Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3701

Search results for: ratio

3701 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez

Abstract:

This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers, textile design, designs

Procedia PDF Downloads 588
3700 The Simple Two-Step Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Transferring Process for High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

Authors: Shaoxi Wang, Pouya Rezai

Abstract:

High aspect ratio is the necessary parts of complex microstructures. Some methods available to achieve high aspect ratio requires expensive materials or complex process; others is difficult to research simple high aspect ratio structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with [email protected] surface solution. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effective.

Keywords: high aspect ratio, microstructure, PDMS, Brij

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
3699 Enhanced Methane Production from Waste Paper through Anaerobic Co-Digestion with Macroalgae

Authors: Cristina Rodriguez, Abed Alaswad, Zaki El-Hassan, Abdul G. Olabi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect on methane production from the waste paper when co-digested with macroalgal biomass as a source of nitrogen. Both feedstocks were previously mechanically pretreated in order to reduce their particle size. Methane potential assays were carried out at laboratory scale in batch mode for 28 days. The study was planned according to two factors: the feedstock to inoculum (F/I) ratio and the waste paper to macroalgae (WP/MA) ratio. The F/I ratios checked were 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 and the WP/MA ratios were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. The highest methane yield (608 ml/g of volatile solids (VS)) was achieved at an F/I ratio of 0.2 and a WP/MA ratio of 50:50. The methane yield at a ratio WP/MA of 50:50 is higher than for single compound, while for ratios WP/MA of 25:75 and 75:25 the methane yield decreases compared to biomass mono-digestion. This behavior is observed for the three levels of F/I ratio being more noticeable at F/I ratio of 0.3. A synergistic effect was found for the WP/MA ratio of 50:50 and all F/I ratios and for WP/MA=50:50 and F/I=0.2. A maximum increase of methane yield of 49.58% was found for a co-digestion ratio of 50:50 and an F/I ratio of 0.4. It was concluded that methane production from waste paper improves significantly when co-digested with macroalgae biomass. The methane yields from co-digestion were also found higher that from macroalgae mono-digestion.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, biogas, macroalgae, waste paper

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3698 Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties

Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Brønsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 °C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.

Keywords: crystallization, MTO, Si/Al ratio, SSZ-13

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
3697 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia

Abstract:

Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.

Keywords: vegetables, sodium, potassium, blood pressure, diet, foods

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3696 Comparative Study of Arch Bridges with Varying Rise to Span Ratio

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Arnab Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study of Arch bridges based on their varying rise to span ratio. The comparison is done between different steel Arch bridges which have variable span length and rise to span ratio keeping the same support condition. The aim of our present study is to select the optimum value of rise to span ratio of Arch bridge as the cost of the Arch bridge increases with the increasing of the rise. In order to fulfill the objective, several rise to span ratio have been considered for same span of Arch bridge and various structural parameters such as Bending moment, shear force etc have been calculated for different model. A comparative study has been done for several Arch bridges finally to select the optimum rise to span ratio of the Arch bridges. In the present study, Finite Element model for medium to long span, with different rise to span ratio have been modeled and are analyzed with the help of a Computational Software named MIDAS Civil to evaluate the results such as Bending moments, Shear force, displacements, Stresses, influence line diagrams, critical loads. In the present study, 60 models of Arch bridges for 80 to 120 m span with different rise to span ratio has been thoroughly investigated.

Keywords: arch bridge, analysis, comparative study, rise to span ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
3695 Convergence with IFRS: Evidence from Financial Statements

Authors: M. S. Turan, Dimple

Abstract:

Due to implementation of IFRS by several developed and developing countries, India has no option other than to converge their accounting standards with IFRS. There are over 10,000 listed companies required to implement IFRS in India. IFRS based financial information presented by a company is different from the same information provided by Indian GAAPs. In this study, we have brought out and analyzed the effect of IFRS reporting on the financial statements of selected companies. The results reveal that convergence with IFRS brought prominent positive variations in the values of quick ratio, debt/equity ratio, proprietary ratio and net profit ratio, while negative variation is brought in the values of current ratio, debt to total assets ratio, operating profit ratio, return on capital employed and return on shareholders’ equity ratios. It also presents significant changes in the values of items of balance sheet, profit and loss account and cash flow statement.

Keywords: IFRS, reporting standards, convergence process, results

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3694 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including, time, temperature and mixing rate were kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.

Keywords: ANOVA, biodiesel, catalyst, CCD, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
3693 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani

Abstract:

Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
3692 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine Cristina Barboza, Antonio Jaschke Machado

Abstract:

This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis, and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
3691 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

Abstract:

This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3690 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser, and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including time, temperature, and mixing rate was kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.

Keywords: ANOVA, biodiesel, catalyst, transesterification, central composite design

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3689 Optimization of Sequential Thermophilic Bio-Hydrogen/Methane Production from Mono-Ethylene Glycol via Anaerobic Digestion: Impact of Inoculum to Substrate Ratio and N/P Ratio

Authors: Ahmed Elreedy, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

This investigation aims to assess the effect of inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR) and nitrogen to phosphorous balance on simultaneous biohydrogen and methane production from anaerobic decomposition of mono-ethylene glycol (MEG). Different ISRs were applied in the range between 2.65 and 13.23 gVSS/gCOD, whereas the tested N/P ratios were changed from 4.6 to 8.5; both under thermophilic conditions (55°C). The maximum obtained methane and hydrogen yields (MY and HY) of 151.86±10.8 and 22.27±1.1 mL/gCODinitial were recorded at ISRs of 5.29 and 3.78 gVSS/gCOD, respectively. Unlikely, the ammonification process, in terms of net ammonia produced, was found to be ISR and COD/N ratio dependent, reaching its peak value of 515.5±31.05 mgNH4-N/L at ISR and COD/N ratio of 13.23 gVSS/gCOD and 11.56. The optimum HY was enhanced by more than 1.45-fold with declining N/P ratio from 8.5 to 4.6; whereas, the MY was improved (1.6-fold), while increasing N/P ratio from 4.6 to 5.5 with no significant impact at N/P ratio of 8.5. The results obtained revealed that the methane production was strongly influenced by initial ammonia, compared to initial phosphate. Likewise, the generation of ammonia was markedly deteriorated from 535.25±41.5 to 238.33±17.6 mgNH4-N/L with increasing N/P ratio from 4.6 to 8.5. The kinetic study using Modified Gompertz equation was successfully fitted to the experimental outputs (R2 > 0.9761).

Keywords: mono-ethylene glycol, biohydrogen and methane, inoculum to substrate ratio, nitrogen to phosphorous balance, ammonification

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3688 Price to Earnings Growth (PEG) Predicting Future Returns Better than the Price to Earnings (PE) Ratio

Authors: Lindrianasari Stefanie, Aminah Khairudin

Abstract:

This study aims to provide empirical evidence regarding the ability of Price to Earnings Ratio and PEG Ratio in predicting future stock returns issuers. The samples used in this study are stocks that go into LQ45. The main contribution is to assign empirical evidence if the PEG Ratio can provide optimum return compared to Price to Earnings Ratio. This study used a sample of the entire company into the group LQ45 with the period of observation. The data used is limited to the financial statements of a company incorporated in LQ45 period July 2013-July 2014, using the financial statements and the position of the company's closing stock price at the end of 2010 as a reference benchmark for the growth of the company's stock price compared to the closing price of 2013. This study found that the method of PEG Ratio can outperform the method of PE ratio in predicting future returns on the stock portfolio of LQ45.

Keywords: price to earnings growth, price to earnings ratio, future returns, stock price

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
3687 The Determinants of Financing to Deposit Ratio of Islamic Bank in Malaysia

Authors: Achsania Hendratmi, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Nisful Laila

Abstract:

The research aimed to know the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Return on Assets (ROA) and Size of the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) Islamic Banks in Malaysia by using eleven Islamic Banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic Banks in Malaysia in the period 2012 to 2016 as samples. The research used a quantitative approach method, and the analysis technique used multiple linear regression. Based on the result of t-test (partial), CAR, ROA and size significantly affect of FDR. While the results of f-test (simultaneous) showed that CAR, ROA and Size significant effect on FDR.

Keywords: capital adequacy ratio, financing to deposit ratio, return on assets, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3686 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu

Abstract:

The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.

Keywords: pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
3685 Spatial Pattern of Child Sex Ratio in Haryana 1991-2011

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Kavita Saini

Abstract:

Haryana emerged as a state after the separation from Punjab since November, 1966. It had only 7 districts at that time but subsequently their number increased and presents their 21 districts in the state. Age and sex composition occupies very important positions in any discussion on characteristics of a population. Changes in sex ratio largely reflect the underlying socio-economic and cultural patterns of a society in different ways. Child sex ratio in Haryana is continuously decreasing and according to the census child sex ratio found lowest position in the state. Therefore, the aims of this study to examine the spatial- temporal pattern of Child sex ratio during the period 1991-2011 and identify the ‘epicenter’ or core areas of deficit of females in Haryana using tehsil level data during the period 2001-2011. This study is primarily based on the secondary sources and data were collected from the ‘Census of India’ and ‘Statistical Department’ of Haryana. The standard deviation method has been used to see the average value of child sex ratio in the study. The maximum child sex ratio declined is noticed in the district of Mahendergarh, Jhajjar, Rewari and Sonipat. However, the west and south-western part of the state marked with consistently better child sex ratio throughout the period. This is vast contiguous belt running in the north-west to south-east direction from Punjab border to NCT of Delhi and reported a very low child sex ratio. Tehsils which have reported lower child sex ratio than the state average has been called ‘Core Problem Area’ or ‘epicenter’.

Keywords: child sex ratio, core areas, epicenter, Haryana

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
3684 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

Abstract:

The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3683 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler (heat exchanger) depends on the rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper, for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (fin per inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on two parameters mentioned above is considered in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ software are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, rating, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI (fin per inch) steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI = 12 (for circular fins about 47% and for hexagonal fins about 69%) and then decreased gradually to FPI = 15 (for circular fins about 5% and for hexagonal fins about 8%), and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI = 12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI).

Keywords: air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
3682 Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio

Authors: Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.

Keywords: concrete, mixing ratio, textile, TRC

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3681 Primary Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to a Plane Boundary

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

Abstract:

The primary resonance of a pipeline close to a plane boundary is investigated in this paper. Based on classic Van der Pol equation and added a nonlinear item, a new wake oscillator model is proposed to predict the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder close to a plane boundary. Then, with the multi-scale method, the approximate solution for the case of the primary resonance is obtained. Besides, to study the characteristic of the primary resonance, the effects of the mass ration, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio on the frequency-response curves of the pipeline are analysed. On the whole, the trend of the numerical results match up with that of the experimental data well and the mass ration, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio play an important role in the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder close to a plane boundary, especially, the smaller is the mass ratio, the larger impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the primary resonance.

Keywords: primary resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
3680 Ratio Type Estimators for the Estimation of Population Coefficient of Variation under Two-Stage Sampling

Authors: Muhammad Jabbar

Abstract:

In this paper we propose two ratio and ratio type exponential estimator for the estimation of population coefficient of variation using the auxiliary information under two-stage sampling. The properties of these estimators are derived up to first order of approximation. The efficiency conditions under which suggested estimator are more efficient, are obtained. Numerical and simulated studies are conducted to support the superiority of the estimators. Theoretically and numerically, we have found that our proposed estimator is always more efficient as compared to its competitor estimator.

Keywords: two-stage sampling, coefficient of variation, ratio type exponential estimator

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
3679 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: N. H. Othman, N. Udin, M. Ishak, L. H. Shah

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: friction stir welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
3678 Effect of the Poisson’s Ratio on the Behavior of Epoxy Microbeam

Authors: Mohammad Tahmasebipour, Hosein Salarpour

Abstract:

Researchers suggest that variations in Poisson’s ratio affect the behavior of Timoshenko micro beam. Therefore, in this study, two epoxy Timoshenko micro beams with different dimensions were modeled using the finite element method considering all boundary conditions and initial conditions that govern the problem. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on the resonant frequency, maximum deflection, and maximum rotation of the micro beams was examined. The analyses suggest that an increased Poisson’s ratio reduces the maximum rotation and the maximum rotation and increases the resonant frequency. Results were consistent with those obtained using the couple stress, classical, and strain gradient elasticity theories.

Keywords: microbeam, microsensor, epoxy, poisson’s ratio, dynamic behavior, static behavior, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3677 Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Replacement Ratio to the Capacity of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Feng Fu, Maria Karli

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental studies were carried out to investigate the behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. In the tests, different recycled aggregate replacement ratio, different mix design and different water to cement ratio have been chosen in the investigation. The behavior of the RAC concrete was investigated in detail. The results of the tests show that the water-cement ratio plays an important role in the strength of the concrete and RAC concrete exhibit sufficient strength in comparison to the normal aggregate concrete; the relevant design recommendations are also made.

Keywords: recycled aggregate concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, flexural strength test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3676 A Study on Golden Ratio (ф) and Its Implications on Seismic Design Using ETABS

Authors: Vishal A. S. Salelkar, Sumitra S. Kandolkar

Abstract:

Golden ratio (ф) or Golden mean or Golden section, as it is often referred to, is a proportion or a mean, which is often used by architects while conceiving the aesthetics of a structure. Golden Ratio (ф) is an irrational number that can be roughly rounded to 1.618 and is derived out of quadratic equation x2-x-1=0. The use of Golden Ratio (ф) can be observed throughout history, as far as ancient Egyptians, which later peaked during the Greek golden age. The use of this design technique is very much prevalent. At present, architects around the world prefer this as one of the primary techniques to decide aesthetics. In this study, an analysis has been performed to investigate whether the use of the golden ratio while planning a structure has any effects on the seismic behavior of the structure. The structure is modeled and analyzed on ETABS (by Computers and Structures, Inc.) for Seismic requirements equivalent to Zone III (Region: Goa-India) as per Indian Standard Code IS-1893. The results were compared to that of an identical structure modeled along the lines of normal design philosophy, not using the Golden Ratio tools. The results were then compared for Story Shear, Story Drift, and Story Displacement Readings. Improvement in performance, although slight, but was observed. Similar improvements were also observed in subsequent iterations, performed using time-acceleration data of previous major earthquakes matched to Zone III as per IS-1893.

Keywords: ETABS, golden ratio, seismic design, structural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
3675 Study of Bifurcation Curve with Aspect Ratio at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Amit K. Singh, Subhankar Sen

Abstract:

The bifurcation curve of separation in steady two-dimensional viscous flow past an elliptic cylinder is studied by varying the angle of incidence (α) with different aspect ratio (ratio of minor to major axis). The solutions are based on numerical investigation, using finite element analysis, of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. Results are presented for Reynolds number up to 50 and angle of incidence varies from 0° to 90°. Range of aspect ratio (Ar) is from 0.1 to 1 (in steps of 0.1) and flow is considered as unbounded flow. Bifurcation curve represents the locus of Reynolds numbers (Res) at which flow detaches or separates from the surface of the body at a given α and Ar. In earlier studies, effect of Ar on laminar separation curve or bifurcation curve is limited for Ar = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8. Some results are also available at α = 90° and 45°. The present study attempts to provide a systematic data and clear understanding on the effect of Ar at bifurcation curve and its point of maxima. In addition, issues regarding location of separation angle and maximum ratio of coefficient of lift to drag are studied. We found that nature of curve, separation angle and maximum ratio of lift to drag changes considerably with respect to change in Ar.

Keywords: aspect ratio, bifurcation curve, elliptic cylinder, GMRES, stabilized finite-element

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
3674 The Effects of the Aspect Ratio of a Flexible Cylinder on the Vortex Dynamics

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

The vortex structures observed in the wake of a flexible cylinder can be significantly different from those of a traditional vibrating, spring mounted, rigid cylinder. These differences can significantly affect the VIV characteristics of the flow and subsequently the VIV response of the cylindrical structures. In this work, we present how the aspect ratio of a flexible cylinder can change the vortex structures in its wake. We will discuss different vortex dynamics which can be observed in the wake of the vibrating flexible cylinder, and how they can affect the vibrational response of the cylinder. Moreover, we will study the transition of these structures versus the aspect ratio of the flexible cylinder. We will discuss how these transitions affect the in-line and transverse forces on the structure. In the end, we will provide general guidelines on the minimum acceptable aspect ratio for the offshore riser studies which may have grave implications for future numerical and experimental works.

Keywords: aspect ratio, flexible cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3673 The Correlation between Body Composition and Spinal Alignment in Healthy Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Ismail Saracoglu, Emrah Afsar, Eda O. Okur, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Betul Taspinar

Abstract:

Although it is thought that abdominal adiposity is one of the risk factor for postural deviation, such as increased lumbar lordosis, the body mass index is not sufficient to indicate effects of abdominal adiposity on spinal alignment and postural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation with detailed body composition and spine alignment in healthy young adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with sixty seven healthy volunteers (37 men and 30 women) whose ages ranged between 19 and 27 years. All participants’ sagittal spinal curvatures of lumbar and thoracic region were measured via Spinal mouse® (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland). Also, body composition analysis (whole body fat ratio, whole body muscle ratio, abdominal fat ratio, and trunk muscle ratio) estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance was evaluated via Tanita Bc 418 Ma Segmental Body Composition Analyser (Tanita, Japan). Pearson’s correlation was used to analysis among the variables. The mean lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angles were 21.02°±9.39, 41.50°±7.97, respectively. Statistically analysis showed a significant positive correlation between whole body fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.28, p=0.02). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between abdominal fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.27, p=0.03). The thoracic kyphosis angle showed also positive correlation with whole body fat ratio (r=0.33, p=0.00) and abdominal fat ratio (r=0.40, p=0.01). The whole body muscle ratio showed negative correlation between lumbar lordosis (r=-0.28, p=0.02) and thoracic kyphosis angles (r=-0.33, p=0.00), although there was no statistically correlation between trunk muscle ratio, lumbar and thoracic curvatures (p>0.05). The study demonstrated that an increase of fat ratio and decrease of muscle ratio in abdominal region or whole body shifts the spinal alignment which may adversely affect the spinal loading. Therefore, whole body composition should be taken into account in spine rehabilitation.

Keywords: body composition, lumbar lordosis, spinal alignment, thoracic kyphosis

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3672 A New Bound on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based on Bipartite Graphs of Larger Girth

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu

Abstract:

In a perfect secret-sharing scheme, a dealer distributes a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of the participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The access structure of the scheme refers to the collection of all qualified subsets. In a graph-based access structures, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme realizing a given access structure is the ratio of the average length of the shares given to the participants to the length of the secret. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing an access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. We study the optimal average information ratio of the access structures based on bipartite graphs. Based on some previous results, we give a bound on the optimal average information ratio for all bipartite graphs of girth at least six. This bound is the best possible for some classes of bipartite graphs using our approach.

Keywords: secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, deduction, core cluster

Procedia PDF Downloads 270