Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21700

Search results for: genre analysis

21700 A Critical Genre Analysis of Negative Parts in CSR Reports

Authors: Shuai Liu

Abstract:

In corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting, companies are expected to present both the positive and negative parts of the social and environmental impacts of their performance. This study investigates how the companies that listed in fortune 500 respond to this challenge by analyzing the representations of negative part especially the safety performance. It has found that in the level of genre analysis, it presented 3 major moves and 11 steps in terms of the interdiscursivity analysis. It was made up of three dominant discourse.. The study calls for greater focus on the internal and external analysis of the negative aspect of aspects of companies’ self-disclosure.

Keywords: CSR reports, negative parts, critical genre analysis, interdiscursivity

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21699 Genre Analysis of Postgraduate Theses and Dissertations: Case of Statement of the Problem

Authors: H. Mashhady, H. A. Manzoori, M. Doosti, M. Fatollahi

Abstract:

This study reports a descriptive research in the form of a genre analysis of postgraduates' theses and dissertations at three Iranian universities, including Ferdowsi, Tehran, and Tarbiat Moddares universities. The researchers sought to depict the generic structure of “statement of the problem” section of PhD dissertations and MA theses. Moreover, researchers desired to find any probable variety based on the year the dissertations belonged, to see weather genre-consciousness developed among Iranian postgraduates. To obtain data, “statement of the problem” section of 90 Ph.D. dissertations and MA theses from 2001 to 2013 in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) at above-mentioned universities was selected. Frequency counts was employed for the quantitative method of data analysis, while genre analysis was used as the qualitative method. Inter-rater reliability was found to be about 0.93. Results revealed that students in different degrees at each of these universities used various generic structures for writing “statement of the problem”. Moreover, comparison of different time periods (2001-2006, and 2007-2013) revealed that postgraduates in the second time period, regardless of their degree and university, employed more similar generic structures which can be optimistically attributed to a general raise in genre awareness.

Keywords: genre, genre analysis, Ph.D. and MA dissertations, statement of the problem, generic structure

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21698 Spatial Audio Player Using Musical Genre Classification

Authors: Jun-Yong Lee, Hyoung-Gook Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a smart music player that combines the musical genre classification and the spatial audio processing. The musical genre is classified based on content analysis of the musical segment detected from the audio stream. In parallel with the classification, the spatial audio quality is achieved by adding an artificial reverberation in a virtual acoustic space to the input mono sound. Thereafter, the spatial sound is boosted with the given frequency gains based on the musical genre when played back. Experiments measured the accuracy of detecting the musical segment from the audio stream and its musical genre classification. A listening test was performed based on the virtual acoustic space based spatial audio processing.

Keywords: automatic equalization, genre classification, music segment detection, spatial audio processing

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21697 The Genre Narrative in Beethoven's E-Flat Piano Sonata, Op.31/3

Authors: Yan Zou

Abstract:

Approach to the theory of Musical Narrative, as well as the three criteria of the 'explicit narrative', 'potential narrative' and 'image narrative' which are used to analyze the music, the author put Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in E-flat major, Op.31/3, into the context of the music genre and Western music history, and interpreted the programmatic contents that were embodied and hid in the special music genres.

Keywords: analysis, genre, narrative, rhetoric

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21696 A Documentary Review of Theoretical and Practical Elements for a Genre Analysis of Thailand Travel Listicles

Authors: Pinyada Santisarun, Yaowaret Tharawoot, Songyut Akkakoson

Abstract:

This paper reports on a literature review sub-study of a larger research project which has been designed to identify the rhetorical organization of a travel writing genre, together with the use of lexical choices, syntactical structures, and graphological features, based on a randomly-selected corpus of Thailand travel listicles. Conducted as a library-based overview, this study aims to specify theoretical and practical elements for the said larger study. The materials for the review have been retrieved from various Internet sources, covering both public search engines and library databases. Generally, the article focuses on answering questions about the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of such background elements widely discussed in the literature as the meaning of listicles, how the travel listicles’ patterns and regularities can be categorized to form a new genre, the effect of computer-mediated communication on the travel world, the travel language, and the current situation concerning the importance of travel listicles. The theoretical and practical data derived from this study provide valuable insights into the way in which the genre analysis and lexico-syntactical examination of Thailand travel listicles in the present authors’ larger research project can be properly conducted. The data gained can be added to the expanding body of knowledge in the field of the ESP genre.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, digital writing, genre-based analysis, online travel writing, tourism language

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21695 A Genre Analysis of University Lectures

Authors: Lee Kok Yueh, Fatin Hamadah Rahman, David Hassell, Au Thien Wan

Abstract:

This work reports on a genre based study of lectures at a University in Brunei, Universiti Teknologi Brunei to explore the communicative functions and to gain insight into the discourse. It explores these in three different domains; Social Science, Engineering and Computing. Audio recordings from four lecturers comprising 20 lectures were transcribed and analysed, with the duration of each lecture varying between 20 to 90 minutes. This qualitative study found similar patterns and functions of lectures as those found in existing research amongst which include greetings, housekeeping, or recapping of previous lectures in the lecture introductions. In the lecture content, comprehension check and use of examples or analogies are very prevalent. However, the use of examples largely depend on the lecture content; and the more technical the content, the harder it was for lecturers to provide examples or analogies. Three functional moves are identified in the lecture conclusions; announcement, summary and future plan, all of which are optional. Despite the relatively small sample size, the present study shows that lectures are interactive and there are some consistencies with the delivery of lecture in relation to the communicative functions and genre of lecture.

Keywords: communicative functions, genre analysis, higher education, lectures

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21694 Using Genre Analysis to Teach Contract Negotiation Discourse Practices

Authors: Anthony Townley

Abstract:

Contract negotiation is fundamental to commercial law practice. For this study, genre and discourse analytical methodology was used to examine the legal negotiation of a Merger & Acquisition (M&A) deal undertaken by legal and business professionals in English across different jurisdictions in Europe. While some of the most delicate negotiations involved in this process were carried on face-to-face or over the telephone, these were generally progressed more systematically – and on the record – in the form of emails, email attachments, and as comments and amendments recorded in successive ‘marked-up’ versions of the contracts under negotiation. This large corpus of textual data was originally obtained by the author, in 2012, for the purpose of doctoral research. For this study, the analysis is particularly concerned with the use of emails and covering letters to exchange legal advice about the negotiations. These two genres help to stabilize and progress the negotiation process and account for negotiation activities. Swalesian analysis of functional Moves and Steps was able to identify structural similarities and differences between these text types and to identify certain salient discursive features within them. The analytical findings also indicate how particular linguistic strategies are more appropriately and more effectively associated with one legal genre rather than another. The concept of intertextuality is an important dimension of contract negotiation discourse and this study also examined how the discursive relationships between the different texts influence the way that texts are constructed. In terms of materials development, the research findings can contribute to more authentic English for Legal & Business Purposes pedagogies for students and novice lawyers and business professionals. The findings can first be used to design discursive maps that provide learners with a coherent account of the intertextual nature of the contract negotiation process. These discursive maps can then function as a framework in which to present detailed findings about the textual and structural features of the text types by applying the Swalesian genre analysis. Based on this acquired knowledge of the textual nature of contract negotiation, the authentic discourse materials can then be used to provide learners with practical opportunities to role-play negotiation activities and experience professional ways of thinking and using language in preparation for the written discourse challenges they will face in this important area of legal and business practice.

Keywords: English for legal and business purposes, discourse analysis, genre analysis, intertextuality, pedagogical materials

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21693 English Language Teaching Graduate Students' Use of Discussion Moves in Research Articles

Authors: Gamzegul Koca, Evrim Eveyik-Aydin

Abstract:

Genre and discipline-specific knowledge of academic discourse in writing has long been acknowledged as being a core skill to achieve formidable tasks that are expected of graduate students in academic settings. Genre analysis approaches can be adopted to unveil the challenges encountered in these tasks to be able to take instructional actions addressing the aspects of graduate writing that need improvement. In an attempt to find genre-specific academic writing needs of Turkish students enrolled in a graduate program in ELT, this study examines the rhetorical structure of discussion sections of research articles written during the course load stage of their graduate studies. The 35.437-word specialized corpus of graduate papers compiled for the purpose of the study includes discussions of 58 unpublished reports of empirical studies, 31 written in MA courses and 27 in Ph.D. courses by a total of 44 graduate students. The study does sentence-based move structure analysis using the framework developed by Eveyik-Aydın, Karabacak and Akyel in a corpus-based study that analyzed the discussion moves of expert writers in published articles in ELT journals indexed by Social Sciences Citation. The coding of 1577 sentences by three graders using this framework revealed that while the graduate papers included the same moves used in published articles, the rhetorical structure of MA and Ph.D. papers showed considerable differences in terms of the frequency of occurrence of main discussion moves, including interpretation of the results and drawing implications. The implications of these findings will be discussed with respect to the needs of graduate writers and the expectations of discourse community.

Keywords: discussion moves, genre-specific rhetorical structure, move analysis, research articles, the specialized corpus of graduate papers

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21692 Techno-Apocalypse in Christian End-Time Literature

Authors: Sean O'Callaghan

Abstract:

Around 2011/2012, a whole new genre of Christian religious writing began to emerge, focused on the role of advanced technologies, particularly the GRIN technologies (Genetics, Robotics, Information Technology and Nanotechnology), in bringing about a techno-apocalypse, leading to catastrophic events which would usher in the end of the world. This genre, at first niche, has now begun to grow in significance in many quarters of the more fundamentalist and biblically literalist branches of evangelicalism. It approaches science and technology with more than extreme skepticism. It accuses transhumanists of being in league with satanic powers and a satanic agenda and contextualizes transhumanist scientific progress in terms of its service to what it believes to be a soon to come Antichrist figure. The genre has moved beyond literature and videos about its message can be found on YouTube and other forums, where many of the presentations there get well over a quarter of a million views. This paper will examine the genre and its genesis, referring to the key figures involved in spreading the anti-intellectualist and anti-scientific message. It will demonstrate how this genre of writing is similar in many respects to other forms of apocalyptic writing which have emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, all in response to both scientific and political events which are interpreted in the light of biblical prophecy. It will also set the genre in the context of a contemporary pre-occupation with conspiracy theory. The conclusions of the research conducted in this field by the author are that it does a grave disservice to both the scientific and Christian audiences which it targets, by misrepresenting scientific advances and by creating a hermeneutic of suspicion which makes it impossible for Christians to place their trust in scientific claims.

Keywords: antichrist, catastrophic, Christian, techno-apocalypse

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21691 A Genre-Based Approach to the Teaching of Pronunciation

Authors: Marden Silva, Danielle Guerra

Abstract:

Some studies have indicated that pronunciation teaching hasn’t been paid enough attention by teachers regarding EFL contexts. In particular, segmental and suprasegmental features through genre-based approach may be an opportunity on how to integrate pronunciation into a more meaningful learning practice. Therefore, the aim of this project was to carry out a survey on some aspects related to English pronunciation that Brazilian students consider more difficult to learn, thus enabling the discussion of strategies that can facilitate the development of oral skills in English classes by integrating the teaching of phonetic-phonological aspects into the genre-based approach. Notions of intelligibility, fluency and accuracy were proposed by some authors as an ideal didactic sequence. According to their proposals, basic learners should be exposed to activities focused on the notion of intelligibility as well as intermediate students to the notion of fluency, and finally more advanced ones to accuracy practices. In order to test this hypothesis, data collection was conducted during three high school English classes at Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), in Brazil, through questionnaires and didactic activities, which were recorded and transcribed for further analysis. The genre debate was chosen to facilitate the oral expression of the participants in a freer way, making them answering questions and giving their opinion about a previously selected topic. The findings indicated that basic students demonstrated more difficulty with aspects of English pronunciation than the others. Many of the intelligibility aspects analyzed had to be listened more than once for a better understanding. For intermediate students, the speeches recorded were considerably easier to understand, but nevertheless they found it more difficult to pronounce the words fluently, often interrupting their speech to think about what they were going to say and how they would talk. Lastly, more advanced learners seemed to express their ideas more fluently, but still subtle errors related to accuracy were perceptible in speech, thereby confirming the proposed hypothesis. It was also seen that using genre-based approach to promote oral communication in English classes might be a relevant method, considering the socio-communicative function inherent in the suggested approach.

Keywords: EFL, genre-based approach, oral skills, pronunciation

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21690 Crossing the Interdisciplinary Border: A Multidimensional Linguistics Analysis of a Legislative Discourse

Authors: Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh

Abstract:

There is a crucial mismatch between classroom written language tasks and real world written language requirements. Realizing the importance of reducing the gap between the professional needs of the legal practitioners and the higher learning institutions that offer the legislative education in Malaysia, it is deemed necessary to develop a framework that integrates real-life written communication with the teaching of content-based legislative discourse to future legal practitioners. By highlighting the actual needs of the legal practitioners in the country, the present teaching practices will be enhanced and aligned with the actual needs of the learners thus realizing the vision and aspirations of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 and Legal Profession Qualifying Board. The need to focus future education according to the actual needs of the learners can be realized by developing a teaching framework which is designed within the prospective requirements of its real-life context. This paper presents the steps taken to develop a specific teaching framework that fulfills the fundamental real-life context of the prospective legal practitioners. The teaching framework was developed based on real-life written communication from the legal profession in Malaysia, using the specific genre analysis approach which integrates a corpus-based approach and a structural linguistics analysis. This approach was adopted due to its fundamental nature of intensive exploration of the real-life written communication according to the established strategies used. The findings showed the use of specific moves and parts-of-speech by the legal practitioners, in order to prepare the selected genre. The teaching framework is hoped to enhance the teachings of content-based law courses offered at present in the higher learning institutions in Malaysia.

Keywords: linguistics analysis, corpus analysis, genre analysis, legislative discourse

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21689 Music Genre Classification Based on Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Features

Authors: Soyon Kim, Edward Kim

Abstract:

In order to retrieve information from the massive stream of songs in the music industry, music search by title, lyrics, artist, mood, and genre has become more important. Despite the subjectivity and controversy over the definition of music genres across different nations and cultures, automatic genre classification systems that facilitate the process of music categorization have been developed. Manual genre selection by music producers is being provided as statistical data for designing automatic genre classification systems. In this paper, an automatic music genre classification system utilizing non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is proposed. Short-term characteristics of the music signal can be captured based on the timbre features such as mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC), decorrelated filter bank (DFB), octave-based spectral contrast (OSC), and octave band sum (OBS). Long-term time-varying characteristics of the music signal can be summarized with (1) the statistical features such as mean, variance, minimum, and maximum of the timbre features and (2) the modulation spectrum features such as spectral flatness measure, spectral crest measure, spectral peak, spectral valley, and spectral contrast of the timbre features. Not only these conventional basic long-term feature vectors, but also NMF based feature vectors are proposed to be used together for genre classification. In the training stage, NMF basis vectors were extracted for each genre class. The NMF features were calculated in the log spectral magnitude domain (NMF-LSM) as well as in the basic feature vector domain (NMF-BFV). For NMF-LSM, an entire full band spectrum was used. However, for NMF-BFV, only low band spectrum was used since high frequency modulation spectrum of the basic feature vectors did not contain important information for genre classification. In the test stage, using the set of pre-trained NMF basis vectors, the genre classification system extracted the NMF weighting values of each genre as the NMF feature vectors. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. The GTZAN multi-genre music database was used for training and testing. It is composed of 10 genres and 100 songs for each genre. To increase the reliability of the experiments, 10-fold cross validation was used. For a given input song, an extracted NMF-LSM feature vector was composed of 10 weighting values that corresponded to the classification probabilities for 10 genres. An NMF-BFV feature vector also had a dimensionality of 10. Combined with the basic long-term features such as statistical features and modulation spectrum features, the NMF features provided the increased accuracy with a slight increase in feature dimensionality. The conventional basic features by themselves yielded 84.0% accuracy, but the basic features with NMF-LSM and NMF-BFV provided 85.1% and 84.2% accuracy, respectively. The basic features required dimensionality of 460, but NMF-LSM and NMF-BFV required dimensionalities of 10 and 10, respectively. Combining the basic features, NMF-LSM and NMF-BFV together with the SVM with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel produced the significantly higher classification accuracy of 88.3% with a feature dimensionality of 480.

Keywords: mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC), music genre classification, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), support vector machine (SVM)

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21688 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula

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A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags, principal component analysis

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21687 Levels of Reflection in Engineers EFL Learners: The Path to Content and Language Integrated Learning Implementation in Chilean Higher Education

Authors: Sebastián Olivares Lizana, Marianna Oyanedel González

Abstract:

This study takes part of a major project based on implementing a CLIL program (Content and Language Integrated Learning) at Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, a leading Chilean tertiary Institution. It aims at examining the relationship between the development of Reflective Processes (RP) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) in weekly learning logs written by faculty members, participants of an initial professional development online course on English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Such course was designed with a genre-based approach, and consists of multiple tasks directed to academic writing proficiency. The results of this analysis will be described and classified in a scale of key indicators that represent both the Reflective Processes and the advances in CALP, and that also consider linguistic proficiency and task progression. Such indicators will evidence affordances and constrains of using a genre-based approach in an EFL Engineering CLIL program implementation at tertiary level in Chile, and will serve as the starting point to the design of a professional development course directed to teaching methodologies in a CLIL EFL environment in Engineering education at Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María.

Keywords: EFL, EAL, genre, CLIL, engineering

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21686 The Effectiveness of Genre-Based Pedagogy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Hong Kong

Authors: Mark Shiu-kee Shum, Dan Shi

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based pedagogy in teaching Chinese as a foreign language to South Asian ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. South Asian ethnic minority students, as a disadvantaged group of foreign language learners, lack sufficient parental and institutional support in Chinese language learning. The genre-based “Reading to Learn, Learning to Write, R2L” pedagogy derived from Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is applied in this study to improve Chinese language performance of South Asian ethnic minority students for better chance to participate in mainstream society. In this study, the R2L pedagogy is applied to teach students Chinese writing of different genres in junior secondary level for a year. To determine the effectiveness of the R2L pedagogy, the pre-test and post-test writings were evaluated by R2L assessment criteria and analyzed using Systemic Functional Linguistics framework from the whole-text level, sentence level, and the word level. Besides, semi-structured interviews were conducted to perceive students’ learning expectations via experiencing with R2L pedagogy. The finding shows that after the pedagogic interventions, students are equipped with an increased meta-linguistic awareness of genre-specific writing in improving and facilitating their writing performance. It is hoped that the findings can provide a reference for language teachers in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong and beyond.

Keywords: ethnic minority, genre-based approach, reading to learn pedagogy, foreign language education

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21685 Post-modernist Tragi-Comedy: A Study of Tom Stoppard’s “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead”

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

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The death of tragedy is probably the most distinctive literary controversy of the twentieth century. There is common critical consent that tragedy in the classical sense of the word is no longer possible. Thinkers, philosophers, and critics such as Nietzsche, Durrenmatt, and George Steiner have all agreed that the decline of the genre in the modern age is due to the total lack of a unified world image and the absence of a shared vision in a fragmented and ideologically diversified world. The production of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead in 1967 marked the rise of the genre of tragi-comedy as a more appropriate reflection of the spirit of the age. At the hands of such great dramatists as Tom Stoppard (1937- ), the revived genre was not used as an extra comic element to give some comic relief to an otherwise tragic text, but it was given a postmodernist touch to serve the interpretation of the dilemma of man in the postmodernist world. This paper will study features of postmodernist tragi-comedy in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead as one of the most important plays in modern British theatre and investigate Stoppard’s vision of man and life as influenced by postmodernist thought and philosophy.

Keywords: British, drama, postmodernist, Stoppard, tragi-comedy

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21684 Gender Construction in Contemporary Dystopian Fiction in Young Adult Literature: A South African Example

Authors: Johan Anker

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the nature of gender construction in modern dystopian fiction, the development of this genre in Young Adult Literature and reasons for the enormous appeal on the adolescent readers. A recent award winning South African text in this genre, The Mark by Edith Bullring (2014), will be used as example while also comparing this text to international bestsellers like Divergent (Roth:2011), The Hunger Games (Collins:2008) and others. Theoretical insights from critics and academics in the field of children’s literature, like Ames, Coats, Bradford, Booker, Basu, Green-Barteet, Hintz, McAlear, McCallum, Moylan, Ostry, Ryan, Stephens and Westerfield will be referred to and their insights used as part of the analysis of The Mark. The role of relevant and recurring themes in this genre, like global concerns, environmental destruction, liberty, self-determination, social and political critique, surveillance and repression by the state or other institutions will also be referred to. The paper will shortly refer to the history and emergence of dystopian literature as genre in adult and young adult literature as part of the long tradition since the publishing of Orwell’s 1984 and Huxley’s Brave New World. Different factors appeal to adolescent readers in the modern versions of this hybrid genre for young adults: teenage protagonists who are questioning the underlying values of a flawed society like an inhuman or tyrannical government, a growing understanding of the society around them, feelings of isolation and the dynamic of relationships. This unease leads to a growing sense of the potential to act against society (rebellion), and of their role as agents in a larger community and independent decision-making abilities. This awareness also leads to a growing sense of self (identity and agency) and the development of romantic relationships. The specific modern tendency of a female protagonist as leader in the rebellion against state and state apparatus, who gains in agency and independence in this rebellion, an important part of the identification with and construction of gender, while being part of the traditional coming-of-age young adult novel will be emphasized. A comparison between the traditional themes, structures and plots of young adult literature (YAL) with adult dystopian literature and those of recent dystopian YAL will be made while the hybrid nature of this genre and the 'sense of unease' but also of hope, as an essential part of youth literature, in the closure to these novels will be discussed. Important questions about the role of the didactic nature of these texts and the political issues and the importance of the formation of agency and identity for the young adult reader, as well as identification with the protagonists in this genre, are also part of this discussion of The Mark and other YAL novels.

Keywords: agency, dystopian literature, gender construction, young adult literature

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21683 A Comparative Genre-Based Study of Research Articles' Method and Results Sections Authored by Iranian and English Native Speakers

Authors: Mohammad Amin Mozaheb, Mahnaz Saeidi, Saeideh Ahangari, Saeideh Ahangari

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The present genre-driven study aims at comparing moves and sub-moves deployed by Iranian and English medical writers while writing their research articles in English. To obtain the goals of the study, the researchers randomly selected a number of medical articles and compared them using Nwogu (1997)’s model. The results of relevant statistical tests, Chi-square tests for goodness of fit, used for comparing the two groups of the articles dubbed IrISI (Iranian ISI articles) and EISI (English ISI articles) have shown that no significant difference exists between the two groups of the articles in terms of the moves and sub-moves used in the method and results sections of them. The findings can be beneficial for people interested in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and medical experts. The findings can also increase language awareness and genre awareness among researchers who are interested in publishing their research outcomes in ISI-indexed journals in the Islamic Republic of Iran and some other world countries.

Keywords: writing, ESP, research articles, medical sciences, language, scientific writing

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21682 A Discourse on the Rhythmic Pattern Employed in Yoruba Sakara Music of Nigeria

Authors: Oludare Olupemi Ezekiel

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This research examines the rhythmic structure of Sakara music by tracing its roots and analyzing the various rhythmic patterns of this neo-traditional genre, as well as the contributions of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, using these as a model for understanding and establishing African rhythms. Biography of the major exponents and contemporary practitioners, interviews and participant observational methods were used to elicit information. Samples of the genre which were chosen at random were transcribed, notated and analyzed for academic use and documentation. The research affirmed that rhythms such as the Hemiola, Cross-rhythm, Clave or Bell rhythm, Percussive, Speech and Melodic rhythm and other relevant rhythmic theories were prevalent and applicable to Sakara music, while making important contributions to musical scholarship through its analysis of the music. The analysis and discussions carried out in the research pointed towards a conclusion that the Yoruba musicians are guided by some preconceptions and sound musical considerations in making their rhythmic patterns, used as compositional techniques and not mere incidental occurrence. These rhythmic patterns, with its consequential socio-cultural connotations, enhance musical values and national identity in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that musicologists need to carry out more research into this and other neo-traditional genres in order to advance the globalisation of African music.

Keywords: compositional techniques, globalisation, identity, neo-traditional, rhythmic theory, Sakara music

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21681 Evaluating Key Attributes of Effective Digital Games in Tertiary Education

Authors: Roopali Kulkarni, Yuliya Khrypko

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A major problem in educational digital game design is that game developers are often focused on maintaining the fun and playability of an educational game, whereas educators are more concerned with the learning aspect of the game rather than its entertaining characteristics. There is a clear need to understand what key aspects of digital learning games make them an effective learning medium in tertiary education. Through a systematic literature review and content analysis, this paper identifies, evaluates, and summarizes twenty-threekey attributes of digital games used in tertiary education and presents a summary digital game-based learning (DGBL) modelfor designing and evaluating an educational digital game of any genre that promotes effective learning in tertiary education. The proposed solution overcomes limitations of previously designed models for digital games evaluation, such as a small number of game attributes considered or applicability to a specific genre of digital games. Proposed DGBL modelcan be used to assist game designers and educators with creating effective and engaging educational digital games for the tertiary education curriculum.

Keywords: DGBL model, digital games, educational games, game-based learning, tertiary education

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21680 Investigating the Body Paragraphs of English as a Second Language Students' English Academic Essays: Genre Analysis and Needs Analysis

Authors: Chek K. Loi

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The present study has two objectives. Firstly, it investigates the rhetorical strategies employed in the body paragraphs of ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students’ English academic essays. Peacock’s (2002) model of the discussion section was used as the starting points in this study to investigate the rhetorical moves employed in the data. Secondly, it investigates the writing problems as perceived by these ESL students through an interview. Interview responses serve as accompanying data to the move analysis. Apart from this, students’ English academic writing problems are diagnosed. The findings have pedagogical implications in an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) classroom.

Keywords: academic essays, move analysis, pedagogical implication, rhetorical strategies

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21679 Move Analysis of Death Row Statements: An Explanatory Study Applied to Death Row Statements in Texas Department of Criminal Justice Website

Authors: Giya Erina

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Linguists have analyzed the rhetorical structure of various forensic genres, but only a few have investigated the complete structure of death row statements. Unlike other forensic text types, such as suicide or ransom notes, the focus of death row statement analysis is not the authenticity or falsity of the text, but its intended meaning and its communicative purpose. As it constitutes their last statement before their execution, there are probably many things that inmates would like to express. This study mainly examines the rhetorical moves of 200 death row statements from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice website using rhetorical move analysis. The rhetorical moves identified in the statements will be classified based on their communicative purpose, and they will be grouped into moves and steps. A move structure will finally be suggested from the most common or characteristic moves and steps, as well as some sub-moves. However, because of some statements’ atypicality, some moves may appear in different parts of the texts or not at all.

Keywords: Death row statements, forensic linguistics, genre analysis, move analysis

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21678 Interpretations of Disaster: A Comparative Study on Disaster Film Cycles

Authors: Chi-Ying Yu

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In real life, the occurrence of disasters is always dreadful and heartbreaking, yet paradoxically, disaster film is a genre that has been popular at periodic intervals in motion picture history. This study attempts to compare the disaster film cycles of the 1970s, 1990s, and the early 21st century. Two research questions are addressed: First, how this genre has responded to the existing conditions of society in different periods in terms of the disaster proposition? Second, how this genre reflects a certain eternal substance of the human mind in light of its lasting appeal? Through cinematic textual analysis and literature review, this study finds that the emergence of disaster films in the 1970s reflected the turmoil in international relations and domestic politics situation in contemporary American society, and cinema screens showed such disaster stories as shipwrecks, air accidents, and skyscraper blazes due to human negligence. The 1990s saw the fervor of millennial apocalypse legends, and the awakening of environmental consciousness, which, together with the rapid advances in digital technology, once again gave rise to a frenzy of disaster films, with natural disasters and threats from aliens as the major themes of disasters. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the 911 Incident and natural disasters around the world have generated a consciousness of imminent crisis. Cinematic images simulated actual disasters, while aesthetic techniques focused on creating a kind of ‘empathetic’ experience in their exploration of the essence of the disaster experience. At the same time, post-apocalypse films that focus on post-disaster reconstruction have become an even more popular theme. Taking the approach of Jungian/post-Jungian film study, this study also reviews and interprets the commonly exhibited subliminal feelings in the disaster films of the three different periods. The imagination of disaster seems to serve as an underlying state of the human mind.

Keywords: disaster film, Jungian/post-Jungian film studies, stimulation, sublime

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21677 Movie Genre Preference Prediction Using Machine Learning for Customer-Based Information

Authors: Haifeng Wang, Haili Zhang

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Most movie recommendation systems have been developed for customers to find items of interest. This work introduces a predictive model usable by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) who are in need of a data-based and analytical approach to stock proper movies for local audiences and retain more customers. We used classification models to extract features from thousands of customers’ demographic, behavioral and social information to predict their movie genre preference. In the implementation, a Gaussian kernel support vector machine (SVM) classification model and a logistic regression model were established to extract features from sample data and their test error-in-sample were compared. Comparison of error-out-sample was also made under different Vapnik–Chervonenkis (VC) dimensions in the machine learning algorithm to find and prevent overfitting. Gaussian kernel SVM prediction model can correctly predict movie genre preferences in 85% of positive cases. The accuracy of the algorithm increased to 93% with a smaller VC dimension and less overfitting. These findings advance our understanding of how to use machine learning approach to predict customers’ preferences with a small data set and design prediction tools for these enterprises.

Keywords: computational social science, movie preference, machine learning, SVM

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21676 A Corpus-Based Contrastive Analysis of Directive Speech Act Verbs in English and Chinese Legal Texts

Authors: Wujian Han

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In the process of human interaction and communication, speech act verbs are considered to be the most active component and the main means for information transmission, and are also taken as an indication of the structure of linguistic behavior. The theoretical value and practical significance of such everyday built-in metalanguage have long been recognized. This paper, which is part of a bigger study, is aimed to provide useful insights for a more precise and systematic application to speech act verbs translation between English and Chinese, especially with regard to the degree to which generic integrity is maintained in the practice of translation of legal documents. In this study, the corpus, i.e. Chinese legal texts and their English translations, English legal texts, ordinary Chinese texts, and ordinary English texts, serve as a testing ground for examining contrastively the usage of English and Chinese directive speech act verbs in legal genre. The scope of this paper is relatively wide and essentially covers all directive speech act verbs which are used in ordinary English and Chinese, such as order, command, request, prohibit, threat, advice, warn and permit. The researcher, by combining the corpus methodology with a contrastive perspective, explored a range of characteristics of English and Chinese directive speech act verbs including their semantic, syntactic and pragmatic features, and then contrasted them in a structured way. It has been found that there are similarities between English and Chinese directive speech act verbs in legal genre, such as similar semantic components between English speech act verbs and their translation equivalents in Chinese, formal and accurate usage of English and Chinese directive speech act verbs in legal contexts. But notable differences have been identified in areas of difference between their usage in the original Chinese and English legal texts such as valency patterns and frequency of occurrences. For example, the subjects of some directive speech act verbs are very frequently omitted in Chinese legal texts, but this is not the case in English legal texts. One of the practicable methods to achieve adequacy and conciseness in speech act verb translation from Chinese into English in legal genre is to repeat the subjects or the message with discrepancy, and vice versa. In addition, translation effects such as overuse and underuse of certain directive speech act verbs are also found in the translated English texts compared to the original English texts. Legal texts constitute a particularly valuable material for speech act verb study. Building up such a contrastive picture of the Chinese and English speech act verbs in legal language would yield results of value and interest to legal translators and students of language for legal purposes and have practical application to legal translation between English and Chinese.

Keywords: contrastive analysis, corpus-based, directive speech act verbs, legal texts, translation between English and Chinese

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21675 Evaluation Means in English and Russian Academic Discourse: Through Comparative Analysis towards Translation

Authors: Albina Vodyanitskaya

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Given the culture- and language-specific nature of evaluation, this phenomenon is widely studied around the linguistic world and may be regarded as a challenge for translators. Evaluation penetrates all the levels of a scientific text, influences its composition and the reader’s attitude towards the information presented. One of the most challenging and rarely studied phenomena is the individual style of the scientific writer, which is mostly reflected in the use of evaluative language means. The evaluative and expressive potential of a scientific text is becoming more and more welcoming area for researchers, which stems in the shift towards anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics. Other reasons include: the cognitive and psycholinguistic processes that accompany knowledge acquisition, a genre-determined nature of a scientific text, the increasing public concern about the quality of scientific papers and some such. One more important issue, is the fact that linguists all over the world still argue about the definition of evaluation and its functions in the text. The author analyzes various approaches towards the study of evaluation and scientific texts. A comparative analysis of English and Russian dissertations and other scientific papers with regard to evaluative language means reveals major differences and similarities between English and Russian scientific style. Though standardized and genre-specific, English scientific texts contain more figurative and expressive evaluative means than the Russian ones, which should be taken into account while translating scientific papers. The processes that evaluation undergoes while being expressed by means of a target language are also analyzed. The author offers a target-language-dependent strategy for the translation of evaluation in English and Russian scientific texts. The findings may contribute to the theory and practice of translation and can increase scientific writers’ awareness of inter-language and intercultural differences in evaluative language means.

Keywords: academic discourse, evaluation, scientific text, scientific writing, translation

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21674 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi

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It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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21673 Crossing Narrative Waters in World Cinema: Alamar (2009) and Kaili Blues (2015)

Authors: Dustin Dill

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The physical movement of crossing over water points to both developing narrative tropes and innovative cinematography in World Cinema today. Two prime examples, Alamar (2009) by Pedro González-Rubio and Kaili Blues (2015) by Bi Gan, demonstrate how contemporary storytelling in a film not only rests upon these water shots but also emerges from them. The range of symbolism that these episodes in the story provoke goes hand in hand with the diverse filming sequences found in the respective productions. While González-Rubio decides to cut the scene into long and longer shots, Gan uses a single take. The differing angles depict equally unique directors and film projects: Alamar runs parallel to many definitions of the essay film, and Kaili Blues resonates much more with mystery and art film. Nonetheless, the crossing of water scenes influence the narratives’ subjects despite the generic consequences, and it is within the essay, mystery, and art film genres which allows for a better understanding of World Cinema. Tiago de Luca explains World Cinema’s prerogative of giving form to a certain type of spectator does not always line up. Given the immense number of interpretations of crossing water —the escape from suffering to find nirvana, rebirth, and colonization— underline the difficulty of categorizing it. If before this type of cross-genre was a trait that defined World Cinema in its beginning, this study observes that González-Rubio and Gan question the all-encompassing genre with their experimental shots of a universal narrative trope, the crossing of water.

Keywords: cinematography, genre, narrative, world cinema

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21672 Matter of the Artistic Content of Music (The Symphonies of Jovdat Hajiyev and the Creativity of Fikrat Amirov)

Authors: Vusala Amirbayova Yusif

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As we know the formation of new composer’s schools is determined not with the national belonging, but firstly with the development of the national spirit and eternal traditions. The formation of ancient musical traditions with the classical European genre and forms stand in the center of music art with Azerbaijani written tradition. Though this duty is actual for the neighboring eastern countries (for example, Iran, Turkey, Arabian countries, India), it has not been realized in the same level in real creative practice. It is necessary to mention that, the symphonic mughams formed from the joining of Eastern mugham-magam and classical music forms of Western symphony have been greeted with amazement and it was valuable practice in national composer’s art. It is true that, the new examples of the genre were formed in the next years (S.Alasgarov, T.Bakikhanov and etc.) and F.Amirov came back to the genre of symphonic mugham as he created Gulustani-Bayati-Shiraz”in,-1970. New tendency has begun to show itself in the development of national symphonic genre. The new attitude for mugham traditions showed itself in symphonic creative work of A.Malikov, A.Alizada, M.Guliyev,V.Adigozalov. The voice of mugham mentality has entered the depth of the Azerbaijan symphony, has determined the meditation spirit, dramatist process and content. This movement has formed the new notion of “mugham mphonism” with new meaning by our musicologists. In the modern musical science, in addition to traditional methods and procedures, the formation of new theories and approaches caused to the further increase of scientific interest towards the problem of artistic content in the art of composition. The initiative has been made to have overall look on this important subject as an example of the creativity of FikratAmirov (1922-1984)and JovdatHaciyev(1917-2000), the great composers of Azerbaijan and to analyze his some symphonic works from this point of view in the current report. In this connection, main provisions of the new theoretical concept that were comprehensively annotated in the article of Russian musicologist V. Kholopova named "Special and non-special musical content" were used.

Keywords: content, composer, music, mugham symphony

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21671 Investigating 'Criticality' in Written Assignments of Postgraduate Students in TESOL and Applied Linguistics

Authors: Josephine Mirador

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Too often, one hears teachers complaining about how uncritical students can be, yet the notion of ‘criticality’ may be subject to variable understandings or interpretations. One challenge facing postgraduate students is the writing of essays responding to a specific reading assignment. Such an essay requires students not only to summarise, but to engage in a discussion of the significant points of the article, pointing out its strengths as well as its weaknesses. This paper presents the results of an investigation on criticality in written assignments of postgraduate students in applied linguistics and TESOL. The guiding questions for this investigation were: -How ‘critical’ are postgraduate students when writing their assignments? -What kind of ‘critical’ comments are they able to offer? A total of 70 essays were analysed, using two sets of corpora in the initial and follow-through phases of the research from three different universities in Asia. The essays were written by MA applied linguistics and TESOL students. Students were told that the response essay should definitely not just summarise, but should offer a reflection or critique on the ideas presented in the subject article. The initial findings from the investigation include: the identification of at least 10 general ‘moves’ each of which has a number of possible specific categories; presence of critique ‘nodes’ as distinguished from ‘support’ comments; and the identification of at least 4 moves as the most recurrent and possibly obligatory categories. This investigation has unearthed a few more questions or issues that are definitely worth investigating as extensions of this research, and will be of interest (most especially) to genre analysts and teachers of writing.

Keywords: criticality, discourse and genre analysis, postgraduate students, applied linguistics

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