Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7515

Search results for: unconstrained optimization problems

7515 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah


This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

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7514 A Conjugate Gradient Method for Large Scale Unconstrained Optimization

Authors: Mohammed Belloufi, Rachid Benzine, Badreddine Sellami


Conjugate gradient methods is useful for solving large scale optimization problems in scientific and engineering computation, characterized by the simplicity of their iteration and their low memory requirements. It is well known that the search direction plays a main role in the line search method. In this paper, we propose a search direction with the Wolfe line search technique for solving unconstrained optimization problems. Under the above line searches and some assumptions, the global convergence properties of the given methods are discussed. Numerical results and comparisons with other CG methods are given.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, strong Wolfe line search, global convergence

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7513 A New Class of Conjugate Gradient Methods Based on a Modified Search Direction for Unconstrained Optimization

Authors: Belloufi Mohammed, Sellami Badreddine


Conjugate gradient methods have played a special role for solving large scale optimization problems due to the simplicity of their iteration, convergence properties and their low memory requirements. In this work, we propose a new class of conjugate gradient methods which ensures sufficient descent. Moreover, we propose a new search direction with the Wolfe line search technique for solving unconstrained optimization problems, a global convergence result for general functions is established provided that the line search satisfies the Wolfe conditions. Our numerical experiments indicate that our proposed methods are preferable and in general superior to the classical conjugate gradient methods in terms of efficiency and robustness.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, sufficient descent property, numerical comparisons

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7512 A New Conjugate Gradient Method with Guaranteed Descent

Authors: B. Sellami, M. Belloufi


Conjugate gradient methods are an important class of methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large-scale problems. Recently, they have been much studied. In this paper, we propose a new two-parameter family of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization. The two-parameter family of methods not only includes the already existing three practical nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, but also has other family of conjugate gradient methods as subfamily. The two-parameter family of methods with the Wolfe line search is shown to ensure the descent property of each search direction. Some general convergence results are also established for the two-parameter family of methods. The numerical results show that this method is efficient for the given test problems. In addition, the methods related to this family are uniformly discussed.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, line search, global convergence

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7511 A New Family of Globally Convergent Conjugate Gradient Methods

Authors: B. Sellami, Y. Laskri, M. Belloufi


Conjugate gradient methods are an important class of methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large-scale problems. Recently, they have been much studied. In this paper, a new family of conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization. This method includes the already existing two practical nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, which produces a descent search direction at every iteration and converges globally provided that the line search satisfies the Wolfe conditions. The numerical experiments are done to test the efficiency of the new method, which implies the new method is promising. In addition the methods related to this family are uniformly discussed.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, global convergence, line search, unconstrained optimization

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7510 A Modified Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large Scale Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: Tsegay Giday Woldu, Haibin Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yemane Hailu Fissuh


It is well known that nonlinear conjugate gradient method is one of the widely used first order methods to solve large scale unconstrained smooth optimization problems. Because of the low memory requirement, attractive theoretical features, practical computational efficiency and nice convergence properties, nonlinear conjugate gradient methods have a special role for solving large scale unconstrained optimization problems. Large scale optimization problems are with important applications in practical and scientific world. However, nonlinear conjugate gradient methods have restricted information about the curvature of the objective function and they are likely less efficient and robust compared to some second order algorithms. To overcome these drawbacks, the new modified nonlinear conjugate gradient method is presented. The noticeable features of our work are that the new search direction possesses the sufficient descent property independent of any line search and it belongs to a trust region. Under mild assumptions and standard Wolfe line search technique, the global convergence property of the proposed algorithm is established. Furthermore, to test the practical computational performance of our new algorithm, numerical experiments are provided and implemented on the set of some large dimensional unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is an efficient and robust compared with other similar algorithms.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, global convergence, large scale optimization, sufficient descent property

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7509 Descent Algorithms for Optimization Algorithms Using q-Derivative

Authors: Geetanjali Panda, Suvrakanti Chakraborty


In this paper, Newton-like descent methods are proposed for unconstrained optimization problems, which use q-derivatives of the gradient of an objective function. First, a local scheme is developed with alternative sufficient optimality condition, and then the method is extended to a global scheme. Moreover, a variant of practical Newton scheme is also developed introducing a real sequence. Global convergence of these schemes is proved under some mild conditions. Numerical experiments and graphical illustrations are provided. Finally, the performance profiles on a test set show that the proposed schemes are competitive to the existing first-order schemes for optimization problems.

Keywords: Descent algorithm, line search method, q calculus, Quasi Newton method

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7508 Second Order Optimality Conditions in Nonsmooth Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds

Authors: Seyedehsomayeh Hosseini


Much attention has been paid over centuries to understanding and solving the problem of minimization of functions. Compared to linear programming and nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, nonlinear constrained optimization problems are much more difficult. Since the procedure of finding an optimizer is a search based on the local information of the constraints and the objective function, it is very important to develop techniques using geometric properties of the constraints and the objective function. In fact, differential geometry provides a powerful tool to characterize and analyze these geometric properties. Thus, there is clearly a link between the techniques of optimization on manifolds and standard constrained optimization approaches. Furthermore, there are manifolds that are not defined as constrained sets in R^n an important example is the Grassmann manifolds. Hence, to solve optimization problems on these spaces, intrinsic methods are used. In a nondifferentiable problem, the gradient information of the objective function generally cannot be used to determine the direction in which the function is decreasing. Therefore, techniques of nonsmooth analysis are needed to deal with such a problem. As a manifold, in general, does not have a linear structure, the usual techniques, which are often used in nonsmooth analysis on linear spaces, cannot be applied and new techniques need to be developed. This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for a strict local minimum of extended real-valued, nonsmooth functions defined on Riemannian manifolds.

Keywords: Riemannian manifolds, nonsmooth optimization, lower semicontinuous functions, subdifferential

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7507 On the convergence of the Mixed Integer Randomized Pattern Search Algorithm

Authors: Ebert Brea


We propose a novel direct search algorithm for identifying at least a local minimum of mixed integer nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. The Mixed Integer Randomized Pattern Search Algorithm (MIRPSA), so-called by the author, is based on a randomized pattern search, which is modified by the MIRPSA for finding at least a local minimum of our problem. The MIRPSA has two main operations over the randomized pattern search: moving operation and shrinking operation. Each operation is carried out by the algorithm when a set of conditions is held. The convergence properties of the MIRPSA is analyzed using a Markov chain approach, which is represented by an infinite countable set of state space λ, where each state d(q) is defined by a measure of the qth randomized pattern search Hq, for all q in N. According to the algorithm, when a moving operation is carried out on the qth randomized pattern search Hq, the MIRPSA holds its state. Meanwhile, if the MIRPSA carries out a shrinking operation over the qth randomized pattern search Hq, the algorithm will visit the next state, this is, a shrinking operation at the qth state causes a changing of the qth state into (q+1)th state. It is worthwhile pointing out that the MIRPSA never goes back to any visited states because the MIRPSA only visits any qth by shrinking operations. In this article, we describe the MIRPSA for mixed integer nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems for doing a deep study of its convergence properties using Markov chain viewpoint. We herein include a low dimension case for showing more details of the MIRPSA, when the algorithm is used for identifying the minimum of a mixed integer quadratic function. Besides, numerical examples are also shown in order to measure the performance of the MIRPSA.

Keywords: direct search, mixed integer optimization, random search, convergence, Markov chain

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7506 Cuckoo Search (CS) Optimization Algorithm for Solving Constrained Optimization

Authors: Sait Ali Uymaz, Gülay Tezel


This paper presents the comparison results on the performance of the Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm for constrained optimization problems. For constraint handling, CS algorithm uses penalty method. CS algorithm is tested on thirteen well-known test problems and the results obtained are compared to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Mean, best, median and worst values were employed for the analyses of performance.

Keywords: cuckoo search, particle swarm optimization, constrained optimization problems, penalty method

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7505 Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based on Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method

Authors: Takuya Sumi, Syoko Nukaya, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system, and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: First experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; second experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.

Keywords: unconstrained bed sensing method, scratching, body movement, itchy, piezoceramics

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7504 Model of Optimal Centroids Approach for Multivariate Data Classification

Authors: Pham Van Nha, Le Cam Binh


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based stochastic optimization algorithm. PSO was inspired by the natural behavior of birds and fish in migration and foraging for food. PSO is considered as a multidisciplinary optimization model that can be applied in various optimization problems. PSO’s ideas are simple and easy to understand but PSO is only applied in simple model problems. We think that in order to expand the applicability of PSO in complex problems, PSO should be described more explicitly in the form of a mathematical model. In this paper, we represent PSO in a mathematical model and apply in the multivariate data classification. First, PSOs general mathematical model (MPSO) is analyzed as a universal optimization model. Then, Model of Optimal Centroids (MOC) is proposed for the multivariate data classification. Experiments were conducted on some benchmark data sets to prove the effectiveness of MOC compared with several proposed schemes.

Keywords: analysis of optimization, artificial intelligence based optimization, optimization for learning and data analysis, global optimization

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7503 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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7502 Engineering Optimization Using Two-Stage Differential Evolution

Authors: K. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Wu


This paper employs a heuristic algorithm to solve engineering problems including truss structure optimization and optimal chiller loading (OCL) problems. Two different type algorithms, real-valued differential evolution (DE) and modified binary differential evolution (MBDE), are successfully integrated and then can obtain better performance in solving engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, this study adopts each one testing case of truss structure optimization and OCL problems to compare the results of other heuristic optimization methods. The result indicates that the proposed algorithm can obtain similar or better solution in comparing with previous studies.

Keywords: differential evolution, Truss structure optimization, optimal chiller loading, modified binary differential evolution

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7501 A New Tool for Global Optimization Problems: Cuttlefish Algorithm

Authors: Adel Sabry Eesa, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani, Zeynep Orman


This paper presents a new meta-heuristic bio-inspired optimization algorithm which is called Cuttlefish Algorithm (CFA). The algorithm mimics the mechanism of color changing behavior of the cuttlefish to solve numerical global optimization problems. The colors and patterns of the cuttlefish are produced by reflected light from three different layers of cells. The proposed algorithm considers mainly two processes: reflection and visibility. Reflection process simulates light reflection mechanism used by these layers, while visibility process simulates visibility of matching patterns of the cuttlefish. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested with some other popular bio-inspired optimization algorithms such as Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bees Algorithm (BA) that have been previously proposed in the literature. Simulations and obtained results indicate that the proposed CFA is superior when compared with these algorithms.

Keywords: Cuttlefish Algorithm, bio-inspired algorithms, optimization, global optimization problems

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7500 Sequential Covering Algorithm for Nondifferentiable Global Optimization Problem and Applications

Authors: Mohamed Rahal, Djaouida Guetta


In this paper, the one-dimensional unconstrained global optimization problem of continuous functions satifying a Hölder condition is considered. We extend the algorithm of sequential covering SCA for Lipschitz functions to a large class of Hölder functions. The convergence of the method is studied and the algorithm can be applied to systems of nonlinear equations. Finally, some numerical examples are presented and illustrate the efficiency of the present approach.

Keywords: global optimization, Hölder functions, sequential covering method, systems of nonlinear equations

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7499 Multi-Criteria Based Robust Markowitz Model under Box Uncertainty

Authors: Pulak Swain, A. K. Ojha


Portfolio optimization is based on dealing with the problems of efficient asset allocation. Risk and Expected return are two conflicting criteria in such problems, where the investor prefers the return to be high and the risk to be low. Using multi-objective approach we can solve those type of problems. However the information which we have for the input parameters are generally ambiguous and the input values can fluctuate around some nominal values. We can not ignore the uncertainty in input values, as they can affect the asset allocation drastically. So we use Robust Optimization approach to the problems where the input parameters comes under box uncertainty. In this paper, we solve the multi criteria robust problem with the help of  E- constraint method.

Keywords: portfolio optimization, multi-objective optimization, ϵ - constraint method, box uncertainty, robust optimization

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7498 An Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multiobjective Problems

Authors: Houda Abadlia, Nadia Smairi, Khaled Ghedira


Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) has shown an effective performance for solving test functions and real-world optimization problems. However, this method has a premature convergence problem, which may lead to lack of diversity. In order to improve its performance, this paper presents a hybrid approach which embedded the MOPSO into the island model and integrated a local search technique, Variable Neighborhood Search, to enhance the diversity into the swarm. Experiments on two series of test functions have shown the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A comparison with other evolutionary algorithms shows that the proposed approach presented a good performance in solving multiobjective optimization problems.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, migration, variable neighborhood search, multiobjective optimization

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7497 Global Convergence of a Modified Three-Term Conjugate Gradient Algorithms

Authors: Belloufi Mohammed, Sellami Badreddine


This paper deals with a new nonlinear modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm for solving large-scale unstrained optimization problems. The search direction of the algorithms from this class has three terms and is computed as modifications of the classical conjugate gradient algorithms to satisfy both the descent and the conjugacy conditions. An example of three-term conjugate gradient algorithm from this class, as modifications of the classical and well known Hestenes and Stiefel or of the CG_DESCENT by Hager and Zhang conjugate gradient algorithms, satisfying both the descent and the conjugacy conditions is presented. Under mild conditions, we prove that the modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm with Wolfe type line search is globally convergent. Preliminary numerical results show the proposed method is very promising.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, three-term conjugate gradient, sufficient descent property, line search

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7496 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd


Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well-known formulas.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence

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7495 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto


Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints

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7494 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi


Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: chromosome injection, dynamic schema, genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity

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7493 Chemical Reaction Algorithm for Expectation Maximization Clustering

Authors: Li Ni, Pen ManMan, Li KenLi


Clustering is an intensive research for some years because of its multifaceted applications, such as biology, information retrieval, medicine, business and so on. The expectation maximization (EM) is a kind of algorithm framework in clustering methods, one of the ten algorithms of machine learning. Traditionally, optimization of objective function has been the standard approach in EM. Hence, research has investigated the utility of evolutionary computing and related techniques in the regard. Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) is a recently established method. So the property embedded in CRO is used to solve optimization problems. This paper presents an algorithm framework (EM-CRO) with modified CRO operators based on EM cluster problems. The hybrid algorithm is mainly to solve the problem of initial value sensitivity of the objective function optimization clustering algorithm. Our experiments mainly take the EM classic algorithm:k-means and fuzzy k-means as an example, through the CRO algorithm to optimize its initial value, get K-means-CRO and FKM-CRO algorithm. The experimental results of them show that there is improved efficiency for solving objective function optimization clustering problems.

Keywords: chemical reaction optimization, expection maimization, initia, objective function clustering

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7492 Discretization of Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm for Solving Quadratic Assignment Problems

Authors: Elham Kazemi


Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is one the combinatorial optimization problems about which research has been done in many companies for allocating some facilities to some locations. The issue of particular importance in this process is the costs of this allocation and the attempt in this problem is to minimize this group of costs. Since the QAP’s are from NP-hard problem, they cannot be solved by exact solution methods. Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm is a Meta-heuristicmethod which has higher capability to find the global optimal points. It is an algorithm which is basically raised to search a continuous space. The Quadratic Assignment Problem is the issue which can be solved in the discrete space, thus the standard arithmetic operators of Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm need to be redefined on the discrete space in order to apply the Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm on the discrete searching space. This paper represents the way of discretizing the Cuckoo optimization algorithm for solving the quadratic assignment problem.

Keywords: Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), Discrete Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (DCOA), meta-heuristic algorithms, optimization algorithms

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7491 Optimality Conditions for Weak Efficient Solutions Generated by a Set Q in Vector Spaces

Authors: Elham Kiyani, S. Mansour Vaezpour, Javad Tavakoli


In this paper, we first introduce a new distance function in a linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. So, we define Q-weak efficient solutions generated by the algebraic interior of a set Q, where Q is not necessarily convex. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since, for a convex cone K in topological spaces, we have int(K)=cor(K), which means that topological interior of a convex cone K is equal to the algebraic interior of K. Moreover, we used the scalarization technique including the distance function generated by the vectorial closure of a set to characterize these Q-weak efficient solutions. Scalarization is a useful approach for solving vector optimization problems. This technique reduces the optimization problem to a scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real-valued objective function. For instance, Q-weak efficient solutions of vector optimization problems can be characterized and computed as solutions of appropriate scalar optimization problems. In the convex case, linear functionals can be used as objective functionals of the scalar problems. But in the nonconvex case, we should present a suitable objective function. It is the aim of this paper to present a new distance function that be useful to obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for Q-weak efficient solutions of general optimization problems via scalarization.

Keywords: weak efficient, algebraic interior, vector closure, linear space

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7490 Multiobjective Economic Dispatch Using Optimal Weighting Method

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, Fatehgarh Sahib


The purpose of economic load dispatch is to allocate the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. It is an optimization problem to find the most economical schedule of the generating units while satisfying load demand and operational constraints. The multiobjective optimization problem in which the engineer’s goal is to maximize or minimize not a single objective function but several objective functions simultaneously. The purpose of multiobjective problems in the mathematical programming framework is to optimize the different objective functions. Many approaches and methods have been proposed in recent years to solve multiobjective optimization problems. Weighting method has been applied to convert multiobjective optimization problems into scalar optimization. MATLAB 7.10 has been used to write the code for the complete algorithm with the help of genetic algorithm (GA). The validity of the proposed method has been demonstrated on a three-unit power system.

Keywords: economic load dispatch, genetic algorithm, generating units, multiobjective optimization, weighting method

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7489 Ill-Posed Inverse Problems in Molecular Imaging

Authors: Ranadhir Roy


Inverse problems arise in medical (molecular) imaging. These problems are characterized by large in three dimensions, and by the diffusion equation which models the physical phenomena within the media. The inverse problems are posed as a nonlinear optimization where the unknown parameters are found by minimizing the difference between the predicted data and the measured data. To obtain a unique and stable solution to an ill-posed inverse problem, a priori information must be used. Mathematical conditions to obtain stable solutions are established in Tikhonov’s regularization method, where the a priori information is introduced via a stabilizing functional, which may be designed to incorporate some relevant information of an inverse problem. Effective determination of the Tikhonov regularization parameter requires knowledge of the true solution, or in the case of optical imaging, the true image. Yet, in, clinically-based imaging, true image is not known. To alleviate these difficulties we have applied the penalty/modified barrier function (PMBF) method instead of Tikhonov regularization technique to make the inverse problems well-posed. Unlike the Tikhonov regularization method, the constrained optimization technique, which is based on simple bounds of the optical parameter properties of the tissue, can easily be implemented in the PMBF method. Imposing the constraints on the optical properties of the tissue explicitly restricts solution sets and can restore uniqueness. Like the Tikhonov regularization method, the PMBF method limits the size of the condition number of the Hessian matrix of the given objective function. The accuracy and the rapid convergence of the PMBF method require a good initial guess of the Lagrange multipliers. To obtain the initial guess of the multipliers, we use a least square unconstrained minimization problem. Three-dimensional images of fluorescence absorption coefficients and lifetimes were reconstructed from contact and noncontact experimentally measured data.

Keywords: constrained minimization, ill-conditioned inverse problems, Tikhonov regularization method, penalty modified barrier function method

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7488 Finite Element and Split Bregman Methods for Solving a Family of Optimal Control Problem with Partial Differential Equation Constraint

Authors: Mahmoud Lot


In this article, we will discuss the solution of elliptic optimal control problem. First, by using the nite element method, we obtain the discrete form of the problem. The obtained discrete problem is actually a large scale constrained optimization problem. Solving this optimization problem with traditional methods is difficult and requires a lot of CPU time and memory. But split Bergman method converts the constrained problem to an unconstrained, and hence it saves time and memory requirement. Then we use the split Bregman method for solving this problem, and examples show the speed and accuracy of split Bregman methods for solving these types of problems. We also use the SQP method for solving the examples and compare with the split Bregman method.

Keywords: Split Bregman Method, optimal control with elliptic partial differential equation constraint, finite element method

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7487 Uncertain Time-Cost Trade off Problems of Construction Projects Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram


The development of effective decision support tools that adopted in the construction industry is vital in the world we live in today, since it can lead to substantial cost reduction and efficient resource consumption. Solving the time-cost trade off problems and its related variants is at the heart of scientific research for optimizing construction planning problems. In general, the classical optimization techniques have difficulties in dealing with TCT problems. One of the main reasons of their failure is that they can easily be entrapped in local minima. This paper presents an investigation on the application of meta-heuristic techniques to two particular variants of the time-cost trade of analysis, the time-cost trade off problem (TCT), and time-cost trade off optimization problem (TCO). In first problem, the total project cost should be minimized, and in the second problem, the total project cost and total project duration should be minimized simultaneously. Finally it is expected that, the optimization models developed in this paper will contribute significantly for efficient planning and management of construction project.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, optimization, time cost trade off problems

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7486 An Enhanced Harmony Search (ENHS) Algorithm for Solving Optimization Problems

Authors: Talha A. Taj, Talha A. Khan, M. Imran Khalid


Optimization techniques attract researchers to formulate a problem and determine its optimum solution. This paper presents an Enhanced Harmony Search (ENHS) algorithm for solving optimization problems. The proposed algorithm increases the convergence and is more efficient than the standard Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. The paper discusses the novel techniques in detail and also provides the strategy for tuning the decisive parameters that affects the efficiency of the ENHS algorithm. The algorithm is tested on various benchmark functions, a real world optimization problem and a constrained objective function. Also, the results of ENHS are compared to standard HS, and various other optimization algorithms. The ENHS algorithms prove to be significantly better and more efficient than other algorithms. The simulation and testing of the algorithms is performed in MATLAB.

Keywords: optimization, harmony search algorithm, MATLAB, electronic

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