collected and analyzed for two student cohorts to investigate the interrelationship between the courses assigned to PO7. It was found that the five courses have different mechanisms for assessing PO7, and that generally PO7 is attained for the assigned courses. This reflects positively on the UNITEN method for integrating sustainable development within the engineering undergraduate programme.

Keywords: direct assessment, engineering education, outcome base education, programme outcome, sustainable development

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15 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid


This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation

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14 Malaysian Challenges and Experiences with National Higher Education Fund Corporation’s Educational Loan Default

Authors: Anjali Dewi Krishnan


This paper attempts to explore the factors causing student loan defaults among NHEFC borrower besides measuring the enforcement actions that have been took by NHEFC to improve repayment rate. It starts by reviewing the causes of student loan default from the perspective of the loan borrowers besides finding out about the effectiveness of approaches taken by NHEFC (National Higher Education Fund Corporation) until now in order to increase the repayment rate and recover student loan default. The results gathered from the research used to investigate or identify the relationship between job statuses, gender, and ethnicity of the borrowers with repayment status, enforcement from the NHEFC side in the sense of student loan repayment; and respondent's opinion about enforcement in encouraging repayment of student loan and recover loan default. A combination of unemployment, financial constraint, inefficient repayment method and some other reasons of student loan defaults were discovered through this research. It finishes by presenting the reality whereby a student loan default is a result of inability to pay back and not about willingness to pay back.

Keywords: loan default, loan recovery, loan repayment, national higher education fund corporation

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13 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom


Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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12 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal


Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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11 Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

Authors: Nicole Nazario Bayon, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh


Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles have sparked interest over the past decade due to their characteristics such as thermal stability, extreme hardness, low production cost, and similar optical properties to gold. In this study, TiN nanoparticles were synthesized via a thermal benzene route to obtain a black powder of nanoparticles. The final product was drop cast onto conductive carbon tape and sputter coated with gold/palladium at a thickness of 4 nm for characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) that revealed they were spherical. ImageJ software determined the average size of the TiN nanoparticles was 79 nm in diameter. EDX revealed the elements present in the sample and showed no impurities. Further characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed characteristic peaks of cubic phase titanium nitride, and crystallite size was calculated to be 14 nm using the Debye-Scherrer method. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed the size and size distribution of the TiN nanoparticles, with average size being 154 nm. Zeta potential concluded the surface of the TiN nanoparticles is negatively charged. Biocompatibility studies using MTT(3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay showed TiN nanoparticles are not cytotoxic at low concentrations (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 mcg/well), and cell viability began to decrease at a concentration of 100 mcg/well.

Keywords: biocompatibility, characterization, cytotoxicity, nanoparticles, synthesis, titanium nitride

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10 Turmeric Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nicole Nazario Bayon, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh


Cerium oxide and turmeric have antioxidant properties, which have gained interest among researchers to study their applications in the field of biomedicine, such asanti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial applications. In this study, the turmeric extract was prepared and mixed with cerium nitrate hexahydrate, stirred continuously to obtain a homogeneous solution and then heated on a hot plate to get the supernatant evaporated, then calcinated at 600°C to obtain the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles through Scanning Electron Microscopy determined the particle size to be in the range of 70 nm to 250 nm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy determined the elemental composition of cerium and oxygen. Individual particles were identified through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, in which the particles were determined to be spherical and in the size of around 70 nm. The presence of cerium oxide was assured by analyzing the spectrum obtained through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be face-centered cubic by analyzing the peaks obtained through theX-Ray Diffraction method. The crystal size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be around 13 nm by using the Debye Scherer equation. This study confirmed the synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using turmeric extract.

Keywords: antioxidant, characterization, cerium oxide, synthesis, turmeric

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9 Face Recognition Using Body-Worn Camera: Dataset and Baseline Algorithms

Authors: Ali Almadan, Anoop Krishnan, Ajita Rattani


Facial recognition is a widely adopted technology in surveillance, border control, healthcare, banking services, and lately, in mobile user authentication with Apple introducing “Face ID” moniker with iPhone X. A lot of research has been conducted in the area of face recognition on datasets captured by surveillance cameras, DSLR, and mobile devices. Recently, face recognition technology has also been deployed on body-worn cameras to keep officers safe, enabling situational awareness and providing evidence for trial. However, limited academic research has been conducted on this topic so far, without the availability of any publicly available datasets with a sufficient sample size. This paper aims to advance research in the area of face recognition using body-worn cameras. To this aim, the contribution of this work is two-fold: (1) collection of a dataset consisting of a total of 136,939 facial images of 102 subjects captured using body-worn cameras in in-door and daylight conditions and (2) evaluation of various deep-learning architectures for face identification on the collected dataset. Experimental results suggest a maximum True Positive Rate(TPR) of 99.86% at False Positive Rate(FPR) of 0.000 obtained by SphereFace based deep learning architecture in daylight condition. The collected dataset and the baseline algorithms will promote further research and development. A downloadable link of the dataset and the algorithms is available by contacting the authors.

Keywords: face recognition, body-worn cameras, deep learning, person identification

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8 Quantum Dot – DNA Conjugates for Biological Applications

Authors: A. Banerjee, C. Grazon, B. Nadal, T. Pons, Y. Krishnan, B. Dubertret


Quantum Dots (QDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of QDs such as broad absorption, narrow emission spectrum, reduced blinking, and enhanced photostability make them advantageous over organic fluorophores. However, for some biological applications, QDs need to be first targeted to specific intracellular locations. It parallel, base pairing properties and biocompatibility of DNA has been extensively used for biosensing, targetting and intracellular delivery of numerous bioactive agents. The combination of the photophysical properties of QDs and targettability of DNA has yielded fluorescent, stable and targetable nanosensors. QD-DNA conjugates have used in drug delivery, siRNA, intracellular pH sensing and several other applications; and continue to be an active area of research. In this project, a novel method to synthesise QD-DNA conjugates and their applications in bioimaging are investigated. QDs are first solubilized in water using a thiol based amphiphilic co-polymer and, then conjugated to amine functionalized DNA using a heterobifunctional linker. The conjugates are purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and microscopy. Parameters that influence the conjugation yield such as reducing agents, the excess of salt and pH have been investigated in detail. In optimized reaction conditions, up to 12 single-stranded DNA (15 mer length) can be conjugated per QD. After conjugation, the QDs retain their colloidal stability and high quantum yield; and the DNA is available for hybridization. The reaction has also been successfully tested on QDs emitting different colors and on Gold nanoparticles and therefore highly generalizable. After extensive characterization and robust synthesis of QD-DNA conjugates in vitro, the physical properties of these conjugates in cellular milieu are being invistigated. Modification of QD surface with DNA appears to remarkably alter the fate of QD inside cells and can have potential implications in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bioimaging, cellular targeting, drug delivery, photostability

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7 Kenaf MDF Panels with Soy Based Adhesive. The Influence of Preparation Parameters on Physciomechanical Properties

Authors: Imtiaz Ali, Krishnan Jayaraman, Debes Bhattacharyya


Soybean concentrate is abundant material and renewable product that is recently been explored as an alternative to conventional formaldehyde based resins in wood based products. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing environment friendly MDF panels from renewable resources. The panels are made by using kenaf bast fibers (KB) as wood substitute and soy based adhesive as bonding material. Second order response surface regression models are used to understand the effects and interactions of resin content (RC) and pressing time (PT) on the mechanical and water soaking properties of kenaf panels. The mechanical and water soaking properties are significantly improved as the RC increased and reached at the highest level at maximum resin loading (12%). The effect of pressing time is significant in the first phase when the pressing time increased from 4 to 6 min; however the effect was not as significant when pressing time further increased to 8 min. The second order regression equations further confirm that the variation in process parameters has strong relationship with the physciomechanical properties. The MDF panels the minimum requirements of internal bond strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity as recommended by US wood MDF standard specifications for G110, G120, G130 and G140 grade MDF panels. However, the thickness swelling results are considerably poorer than the recommended values of general purpose standard requirements. This deficiency can be counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde free panels made from renewable sources and by making them suitable alternative for less humid environment applications.

Keywords: kenaf, Medium density fibreboard, soy adhesive, mechanical properties, water soaking properties

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6 The Effect of Mixing and Degassing Conditions on the Properties of Epoxy/Anhydride Resin System

Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley


Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, the changes in the mechanical properties of the cured resin were studied by three-point bending test. It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.

Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrence

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5 Influence of Degassing on the Curing Behaviour and Void Occurrence Properties of Epoxy / Anhydride Resin System

Authors: Latha Krishnan, Andrew Cobley


Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the amount of void, void geometry and void fraction were also investigated using an optical microscope and image J software (image analysis software). It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.

Keywords: anhydride epoxy, curing behaviour, degassing, void occurrence

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4 A Sustainable Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Based on Manufacturing Processes and Product Tolerances: A Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

Authors: Ravi Patel, Krishna K. Krishnan


In global supply chains, appropriate and sustainable suppliers play a vital role in supply chain development and feasibility. In a larger organization with huge number of suppliers, it is necessary to divide suppliers based on their past history of quality and delivery of each product category. Since performance of any organization widely depends on their suppliers, well evaluated selection criteria and decision-making models lead to improved supplier assessment and development. In this paper, SCOR® performance evaluation approach and ISO standards are used to determine selection criteria for better utilization of supplier assessment by using hybrid model of Analytic Hierchchy Problem (AHP) and Fuzzy Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS). AHP is used to determine the global weightage of criteria which helps TOPSIS to get supplier score by using triangular fuzzy set theory. Both qualitative and quantitative criteria are taken into consideration for the proposed model. In addition, a multi-product and multi-time period model is selected for order allocation. The optimization model integrates multi-objective integer linear programming (MOILP) for order allocation and a hybrid approach for supplier selection. The proposed MOILP model optimizes order allocation based on manufacturing process and product tolerances as per manufacturer’s requirement for quality product. The integrated model and solution approach are tested to find optimized solutions for different scenario. The detailed analysis shows the superiority of proposed model over other solutions which considered individual decision making models.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy set theory, multi-criteria decision making, multi-objective integer linear programming, TOPSIS

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3 Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid/MDI Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends

Authors: Sukhila Krishnan, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay K. Nayak


Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) are the most promising bio-based materials presently available on the market. Polylactic acid is one of the versatile biodegradable polyester showing wide range of applications in various fields and starch is a biopolymer which is renewable, cheap as well as extensively available. The usual increase in the cost of petroleum-based commodities in the next decades opens bright future for these materials. Their biodegradability and compostability was an added advantage in applications that are difficult to recycle. Currently, thermoplastic starch (TPS) has been used as a substitute for synthetic plastic in several commercial products. But, TPS shows some limitations mainly due to its brittle and hydrophilic nature, which has to be resolved to widen its application.The objective of the work we report here was to initiate chemical modifications on TPS and to build up a process to control its chemical structure using a solution process which can reduce its water sensitive properties and then blended it with PLA to improve compatibility between PLA and TPS. The method involves in cleavage of starch amylose and amylopectin chain backbone to plasticize with glycerol and water in batch mixer and then the prepared TPS was reacted in solution with diisocyanates i.e, 4,4'-Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI).This diisocyanate was used before with great success for the chemical modification of TPS surface. The method utilized here will form an urethane-linkages between reactive isocyanate groups (–NCO) and hydroxyl groups (-OH) of starch as well as of glycerol. New polymer synthesised shows a reduced crystallinity, less hydrophilic and enhanced compatibility with other polymers. The TPS was prepared by Haake Rheomix 600 batch mixer with roller rotors operating at 50 rpm. The produced material is then refluxed for 5hrs with MDI in toluene with constant stirring. Finally, the modified TPS was melt blended with PLA in different compositions. Blends obtained shows an improved mechanical properties. These materials produced are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR), DSC, X-Ray diffraction and mechanical tests.

Keywords: polylactic acid, thermoplastic starch, Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate, Polylactide (PLA)

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2 Low Frequency Ultrasonic Degassing to Reduce Void Formation in Epoxy Resin and Its Effect on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of the Cured Polymer

Authors: A. J. Cobley, L. Krishnan


The demand for multi-functional lightweight materials in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, electronics is growing, and for this reason fibre-reinforced, epoxy polymer composites are being widely utilized. The fibre reinforcing material is mainly responsible for the strength and stiffness of the composites whilst the main role of the epoxy polymer matrix is to enhance the load distribution applied on the fibres as well as to protect the fibres from the effect of harmful environmental conditions. The superior properties of the fibre-reinforced composites are achieved by the best properties of both of the constituents. Although factors such as the chemical nature of the epoxy and how it is cured will have a strong influence on the properties of the epoxy matrix, the method of mixing and degassing of the resin can also have a significant impact. The production of a fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite will usually begin with the mixing of the epoxy pre-polymer with a hardener and accelerator. Mechanical methods of mixing are often employed for this stage but such processes naturally introduce air into the mixture, which, if it becomes entrapped, will lead to voids in the subsequent cured polymer. Therefore, degassing is normally utilised after mixing and this is often achieved by placing the epoxy resin mixture in a vacuum chamber. Although this is reasonably effective, it is another process stage and if a method of mixing could be found that, at the same time, degassed the resin mixture this would lead to shorter production times, more effective degassing and less voids in the final polymer. In this study the effect of four different methods for mixing and degassing of the pre-polymer with hardener and accelerator were investigated. The first two methods were manual stirring and magnetic stirring which were both followed by vacuum degassing. The other two techniques were ultrasonic mixing/degassing using a 40 kHz ultrasonic bath and a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe. The cured cast resin samples were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and Image J analysis software to study morphological changes, void content and void distribution. Three point bending test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also performed to determine the thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resin. It was found that the use of the 20 kHz ultrasonic probe for mixing/degassing gave the lowest percentage voids of all the mixing methods in the study. In addition, the percentage voids found when employing a 40 kHz ultrasonic bath to mix/degas the epoxy polymer mixture was only slightly higher than when magnetic stirrer mixing followed by vacuum degassing was utilized. The effect of ultrasonic mixing/degassing on the thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resin will also be reported. The results suggest that low frequency ultrasound is an effective means of mixing/degassing a pre-polymer mixture and could enable a significant reduction in production times.

Keywords: degassing, low frequency ultrasound, polymer composites, voids

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1 White-Rot Fungi Phellinus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents

Authors: Yogesh Dalvi, Ruby Varghese, Nibu Varghese, C. K. Krishnan Nair


Introduction: The Genus Phellinus, locally known as Phansomba is a well-known traditional folk medicine. Especially, in Western Ghats of India, many tribes use several species of Phellinus for various ailments related to teeth, throat, tongue, stomach and even wound healing. It is one of the few mushrooms which play a pivotal role in Ayurvedic Dravyaguna. Aim: The present study focuses on to investigate phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, and antitumor (in vitro and in vivo) potential of Phellinus robinae from South India, Kerala Material and Methods: The present study explores the following: 1. Phellinus samples were collected from Ranni, Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, India from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and species were identified using rDNA region. 2. The fruiting body was shadow dried, powdered and extracted with 50% alcohol using water bath at 60°C which was further condensed by rotary evaporator and lyophilized at minus 40°C temperature. 3. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by using various phytochemical screening assay (Hager’s Test, Wagner’s Test, Sodium hydroxide Test, Lead acetate Test, Ferric chloride Test, Folin-ciocalteu Test, Foaming Test, Benedict’s test, Fehling’s Test and Lowry’s Test). 4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were analyzed by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. 5. The antitumor potential of Water alcohol extract of Phellinus (PAWE) is evaluated through In vitro condition by Trypan blue dye exclusion method in DLA cell line and In vivo by murine model. Result and Discussion: Preliminary phytochemical screening by various biochemical tests revealed presence of a variety of active secondary molecules like alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins, carbohydrate, protein and phenol. In DPPH and FRAP assay PAWE showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. While, in Iron chelating assay, PAWE exhibits similar antioxidant activity that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standard. Further, in the in vitro study, PAWE showed significant inhibition on DLA cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and showed no toxicity on mice splenocytes, when compared to standard chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. In vivo study, oral administration of PAWE showed dose dependent tumor regression in mice and also raised the immunogenicity by restoring levels of antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney tissue. In both in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies PAWE up-regulates pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Caspases 3, 8 and 9) and down- regulates anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2). PAWE also down regulates inflammatory gene (Cox-2) and angiogenic gene (VEGF). Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that PAWE contains various secondary metabolites which contribute to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property as evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. PAWE exhibits anti-proliferative activity by the induction of apoptosis through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic (Caspase8 and Tnf-α), as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic (caspase9) and caspase pathways (Caspase3, 8 and 9) and also by regressing angiogenic factor (VEGF) without any inflammation or adverse side effects. Hence, PAWE serve as a potential antioxidant and antitumor agent.

Keywords: antioxidant, antitumor, Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA), fungi, Phellinus robinae

Procedia PDF Downloads 223