Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2571

Search results for: functional connectivity

2571 Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Keywords: cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE

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2570 Task Based Functional Connectivity within Reward Network in Food Image Viewing Paradigm Using Functional MRI

Authors: Preetham Shankapal, Jill King, Kori Murray, Corby Martin, Paula Giselman, Jason Hicks, Owen Carmicheal

Abstract:

Activation of reward and satiety networks in the brain while processing palatable food cues, as well as functional connectivity during rest has been studied using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain in various obesity phenotypes. However, functional connectivity within the reward and satiety network during food cue processing is understudied. 14 obese individuals underwent two fMRI scans during viewing of Macronutrient Picture System images. Each scan included two blocks of images of High Sugar/High Fat (HSHF), High Carbohydrate/High Fat (HCHF), Low Sugar/Low Fat (LSLF) and also non-food images. Seed voxels within seven food reward relevant ROIs: Insula, putamen and cingulate, precentral, parahippocampal, medial frontal and superior temporal gyri were isolated based on a prior meta-analysis. Beta series correlation for task-related functional connectivity between these seed voxels and the rest of the brain was computed. Voxel-level differences in functional connectivity were calculated between: first and the second scan; individuals who saw novel (N=7) vs. Repeated (N=7) images in the second scan; and between the HC/HF, HSHF blocks vs LSLF and non-food blocks. Computations and analysis showed that during food image viewing, reward network ROIs showed significant functional connectivity with each other and with other regions responsible for attentional and motor control, including inferior parietal lobe and precentral gyrus. These functional connectivity values were heightened among individuals who viewed novel HS/HF images in the second scan. In the second scan session, functional connectivity was reduced within the reward network but increased within attention, memory and recognition regions, suggesting habituation to reward properties and increased recollection of previously viewed images. In conclusion it can be inferred that Functional Connectivity within reward network and between reward and other brain regions, varies by important experimental conditions during food photography viewing, including habituation to shown foods.

Keywords: fMRI, functional connectivity, task-based, beta series correlation

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2569 Gender Effects in EEG-Based Functional Brain Networks

Authors: Mahdi Jalili

Abstract:

Functional connectivity in the human brain can be represented as a network using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Network representation of EEG time series can be an efficient vehicle to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain function. Brain functional networks – whose nodes are brain regions and edges correspond to functional links between them – are characterized by neurobiologically meaningful graph theory metrics. This study investigates the degree to which graph theory metrics are sex dependent. To this end, EEGs from 24 healthy female subjects and 21 healthy male subjects were recorded in eyes-closed resting state conditions. The connectivity matrices were extracted using correlation analysis and were further binarized to obtain binary functional networks. Global and local efficiency measures – as graph theory metrics– were computed for the extracted networks. We found that male brains have a significantly greater global efficiency (i.e., global communicability of the network) across all frequency bands for a wide range of cost values in both hemispheres. Furthermore, for a range of cost values, female brains showed significantly greater right-hemispheric local efficiency (i.e., local connectivity) than male brains.

Keywords: EEG, brain, functional networks, network science, graph theory

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2568 Leveraging Multimodal Neuroimaging Techniques to in vivo Address Compensatory and Disintegration Patterns in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Evidence from Cortico-Cerebellar Connections in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Georgios Velonakis, Agapi Plousi, Kalliopi Platoni, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Efstathios Efstathopoulos

Abstract:

Introduction: Advanced structural and functional neuroimaging techniques contribute to the study of anatomical and functional brain connectivity and its role in the pathophysiology and symptoms’ heterogeneity in several neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Aim: In the present study, we applied multiparametric neuroimaging techniques to investigate the structural and functional cortico-cerebellar changes in MS patients. Material: We included 51 MS patients (28 with clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 31 with relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS]) and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) who underwent MRI in a 3.0T MRI scanner. Methodology: The acquisition protocol included high-resolution 3D T1 weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging and echo planar imaging sequences for the analysis of volumetric, tractography and functional resting state data, respectively. We performed between-group comparisons (CIS, RRMS, HC) using CAT12 and CONN16 MATLAB toolboxes for the analysis of volumetric (cerebellar gray matter density) and functional (cortico-cerebellar resting-state functional connectivity) data, respectively. Brainance suite was used for the analysis of tractography data (cortico-cerebellar white matter integrity; fractional anisotropy [FA]; axial and radial diffusivity [AD; RD]) to reconstruct the cerebellum tracts. Results: Patients with CIS did not show significant gray matter (GM) density differences compared with HC. However, they showed decreased FA and increased diffusivity measures in cortico-cerebellar tracts, and increased cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity. Patients with RRMS showed decreased GM density in cerebellar regions, decreased FA and increased diffusivity measures in cortico-cerebellar WM tracts, as well as a pattern of increased and mostly decreased functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity compared to HC. The comparison between CIS and RRMS patients revealed significant GM density difference, reduced FA and increased diffusivity measures in WM cortico-cerebellar tracts and increased/decreased functional connectivity. The identification of decreased WM integrity and increased functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity without GM changes in CIS and the pattern of decreased GM density decreased WM integrity and mostly decreased functional connectivity in RRMS patients emphasizes the role of compensatory mechanisms in early disease stages and the disintegration of structural and functional networks with disease progression. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study highlights the added value of multimodal neuroimaging techniques for the in vivo investigation of cortico-cerebellar brain changes in neurodegenerative disorders. An extension and future opportunity to leverage multimodal neuroimaging data inevitably remain the integration of such data in the recently-applied mathematical approaches of machine learning algorithms to more accurately classify and predict patients’ disease course.

Keywords: advanced neuroimaging techniques, cerebellum, MRI, multiple sclerosis

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2567 Replicating Brain’s Resting State Functional Connectivity Network Using a Multi-Factor Hub-Based Model

Authors: B. L. Ho, L. Shi, D. F. Wang, V. C. T. Mok

Abstract:

The brain’s functional connectivity while temporally non-stationary does express consistency at a macro spatial level. The study of stable resting state connectivity patterns hence provides opportunities for identification of diseases if such stability is severely perturbed. A mathematical model replicating the brain’s spatial connections will be useful for understanding brain’s representative geometry and complements the empirical model where it falls short. Empirical computations tend to involve large matrices and become infeasible with fine parcellation. However, the proposed analytical model has no such computational problems. To improve replicability, 92 subject data are obtained from two open sources. The proposed methodology, inspired by financial theory, uses multivariate regression to find relationships of every cortical region of interest (ROI) with some pre-identified hubs. These hubs acted as representatives for the entire cortical surface. A variance-covariance framework of all ROIs is then built based on these relationships to link up all the ROIs. The result is a high level of match between model and empirical correlations in the range of 0.59 to 0.66 after adjusting for sample size; an increase of almost forty percent. More significantly, the model framework provides an intuitive way to delineate between systemic drivers and idiosyncratic noise while reducing dimensions by more than 30 folds, hence, providing a way to conduct attribution analysis. Due to its analytical nature and simple structure, the model is useful as a standalone toolkit for network dependency analysis or as a module for other mathematical models.

Keywords: functional magnetic resonance imaging, multivariate regression, network hubs, resting state functional connectivity

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2566 Linking Enhanced Resting-State Brain Connectivity with the Benefit of Desirable Difficulty to Motor Learning: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Authors: Chien-Ho Lin, Ho-Ching Yang, Barbara Knowlton, Shin-Leh Huang, Ming-Chang Chiang

Abstract:

Practicing motor tasks arranged in an interleaved order (interleaved practice, or IP) generally leads to better learning than practicing tasks in a repetitive order (repetitive practice, or RP), an example of how desirable difficulty during practice benefits learning. Greater difficulty during practice, e.g. IP, is associated with greater brain activity measured by higher blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the sensorimotor areas of the brain. In this study resting-state fMRI was applied to investigate whether increase in resting-state brain connectivity immediately after practice predicts the benefit of desirable difficulty to motor learning. 26 healthy adults (11M/15F, age = 23.3±1.3 years) practiced two sets of three sequences arranged in a repetitive or an interleaved order over 2 days, followed by a retention test on Day 5 to evaluate learning. On each practice day, fMRI data were acquired in a resting state after practice. The resting-state fMRI data was decomposed using a group-level spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yielding 9 independent components (IC) matched to the precuneus network, primary visual networks (two ICs, denoted by I and II respectively), sensorimotor networks (two ICs, denoted by I and II respectively), the right and the left frontoparietal networks, occipito-temporal network, and the frontal network. A weighted resting-state functional connectivity (wRSFC) was then defined to incorporate information from within- and between-network brain connectivity. The within-network functional connectivity between a voxel and an IC was gauged by a z-score derived from the Fisher transformation of the IC map. The between-network connectivity was derived from the cross-correlation of time courses across all possible pairs of ICs, leading to a symmetric nc x nc matrix of cross-correlation coefficients, denoted by C = (pᵢⱼ). Here pᵢⱼ is the extremum of cross-correlation between ICs i and j; nc = 9 is the number of ICs. This component-wise cross-correlation matrix C was then projected to the voxel space, with the weights for each voxel set to the z-score that represents the above within-network functional connectivity. The wRSFC map incorporates the global characteristics of brain networks measured by the between-network connectivity, and the spatial information contained in the IC maps measured by the within-network connectivity. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that greater IP-minus-RP difference in wRSFC was positively correlated with the RP-minus-IP difference in the response time on Day 5, particularly in brain regions crucial for motor learning, such as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the right premotor and supplementary motor cortices. This indicates that enhanced resting brain connectivity during the early phase of memory consolidation is associated with enhanced learning following interleaved practice, and as such wRSFC could be applied as a biomarker that measures the beneficial effects of desirable difficulty on motor sequence learning.

Keywords: desirable difficulty, functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis, resting-state networks

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2565 Deficient Multisensory Integration with Concomitant Resting-State Connectivity in Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Authors: Marcel Schulze, Behrem Aslan, Silke Lux, Alexandra Philipsen

Abstract:

Objective: Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report that they are being flooded by sensory impressions. Studies investigating sensory processing show hypersensitivity for sensory inputs across the senses in children and adults with ADHD. Especially the auditory modality is affected by deficient acoustical inhibition and modulation of signals. While studying unimodal signal-processing is relevant and well-suited in a controlled laboratory environment, everyday life situations occur multimodal. A complex interplay of the senses is necessary to form a unified percept. In order to achieve this, the unimodal sensory modalities are bound together in a process called multisensory integration (MI). In the current study we investigate MI in an adult ADHD sample using the McGurk-effect – a well-known illusion where incongruent speech like phonemes lead in case of successful integration to a new perceived phoneme via late top-down attentional allocation . In ADHD neuronal dysregulation at rest e.g., aberrant within or between network functional connectivity may also account for difficulties in integrating across the senses. Therefore, the current study includes resting-state functional connectivity to investigate a possible relation of deficient network connectivity and the ability of stimulus integration. Method: Twenty-five ADHD patients (6 females, age: 30.08 (SD:9,3) years) and twenty-four healthy controls (9 females; age: 26.88 (SD: 6.3) years) were recruited. MI was examined using the McGurk effect, where - in case of successful MI - incongruent speech-like phonemes between visual and auditory modality are leading to a perception of a new phoneme. Mann-Whitney-U test was applied to assess statistical differences between groups. Echo-planar imaging-resting-state functional MRI was acquired on a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Magnetom MR scanner. A seed-to-voxel analysis was realized using the CONN toolbox. Results: Susceptibility to McGurk was significantly lowered for ADHD patients (ADHDMdn:5.83%, ControlsMdn:44.2%, U= 160.5, p=0.022, r=-0.34). When ADHD patients integrated phonemes, reaction times were significantly longer (ADHDMdn:1260ms, ControlsMdn:582ms, U=41.0, p<.000, r= -0.56). In functional connectivity medio temporal gyrus (seed) was negatively associated with primary auditory cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. Conclusion: MI seems to be deficient for ADHD patients for stimuli that need top-down attentional allocation. This finding is supported by stronger functional connectivity from unimodal sensory areas to polymodal, MI convergence zones for complex stimuli in ADHD patients.

Keywords: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, audiovisual integration, McGurk-effect, resting-state functional connectivity

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2564 Altered Network Organization in Mild Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Resting-State EEG

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Shin Teng, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan

Abstract:

Brain functional networks based on resting-state EEG data were compared between patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (mAD) and matched patients with amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions and the network analysis based on graph theory to further investigate the alterations of functional networks in mAD compared with aMCI group. We aimed at investigating the changes of network integrity, local clustering, information processing efficiency, and fault tolerance in mAD brain networks for different frequency bands based on several topological properties, including degree, strength, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, and efficiency. Results showed that the disruptions of network integrity and reductions of network efficiency in mAD characterized by lower degree, decreased clustering coefficient, higher shortest path length, and reduced global and local efficiencies in the delta, theta, beta2, and gamma bands were evident. The significant changes in network organization can be used in assisting discrimination of mAD from aMCI in clinical.

Keywords: EEG, functional connectivity, graph theory, TFCMI

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2563 The Axonal Connectivity of Motor and Premotor Areas as Revealed through Fiber Dissections: Shedding Light on the Structural Correlates of Complex Motor Behavior

Authors: Spyridon Komaitis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Evangelos Drosos, Aristotelis Kalyvas

Abstract:

This study opts to investigate the intrinsic architecture, morphology, and spatial relationship of the subcortical pathways implicated in the connectivity of the motor/premotor cortex and SMA/pre-SMA complex. Twenty normal, adult, formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres were explored through the fiber micro-dissection technique. Lateral to medial and medial to lateral dissections focused on the area of interest were performed in a tandem manner and under the surgical microscope. We traced the subcortical architecture, spatial relationships, and axonal connectivity of four major pathways: a) the dorsal component of the SLF (SLF-I) was found to reside in the medial aspect of the hemisphere and seen to connect the precuneus with the SMA and pre-SMA complex, b) the frontal longitudinal system (FLS) was consistently encountered as the natural anterior continuation of the SLF-II and SLF-III and connected the premotor and prefrontal cortices c) the fronto-caudate tract (FCT), a fan-shaped tract, was documented to participate in connectivity of the prefrontal and premotor cortices to the head and body of the caudate nucleus and d) the cortico-tegmental tract(CTT) was invariably recorded to subserve the connectivity of the tegmental area with the fronto-parietal cortex. No hemispheric asymmetries were recorded for any of the implicated pathways. Sub-segmentation systems were also proposed for each of the aforementioned tracts. The structural connectivity and functional specialization of motor and premotor areas in the human brain remain vague to this day as most of the available evidence derives either from animal or tractographic studies. By using the fiber-microdissection technique as our main method of investigation, we provide sound structural evidence on the delicate anatomy of the related white matter pathways.

Keywords: neuroanatomy, premotor, motor, connectivity

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2562 Air Connectivity in Promoting Association of Southeast Asian Nations Integration: The Role of Low Cost-Carriers

Authors: Gabriella Fardhiyanti, Victor Wee

Abstract:

Air connectivity is the crucial factors to boost a region economics growth. It will open the accessibility to support regional competitiveness and helps to achieve ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) integration in term of economic integration, business investment, promote intra-regional trade, and creates the sense of belongingness among ASEAN people in the region. An increasing number of air connectivity and transportation will be benefiting the region because air transportation is a vital hub for ASEAN. The aim of this paper is to address the importance of air connectivity in promoting ASEAN Integration, by focusing on the ASEAN vision for a more integrated region. The assessment uses based on the Netscan Air connectivity model based on the flight destination and airport connectivity index, further analysis present that air connectivity significantly influence ASEAN tourism sector. Follow by the implications of open skies policy for the liberation of the aviation industry and the growth of low cost-carriers (LCCs) in the region. This paper provides recommendation and strategy for overcoming the challenges faced by ASEAN to boost ASEAN tourism integration successfully. The findings can assist in guiding policy and industry stakeholders in the future decision relating to air liberalization and more integrated system in the region.

Keywords: air connectivity, ASEAN integration, low-cost carries, NetScan connectivity model, open skies policy

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2561 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese

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The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics.In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub division-related corona graphs.

Keywords: corona graph, degree, eccentricity, eccentric connectivity index, first zagreb index, second zagreb index, subdivision graphs

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2560 Planning and Implementing Large-Scale Ecological Connectivity: A Review of Past and Ongoing Practices in Turkey

Authors: Tutku Ak, A. Esra Cengiz, Çiğdem Ayhan Kaptan

Abstract:

The conservation community has been increasingly promoting the concept of ecological connectivity towards the prevention and mitigation of landscape fragmentation. Many tools have been proposed for this purpose in not only Europe, but also around the world. Spatial planning for building connectivity, however, has many problems associated with the complexity of ecological processes at spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, on the ground implementation could be very difficult potentially leading to ecologically disastrous results and waste of resources. These problems, on the other hand, can be avoided or rectified as more experience is gained with implementation. Therefore, it is the objective of this study to document the experiences gained with connectivity planning in Turkish landscapes. This paper is a preliminary review of the conservation initiatives and projects aimed at protecting and building ecological connectivity in and around Turkey. The objective is to scope existing conservation plans, tools and implementation approaches in Turkey and the ultimate goal is to understand to what degree they have been implemented and what are the constraints and opportunities that are being faced.

Keywords: ecological connectivity, large-scale landscapes, planning and implementation, Turkey

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2559 A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka

Authors: H. E. M. W. G. M. K. Ekanayake, J. Dharmasena

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Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.

Keywords: landscape fragmentation, urban wetlands, landscape connectivity, patch metrics

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2558 Structural and Functional Correlates of Reaction Time Variability in a Large Sample of Healthy Adolescents and Adolescents with ADHD Symptoms

Authors: Laura O’Halloran, Zhipeng Cao, Clare M. Kelly, Hugh Garavan, Robert Whelan

Abstract:

Reaction time (RT) variability on cognitive tasks provides the index of the efficiency of executive control processes (e.g. attention and inhibitory control) and is considered to be a hallmark of clinical disorders, such as attention-deficit disorder (ADHD). Increased RT variability is associated with structural and functional brain differences in children and adults with various clinical disorders, as well as poorer task performance accuracy. Furthermore, the strength of functional connectivity across various brain networks, such as the negative relationship between the task-negative default mode network and task-positive attentional networks, has been found to reflect differences in RT variability. Although RT variability may provide an index of attentional efficiency, as well as being a useful indicator of neurological impairment, the brain substrates associated with RT variability remain relatively poorly defined, particularly in a healthy sample. Method: Firstly, we used the intra-individual coefficient of variation (ICV) as an index of RT variability from “Go” responses on the Stop Signal Task. We then examined the functional and structural neural correlates of ICV in a large sample of 14-year old healthy adolescents (n=1719). Of these, a subset had elevated symptoms of ADHD (n=80) and was compared to a matched non-symptomatic control group (n=80). The relationship between brain activity during successful and unsuccessful inhibitions and gray matter volume were compared with the ICV. A mediation analysis was conducted to examine if specific brain regions mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and ICV. Lastly, we looked at functional connectivity across various brain networks and quantified both positive and negative correlations during “Go” responses on the Stop Signal Task. Results: The brain data revealed that higher ICV was associated with increased structural and functional brain activation in the precentral gyrus in the whole sample and in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Lower ICV was associated with lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus in the whole sample and in the control group. Furthermore, our results indicated that activation in the precentral gyrus (Broadman Area 4) mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and behavioural ICV. Conclusion: This is the first study first to investigate the functional and structural correlates of ICV collectively in a large adolescent sample. Our findings demonstrate a concurrent increase in brain structure and function within task-active prefrontal networks as a function of increased RT variability. Furthermore, structural and functional brain activation patterns in the ACC, and medial frontal gyrus plays a role-optimizing top-down control in order to maintain task performance. Our results also evidenced clear differences in brain morphometry between adolescents with symptoms of ADHD but without clinical diagnosis and typically developing controls. Our findings shed light on specific functional and structural brain regions that are implicated in ICV and yield insights into effective cognitive control in healthy individuals and in clinical groups.

Keywords: ADHD, fMRI, reaction-time variability, default mode, functional connectivity

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2557 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: connectivity restoration, genetic algorithms, multiple-node failure, relay nodes, wireless sensor networks

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2556 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

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Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

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2555 Study on Effectiveness of Strategies to Re-Establish Landscape Connectivity of Expressways with Reference to Southern Expressway Sri Lanka

Authors: N. G. I. Aroshana, S. Edirisooriya

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Construction of highway is the most emerging development tendency in Sri Lanka. With these development activities, there are a lot of environmental and social issues started. Landscape fragmentation is one of the main issues that highly effect to the environment by the construction of expressways. Sri Lankan expressway system getting effort to treat fragmented landscape by using highway crossing structures. This paper designates, a highway post construction landscape study on the effectiveness of the landscape connectivity structures to restore connectivity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), least cost path tool has been used in the selected two plots; 25km alone the expressway to identify animal crossing paths. Animal accident data use as measure for determining the most contributed plot for landscape connectivity. Number of patches, Mean patch size, Class area use as a parameter to determine the most effective land use class to reestablish the landscape connectivity. The findings of the research express scrub, grass and marsh were the most positively affected land use typologies for increase the landscape connectivity. It represents the growth increased by 8% within the 12 years of time. From the least cost analysis within the plot one, 28.5% of total animal crossing structures are within the high resistance land use classes. Southern expressway used reinforced compressed earth technologies for construction. It has been controlled the growth of the climax community. According to all findings, it could assume that involvement of the landscape crossing structures contributes to re-establish connectivity, but it is not enough to restore the majority of disturbance performed by the expressway. Connectivity measures used within the study can use as a tool for re-evaluate future involvement of highway crossing structures. Proper placement of the highway crossing structures leads to increase the rate of connectivity. The study recommends that monitoring the all stages (preconstruction, construction and post construction) of the project and preliminary design, and the involvement of the research applied connectivity assessment strategies helps to overcome the complication regarding the re-establishment of landscape connectivity using the highway crossing structures that facilitate the growth of flora and fauna.

Keywords: landscape fragmentation, least cost path, land use analysis, landscape connectivity structures

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2554 VANETs Geographic Routing Protocols: A survey

Authors: Ramin Karimi

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One of common highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks is Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hence routing in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has attracted much attention during the last few years. VANET is characterized by its high mobility of nodes and specific topology patterns. Moreover these networks encounter a significant loss rate and a very short duration of communication. In vehicular ad hoc networks, one of challenging is routing of data due to high speed mobility and changing topology of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are a class of networks that enable communication where connectivity issues like sparse connectivity, intermittent connectivity; high latency, long delay, high error rates, asymmetric data rate, and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. In this paper, we review the existing Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks, mobility, geographic routing, delay tolerant networks

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2553 Performance Analysis of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Multiple Connectivity

Authors: Sungkyung Kim, Jee-Hyeon Na, Dong-Seung Kwon

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Future mobile networks following 5th generation will be characterized by one thousand times higher gains in capacity; connections for at least one hundred billion devices; user experience capable of extremely low latency and response times. To be close to the capacity requirements and higher reliability, advanced technologies have been studied, such as multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, heterogeneous networking, and advanced interference and mobility management. This paper is focused on the multiple connectivity in heterogeneous cellular networks. We investigate the performance of coverage and user throughput in several deployment scenarios. Using the stochastic geometry approach, the SINR distributions and the coverage probabilities are derived in case of dual connection. Also, to compare the user throughput enhancement among the deployment scenarios, we calculate the spectral efficiency and discuss our results.

Keywords: heterogeneous networks, multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, stochastic geometry

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2552 ASEAN Limited Centrality in Connectivity: Managing the China-Japan Infrastructure Competition

Authors: Barbora Valockova

Abstract:

Scholars recommend the establishment of a multilateral coordination mechanism by ASEAN, such as an infrastructure forum, to contain the China-Japan infrastructure financing competition in the region. However, they do not systematically investigate the reasons for its absence. This paper aims to fill the gap by addressing the following question: Why has ASEAN been unable to set up any multilateral coordination mechanism to soften the China-Japan infrastructure financing competition? This paper argues that ASEAN has not been able to set up such a mechanism due to its limited centrality in connectivity. This limited centrality decreases ASEAN’s ability to manage the China-Japan competition in a more comprehensive and coordinated way. Rather, ASEAN acts as a scope setter in connectivity, although this is not completely ineffective. This paper is divided into four sections. The first section explores the key tenets of the concept of ASEAN centrality in connectivity, which is under-examined in the current literature. The second section examines the extent to which ASEAN limited centrality in connectivity is being respected by China and Japan. The third section analyses how various stakeholders, such as ASEAN member states, their leaders and bureaucracy, and foreign private companies prevent ASEAN from attaining stronger centrality. The last section concludes and offers recommendations. Data is gathered using primary sources (official ASEAN, Chinese, and Japanese documents, interviews, etc.) and secondary material. By providing a nuanced analysis of ASEAN centrality in connectivity and developing a new operationalization of the concept, this paper aims to contribute to the international relations literature on ASEAN centrality. Initial findings suggest that while ASEAN limited centrality in connectivity has some effectiveness, it is not sufficient for setting up a multilateral coordination mechanism. While it represents a solid departure point, any potential possessed by ASEAN to evolve beyond a scope setter in connectivity is hampered by stakeholders involved in infrastructure development. While these players and their interactions can have both positive and negative effects on the scope set by ASEAN, it is unlikely that they would allow ASEAN to become the real central player. There can be no stronger ASEAN centrality in connectivity without ASEAN unity and neutrality. However, the last two factors are difficult to attain in the context of infrastructure development since ASEAN member states and stakeholders all have their styles and preferences. All other things being equal, these circumstances favor a loose, vague, and quasi-prescriptive arrangement among the relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: ASEAN centrality, China-Japan infrastructure competition, connectivity, scope setter

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2551 E-Service and the Nigerian Banking Sector: A Review of ATM Architecture and Operations

Authors: Bashir Aliyu Yauri, Rufai Aliyu Yauri

Abstract:

With the introduction of cash-less society policy by the Central Bank of Nigeria, the concept of e-banking services has experienced a significant improvement over the years. Today quite a number of people are embracing e-banking activities especially ATM, thereby moving away from the conventional banking system. This paper presents a review of the underlying Architectural Layout of Intra-Bank and Inter-Bank ATM connectivity in Nigeria. The paper further investigates and discusses factors affecting the Intra-Bank and Inter-Bank ATM connectivity in Nigeria. And as well possible solutions to these factors affecting ATM Connectivity and Operations are proposed.

Keywords: architectural layout, automated teller machine, e-services, postilion

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
2550 Enhanced Cluster Based Connectivity Maintenance in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Manverpreet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

Abstract:

The demand of Vehicular ad hoc networks is increasing day by day, due to offering the various applications and marvelous benefits to VANET users. Clustering in VANETs is most important to overcome the connectivity problems of VANETs. In this paper, we proposed a new clustering technique Enhanced cluster based connectivity maintenance in vehicular ad hoc network. Our objective is to form long living clusters. The proposed approach is grouping the vehicles, on the basis of the longest list of neighbors to form clusters. The cluster formation and cluster head selection process done by the RSU that may results it reduces the chances of overhead on to the network. The cluster head selection procedure is the vehicle which has closest speed to average speed will elect as a cluster Head by the RSU and if two vehicles have same speed which is closest to average speed then they will be calculate by one of the new parameter i.e. distance to their respective destination. The vehicle which has largest distance to their destination will be choosing as a cluster Head by the RSU. Our simulation outcomes show that our technique performs better than the existing technique.

Keywords: VANETs, clustering, connectivity, cluster head, intelligent transportation system (ITS)

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2549 In Search of Seaplanes in Andhra Pradesh: In View of UDAN

Authors: Priyadarshini Alok

Abstract:

The present situation in India envisages that because of the surge in population and the economy, cities are expected to spill over to hinterland areas. The consumption-led factors such as land, labor, etc. will be boosted. Hence, the need for regional connectivity becomes obligatory. But, there is enormous pressure upon the land; proving itself through rising traffic congestion, roads, and railway accidents. Air transport is practical, but due to decreasing availability of land, this will not be a wise solution. What with the introduction of seaplanes in the country which was once the vital asset in the world prior to Second World War. Maldives has proved it. Seaplanes offer natural landing site and are time and cost-efficient. Seaplanes in accordance with UDAN can prove to be the solution in linking various regions with other states. This research paper aims to offer the feasibility analysis along with site justification of the potential areas in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India; for the operation of seaplanes. The standards are taken from the US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration for the analysis. The conflation of Seaplanes with UDAN will offer an alternate mode of air connectivity, strengthen the transport network by simulation of connectivity to unserved and under-served areas and boost the nation's economy.

Keywords: connectivity, seaplanes, transport, UDAN

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2548 Relationship Between Brain Entropy Patterns Estimated by Resting State fMRI and Child Behaviour

Authors: Sonia Boscenco, Zihan Wang, Euclides José de Mendoça Filho, João Paulo Hoppe, Irina Pokhvisneva, Geoffrey B.C. Hall, Michael J. Meaney, Patricia Pelufo Silveira

Abstract:

Entropy can be described as a measure of the number of states of a system, and when used in the context of physiological time-based signals, it serves as a measure of complexity. In functional connectivity data, entropy can account for the moment-to-moment variability that is neglected in traditional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. While brain fMRI resting state entropy has been associated with some pathological conditions like schizophrenia, no investigations have explored the association between brain entropy measures and individual differences in child behavior in healthy children. We describe a novel exploratory approach to evaluate brain fMRI resting state data in two child cohorts, and MAVAN (N=54, 4.5 years, 48% males) and GUSTO (N = 206, 4.5 years, 48% males) and its associations to child behavior, that can be used in future research in the context of child exposures and long-term health. Following rs-fMRI data pre-processing and Shannon entropy calculation across 32 network regions of interest to acquire 496 unique functional connections, partial correlation coefficient analysis adjusted for sex was performed to identify associations between entropy data and Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire in MAVAN and Child Behavior Checklist domains in GUSTO. Significance was set at p < 0.01, and we found eight significant associations in GUSTO. Negative associations were found between two frontoparietal regions and cerebellar posterior and oppositional defiant problems, (r = -0.212, p = 0.006) and (r = -0.200, p = 0.009). Positive associations were identified between somatic complaints and four default mode connections: salience insula (r = 0.202, p < 0.01), dorsal attention intraparietal sulcus (r = 0.231, p = 0.003), language inferior frontal gyrus (r = 0.207, p = 0.008) and language posterior superior temporal gyrus (r = 0.210, p = 0.008). Positive associations were also found between insula and frontoparietal connection and attention deficit / hyperactivity problems (r = 0.200, p < 0.01), and insula – default mode connection and pervasive developmental problems (r = 0.210, p = 0.007). In MAVAN, ten significant associations were identified. Two positive associations were found = with prosocial scores: the salience prefrontal cortex and dorsal attention connection (r = 0.474, p = 0.005) and the salience supramarginal gyrus and dorsal attention intraparietal sulcus (r = 0.447, p = 0.008). The insula and prefrontal connection were negatively associated with peer problems (r = -0.437, p < 0.01). Conduct problems were negatively associated with six separate connections, the left salience insula and right salience insula (r = -0.449, p = 0.008), left salience insula and right salience supramarginal gyrus (r = -0.512, p = 0.002), the default mode and visual network (r = -0.444, p = 0.009), dorsal attention and language network (r = -0.490, p = 0.003), and default mode and posterior parietal cortex (r = -0.546, p = 0.001). Entropy measures of resting state functional connectivity can be used to identify individual differences in brain function that are correlated with variation in behavioral problems in healthy children. Further studies applying this marker into the context of environmental exposures are warranted.

Keywords: child behaviour, functional connectivity, imaging, Shannon entropy

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2547 Epilepsy Seizure Prediction by Effective Connectivity Estimation Using Granger Causality and Directed Transfer Function Analysis of Multi-Channel Electroencephalogram

Authors: Mona Hejazi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a persistent neurological disorder that affects more than 50 million people worldwide. Hence, there is a necessity to introduce an efficient prediction model for making a correct diagnosis of the epileptic seizure and accurate prediction of its type. In this study we consider how the Effective Connectivity (EC) patterns obtained from intracranial Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings reveal information about the dynamics of the epileptic brain and can be used to predict imminent seizures, as this will enable the patients (and caregivers) to take appropriate precautions. We use this definition because we believe that effective connectivity near seizures begin to change, so we can predict seizures according to this feature. Results are reported on the standard Freiburg EEG dataset which contains data from 21 patients suffering from medically intractable focal epilepsy. Six channels of EEG from each patients are considered and effective connectivity using Directed Transfer Function (DTF) and Granger Causality (GC) methods is estimated. We concentrate on effective connectivity standard deviation over time and feature changes in five brain frequency sub-bands (Alpha, Beta, Theta, Delta, and Gamma) are compared. The performance obtained for the proposed scheme in predicting seizures is: average prediction time is 50 minutes before seizure onset, the maximum sensitivity is approximate ~80% and the false positive rate is 0.33 FP/h. DTF method is more acceptable to predict epileptic seizures and generally we can observe that the greater results are in gamma and beta sub-bands. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

Keywords: effective connectivity, Granger causality, directed transfer function, epilepsy seizure prediction, EEG

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2546 The Mediating Role of Social Connectivity in the Effect of Positive Personality and Alexithymia on Life Satisfaction: Analysis Based on Structural Equation Model

Authors: Yulin Zhang, Kaixi Dong, Guozhen Zhao

Abstract:

Background: Different levels of life satisfaction are associated with some individual differences. Understanding the mechanism between them will help to enhance an individual’s well-being. On the one hand, traditional personality such as extraversion has been considered as the most stable and effective factor in predicting life satisfaction to the author’s best knowledge. On the other, individual emotional difference, such as alexithymia (difficulties identifying and describing one’s own feelings), is also closely related to life satisfaction. With the development of positive psychology, positive personalities such as virtues attract wide attention. And according to the broaden-and-build theory, social connectivity may mediate between emotion and life satisfaction. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the mediating role of social connectivity in the effect of positive personality and alexithymia on life satisfaction. Method: This study was conducted with 318 healthy Chinese college students whose age range from 18 to 30. Positive personality (including interpersonal, vitality, and cautiousness) was measured by the Chinese version of Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS). Alexithymia was measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), and life satisfaction was measured by Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). And social connectivity was measured by six items which have been used in previous studies. Each scale showed high reliability and validity. The mediating model was examined in Mplus 7.2 within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Findings: The model fitted well and results revealed that both positive personality (95% confidence interval of indirect effect was [0.023, 0.097]) and alexithymia (95% confidence interval of indirect effect was [-0.270, -0.089]) predicted life satisfaction level significantly through social connectivity. Also, only positive personality significantly and directly predicted life satisfaction compared to alexithymia (95% confidence interval of direct effect was [0.109, 0.260]). Conclusion: Alexithymia predicts life satisfaction only through social connectivity, which emphasizes the importance of social bonding in enhancing the well-being of Chinese college students with alexithymia. And the positive personality can predict life satisfaction directly or through social connectivity, which provides implications for enhancing the well-being of Chinese college students by cultivating their virtue and positive psychological quality.

Keywords: alexithymia, life satisfaction, positive personality, social connectivity

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2545 Comparing the Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder within Males and Females Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Joseph Wolff, Jeffrey Eilbott

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a spectrum of social disorders characterized by deficits in social communication, verbal ability, and interaction that can vary in severity. In recent years, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help detect how neural patterns in individuals with ASD differ from those of neurotypical (NT) controls for classification purposes. This study analyzed the classification of ASD within males and females using functional MRI data. Functional connectivity (FC) correlations among brain regions were used as feature inputs for machine learning algorithms. Analysis was performed on 558 cases from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) I dataset. When trained specifically on females, the algorithm underperformed in classifying the ASD subset of our testing population. Although the subject size was relatively smaller in the female group, the manual matching of both male and female training groups helps explain the algorithm’s bias, indicating the altered sex abnormalities in functional brain networks compared to typically developing peers. These results highlight the importance of taking sex into account when considering how generalizations of findings on males with ASD apply to females.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, machine learning, neuroimaging, sex differences

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2544 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations, Lie algebras, quaternions

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2543 Effects of Porosity Logs on Pore Connectivity and Volumetric Estimation

Authors: Segun S. Bodunde

Abstract:

In Bona Field, Niger Delta, two reservoirs across three wells were analyzed. The research aimed at determining the statistical dependence of permeability and oil volume in place on porosity logs. Of the three popular porosity logs, two were used; the sonic and density logs. The objectives of the research were to identify the porosity logs that vary more with location and direction, to visualize the depth trend of both logs and to determine the influence of these logs on pore connectivity determination and volumetric analysis. The focus was on density and sonic logs. It was observed that the sonic derived porosities were higher than the density derived porosities (in well two, across the two reservoir sands, sonic porosity averaged 30.8% while density derived porosity averaged 23.65%, and the same trend was observed in other wells.). The sonic logs were further observed to have lower co-efficient of variation when compared to the density logs (in sand A, well 2, sonic derived porosity had a co-efficient of variation of 12.15% compared to 22.52% from the density logs) indicating a lower tendency to vary with location and direction. The bulk density was observed to increase with depth while the transit time reduced with depth. It was also observed that for an 8.87% decrease in porosity, the pore connectivity was observed to decrease by about 38%.

Keywords: pore connectivity, co-efficient of variation, density derived porosity, sonic derived porosity

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2542 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 187