Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1872

Search results for: forest fire monitor

1872 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah, Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: forest fire monitor, humidity, wind direction, wireless sensor network

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1871 Forest Fire Risk Mapping Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS-Based Application: A Case Study in Hua Sai District, Thailand

Authors: Narissara Nuthammachot, Dimitris Stratoulias

Abstract:

Fire is one of the main causes of environmental and ecosystem change. Therefore, it is a challenging task for fire risk assessment fire potential mapping. The study area is Hua Sai district, Nakorn Sri Thammarat province, which covers in a part of peat swamp forest areas. 55 fire points in peat swamp areas were reported from 2012 to 2016. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were selected for this study. The risk fire area map was arranged on these factors; elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, distance from the river, distance from town, and land use. The results showed that the predicted fire risk areas are found to be in appreciable reliability with past fire events. The fire risk map can be used for the planning and management of fire areas in the future.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fire risk assessment, geographic information system, peat swamp forest

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1870 Anti-Fire Group 'Peduli Api': Case Study of Mitigating the Fire Hazard Impact and Climate Policy Enhancement on Riau Province Indonesia

Authors: Bayu Rizky Pratama, Hardiansyah Nur Sahaya

Abstract:

Riau Province is the worst emitter for forest burning which causes the huge scale of externality such as declining of forest habitat, health disease, and climate change impact. Indonesia forum of budget transparency for Riau Province (FITRA) reported the length of forest burning reached about 186.069 hectares which is 7,13% of total national forest burning disaster, consisted of 107.000 hectares of peatland and the rest 79.069 hectares of mineral land. Anti-fire group, a voluntary group next to the forest, to help in protecting the forest burning and heavily smoke residual has been established but unfortunately the implementation still far from expectation. This research will emphasize on (1) how the anti-fire group contribute to fire hazard tackling; (2) the identification of SWOT analysis to enhance the group benefit; and (3) government policy implication to maximize the role of Anti-fire group and reduce the case of forest burning as well as heavily smoke which can raise climate change impact. As the observation found some weakness from SWOT identification such as (1) lack of education and training; (2) facility in extinguishing the fire damage; (3) law for economic incentive; (4) communication and field experience; (5) also the reporting the fire case.

Keywords: anti-fire group, forest burning impact, SWOT, climate change mitigation

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1869 Design an Architectural Model for Deploying Wireless Sensor Network to Prevent Forest Fire

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey

Abstract:

The fires have become the most serious disasters to forest resources and the human environment. In recent years, due to climate change, human activities and other factors the frequency of forest fires has increased considerably. The monitoring and prevention of forest fires have now become a global concern for forest fire prevention organizations. Currently, the methods for forest fire prevention largely consist of patrols, observation from watch towers. Thus, software like deployment of the wireless sensor network to prevent forest fire is being developed to get a better estimate of the temperature and humidity prospects. Now days, wireless sensor networks are beginning to be deployed at an accelerated pace. It is not unrealistic to expect that in coming years the world will be covered with wireless sensor networks. This new technology has lots of unlimited potentials and can be used for numerous application areas including environmental, medical, military, transportation, entertainment, crisis management, homeland defense, and smart spaces.

Keywords: deployment, sensors, wireless sensor networks, forest fires

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1868 Modelling Forest Fire Risk in the Goaso Forest Area of Ghana: Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Approach

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Issaka Yakubu

Abstract:

Forest fire, which is, an uncontrolled fire occurring in nature has become a major concern for the Forestry Commission of Ghana (FCG). The forest fires in Ghana usually result in massive destruction and take a long time for the firefighting crews to gain control over the situation. In order to assess the effect of forest fire at local scale, it is important to consider the role fire plays in vegetation composition, biodiversity, soil erosion, and the hydrological cycle. The occurrence, frequency and behaviour of forest fires vary over time and space, primarily as a result of the complicated influences of changes in land use, vegetation composition, fire suppression efforts, and other indigenous factors. One of the forest zones in Ghana with a high level of vegetation stress is the Goaso forest area. The area has experienced changes in its traditional land use such as hunting, charcoal production, inefficient logging practices and rural abandonment patterns. These factors which were identified as major causes of forest fire, have recently modified the incidence of fire in the Goaso area. In spite of the incidence of forest fires in the Goaso forest area, most of the forest services do not provide a cartographic representation of the burned areas. This has resulted in significant amount of information being required by the firefighting unit of the FCG to understand fire risk factors and its spatial effects. This study uses Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop a fire risk hazard model using the Goaso Forest Area (GFA) as a case study. From the results of the study, natural forest, agricultural lands and plantation cover types were identified as the major fuel contributing loads. However, water bodies, roads and settlements were identified as minor fuel contributing loads. Based on the major and minor fuel contributing loads, a forest fire risk hazard model with a reasonable accuracy has been developed for the GFA to assist decision making.

Keywords: forest, GIS, remote sensing, Goaso

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1867 Historic Fire Occurrence in Hemi-Boreal Forests: Exploring Natural and Cultural Scots Pine Multi-Cohort Fire Regimes in Lithuania

Authors: Charles Ruffner, Michael Manton, Gintautas Kibirkstis, Gediminas Brazaitas, Vitas Marozas, Ekaterine Makrickiene, Rutile Pukiene, Per Angelstam

Abstract:

In dynamic boreal forests, fire is an important natural disturbance, which drives regeneration and mortality of living and dead trees, and thus successional trajectories. However, current forest management practices focusing on wood production only have effectively eliminated fire as a stand-level disturbance. While this is generally well studied across much of Europe, in Lithuania, little is known about the historic fire regime and the role fire plays as a management tool towards the sustainable management of future landscapes. Focusing on Scots pine forests, we explore; i) the relevance of fire disturbance regimes on forestlands of Lithuania; ii) fire occurrence in the Dzukija landscape for dry upland and peatland forest sites, and iii) correlate tree-ring data with climate variables to ascertain climatic influences on growth and fire occurrence. We sampled and cross-dated 132 Scots pine samples with fire scars from 4 dry pine forest stands and 4 peatland forest stands, respectively. The fire history of each sample was analyzed using standard dendrochronological methods and presented in FHAES format. Analyses of soil moisture and nutrient conditions revealed a strong probability of finding forests that have a high fire frequency in Scots pine forests (59%), which cover 34.5% of Lithuania’s current forestland. The fire history analysis revealed 455 fire scars and 213 fire events during the period 1742-2019. Within the Dzukija landscape, the mean fire interval was 4.3 years for the dry Scots pine forest and 8.7 years for the peatland Scots pine forest. However, our comparison of fire frequency before and after 1950 shows a marked decrease in mean fire interval. Our data suggest that hemi-boreal forest landscapes of Lithuania provide strong evidence that fire, both human and lightning-ignited fires, has been and should be a natural phenomenon and that the examination of biological archives can be used to guide sustainable forest management into the future. Currently, fire use is prohibited by law as a tool for forest management in Lithuania. We recommend introducing trials that use low-intensity prescribed burning of Scots pine stands as a regeneration tool towards mimicking natural forest disturbance regimes.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, cultural burning, dendrochronology, forest dynamics, forest management, succession

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1866 Assessing the Impacts of Long-Range Forest Fire Emission Transport on Air Quality in Toronto, Ontario, Using MODIS Fire Data and HYSPLIT Trajectories

Authors: Bartosz Osiecki, Jane Liu

Abstract:

Pollutants emitted from forest fires such as PM₂.₅ and carbon monoxide (CO) have been found to impact the air quality of distant regions through long-range transport. PM₂.₅ is of particular concern due to its transport capacity and implications for human respiratory and cardiovascular health. As such, significant increases in PM₂.₅ concentrations have been exhibited in urban areas downwind of fire sources. This study seeks to expand on this literature by evaluating the impacts of long-range forest fire emission transport on air quality in Toronto, Ontario, as a means of evaluating the vulnerability of this major urban center to distant fire events. In order to draw correlations between the fire event and air pollution episode in Toronto, MODIS fire count data and HYPLSIT trajectories are used to assess the date, location, and severity of the fire and track the trajectory of emissions (respectively). Forward and back-trajectories are run, terminating at the West Toronto air monitoring station. PM₂.₅ and CO concentrations in Toronto during September 2017 are found to be significantly elevated, which is likely attributable to the fire activity. Other sites in Ontario including Toronto (East, North, Downtown), Mississauga, Brampton, and Hamilton (Downtown) exhibit similar peaks in PM₂.₅ concentrations. This work sheds light on the non-local, natural factors influencing air quality in urban areas. This is especially important in the context of climate change which is expected to exacerbate intense forest fire events in the future.

Keywords: air quality, forest fires, PM₂.₅, Toronto

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1865 Numerical Study of Fire Propagation in Confined and Open Area

Authors: Hadj Miloua, Abbes Azzi

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to understand, predict and modeled the fire behavior in confined and open area in different conditions and diverse fuels such as liquid pool fire and the vegetative materials. The distinctive problems are a ventilated road tunnel used for urban transport, by the characterization installations of ventilation and his influence in the mode of smoke dispersion and the flame shape. A general investigation is relatively traditional, based on the modeling and simulation the scenario of the pool fire interacted with wind ventilation by the use of numerical software fire dynamic simulator FDS ver.5 to simulate the fire in ventilated tunnel. The second simulation by WFDS.5 is Wildland fire which is always occurs in forest and rangeland fire environments and will thus have an impact on people, property and resources.

Keywords: fire, road tunnel, simulation, vegetation, wildland

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1864 Wildland Fire in Terai Arc Landscape of Lesser Himalayas Threatning the Tiger Habitat

Authors: Amit Kumar Verma

Abstract:

The present study deals with fire prediction model in Terai Arc Landscape, one of the most dramatic ecosystems in Asia where large, wide-ranging species such as tiger, rhinos, and elephant will thrive while bringing economic benefits to the local people. Forest fires cause huge economic and ecological losses and release considerable quantities of carbon into the air and is an important factor inflating the global burden of carbon emissions. Forest fire is an important factor of behavioral cum ecological habit of tiger in wild. Post fire changes i.e. micro and macro habitat directly affect the tiger habitat or land. Vulnerability of fire depicts the changes in microhabitat (humus, soil profile, litter, vegetation, grassland ecosystem). Microorganism like spider, annelids, arthropods and other favorable microorganism directly affect by the forest fire and indirectly these entire microorganisms are responsible for the development of tiger (Panthera tigris) habitat. On the other hand, fire brings depletion in prey species and negative movement of tiger from wild to human- dominated areas, which may leads the conflict i.e. dangerous for both tiger & human beings. Early forest fire prediction through mapping the risk zones can help minimize the fire frequency and manage forest fires thereby minimizing losses. Satellite data plays a vital role in identifying and mapping forest fire and recording the frequency with which different vegetation types are affected. Thematic hazard maps have been generated by using IDW technique. A prediction model for fire occurrence is developed for TAL. The fire occurrence records were collected from state forest department from 2000 to 2014. Disciminant function models was used for developing a prediction model for forest fires in TAL, random points for non-occurrence of fire have been generated. Based on the attributes of points of occurrence and non-occurrence, the model developed predicts the fire occurrence. The map of predicted probabilities classified the study area into five classes very high (12.94%), high (23.63%), moderate (25.87%), low(27.46%) and no fire (10.1%) based upon the intensity of hazard. model is able to classify 78.73 percent of points correctly and hence can be used for the purpose with confidence. Overall, also the model works correctly with almost 69% of points. This study exemplifies the usefulness of prediction model of forest fire and offers a more effective way for management of forest fire. Overall, this study depicts the model for conservation of tiger’s natural habitat and forest conservation which is beneficial for the wild and human beings for future prospective.

Keywords: fire prediction model, forest fire hazard, GIS, landsat, MODIS, TAL

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1863 Multi-Spectral Deep Learning Models for Forest Fire Detection

Authors: Smitha Haridasan, Zelalem Demissie, Atri Dutta, Ajita Rattani

Abstract:

Aided by the wind, all it takes is one ember and a few minutes to create a wildfire. Wildfires are growing in frequency and size due to climate change. Wildfires and its consequences are one of the major environmental concerns. Every year, millions of hectares of forests are destroyed over the world, causing mass destruction and human casualties. Thus early detection of wildfire becomes a critical component to mitigate this threat. Many computer vision-based techniques have been proposed for the early detection of forest fire using video surveillance. Several computer vision-based methods have been proposed to predict and detect forest fires at various spectrums, namely, RGB, HSV, and YCbCr. The aim of this paper is to propose a multi-spectral deep learning model that combines information from different spectrums at intermediate layers for accurate fire detection. A heterogeneous dataset assembled from publicly available datasets is used for model training and evaluation in this study. The experimental results show that multi-spectral deep learning models could obtain an improvement of about 4.68 % over those based on a single spectrum for fire detection.

Keywords: deep learning, forest fire detection, multi-spectral learning, natural hazard detection

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1862 Wireless Sensor Network for Forest Fire Detection and Localization

Authors: Tarek Dandashi

Abstract:

WSNs may provide a fast and reliable solution for the early detection of environment events like forest fires. This is crucial for alerting and calling for fire brigade intervention. Sensor nodes communicate sensor data to a host station, which enables a global analysis and the generation of a reliable decision on a potential fire and its location. A WSN with TinyOS and nesC for the capturing and transmission of a variety of sensor information with controlled source, data rates, duration, and the records/displaying activity traces is presented. We propose a similarity distance (SD) between the distribution of currently sensed data and that of a reference. At any given time, a fire causes diverging opinions in the reported data, which alters the usual data distribution. Basically, SD consists of a metric on the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). SD is designed to be invariant versus day-to-day changes of temperature, changes due to the surrounding environment, and normal changes in weather, which preserve the data locality. Evaluation shows that SD sensitivity is quadratic versus an increase in sensor node temperature for a group of sensors of different sizes and neighborhood. Simulation of fire spreading when ignition is placed at random locations with some wind speed shows that SD takes a few minutes to reliably detect fires and locate them. We also discuss the case of false negative and false positive and their impact on the decision reliability.

Keywords: forest fire, WSN, wireless sensor network, algortihm

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1861 Geospatial Analysis of Hydrological Response to Forest Fires in Small Mediterranean Catchments

Authors: Bojana Horvat, Barbara Karleusa, Goran Volf, Nevenka Ozanic, Ivica Kisic

Abstract:

Forest fire is a major threat in many regions in Croatia, especially in coastal areas. Although they are often caused by natural processes, the most common cause is the human factor, intentional or unintentional. Forest fires drastically transform landscapes and influence natural processes. The main goal of the presented research is to analyse and quantify the impact of the forest fire on hydrological processes and propose the model that best describes changes in hydrological patterns in the analysed catchments. Keeping in mind the spatial component of the processes, geospatial analysis is performed to gain better insight into the spatial variability of the hydrological response to disastrous events. In that respect, two catchments that experienced severe forest fire were delineated, and various hydrological and meteorological data were collected both attribute and spatial. The major drawback is certainly the lack of hydrological data, common in small torrential karstic streams; hence modelling results should be validated with the data collected in the catchment that has similar characteristics and established hydrological monitoring. The event chosen for the modelling is the forest fire that occurred in July 2019 and burned nearly 10% of the analysed area. Surface (land use/land cover) conditions before and after the event were derived from the two Sentinel-2 images. The mapping of the burnt area is based on a comparison of the Normalized Burn Index (NBR) computed from both images. To estimate and compare hydrological behaviour before and after the event, curve number (CN) values are assigned to the land use/land cover classes derived from the satellite images. Hydrological modelling resulted in surface runoff generation and hence prediction of hydrological responses in the catchments to a forest fire event. The research was supported by the Croatian Science Foundation through the project 'Influence of Open Fires on Water and Soil Quality' (IP-2018-01-1645).

Keywords: Croatia, forest fire, geospatial analysis, hydrological response

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1860 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: Siti Badriyah Rushayati, Resti Meilani, Rachmad Hermawan

Abstract:

A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. The annual occurrences of deforestation and forest fire pose a threat toward such unique biosphere reserve. Forest fire produced smokes that along with mass airflow reached neighboring countries, particularly Singapore and Malaysia. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: biosphere reserve, CO2 emission, deforestation, forest fire

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1859 Application of UAS in Forest Firefighting for Detecting Ignitions and 3D Fuel Volume Estimation

Authors: Artur Krukowski, Emmanouela Vogiatzaki

Abstract:

The article presents results from the AF3 project “Advanced Forest Fire Fighting” focused on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)-based 3D surveillance and 3D area mapping using high-resolution photogrammetric methods from multispectral imaging, also taking advantage of the 3D scanning techniques from the SCAN4RECO project. We also present a proprietary embedded sensor system used for the detection of fire ignitions in the forest using near-infrared based scanner with weight and form factors allowing it to be easily deployed on standard commercial micro-UAVs, such as DJI Inspire or Mavic. Results from real-life pilot trials in Greece, Spain, and Israel demonstrated added-value in the use of UAS for precise and reliable detection of forest fires, as well as high-resolution 3D aerial modeling for accurate quantification of human resources and equipment required for firefighting.

Keywords: forest wildfires, surveillance, fuel volume estimation, firefighting, ignition detectors, 3D modelling, UAV

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1858 Gaussian Probability Density for Forest Fire Detection Using Satellite Imagery

Authors: S. Benkraouda, Z. Djelloul-Khedda, B. Yagoubi

Abstract:

we present a method for early detection of forest fires from a thermal infrared satellite image, using the image matrix of the probability of belonging. The principle of the method is to compare a theoretical mathematical model to an experimental model. We considered that each line of the image matrix, as an embodiment of a non-stationary random process. Since the distribution of pixels in the satellite image is statistically dependent, we divided these lines into small stationary and ergodic intervals to characterize the image by an adequate mathematical model. A standard deviation was chosen to generate random variables, so each interval behaves naturally like white Gaussian noise. The latter has been selected as the mathematical model that represents a set of very majority pixels, which we can be considered as the image background. Before modeling the image, we made a few pretreatments, then the parameters of the theoretical Gaussian model were extracted from the modeled image, these settings will be used to calculate the probability of each interval of the modeled image to belong to the theoretical Gaussian model. The high intensities pixels are regarded as foreign elements to it, so they will have a low probability, and the pixels that belong to the background image will have a high probability. Finally, we did present the reverse of the matrix of probabilities of these intervals for a better fire detection.

Keywords: forest fire, forest fire detection, satellite image, normal distribution, theoretical gaussian model, thermal infrared matrix image

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1857 A Real Time Development Study for Automated Centralized Remote Monitoring System at Royal Belum Forest

Authors: Amri Yusoff, Shahrizuan Shafiril, Ashardi Abas, Norma Che Yusoff

Abstract:

Nowadays, illegal logging has been causing much effect to our forest. Some of it causes a flash flood, avalanche, global warming, and etc. This comprehensibly makes us wonder why, what, and who has made it happened. Often, it already has been too late after we have known the cause of it. Even the Malaysian Royal Belum forest has not been spared from land clearing or illegal activity by the natives although this area has been gazetted as a protected area preserved for future generations. Furthermore, because of its sizeable and wide area, these illegal activities are difficult to monitor and to maintain. A critical action must be called upon to prevent all of these unhealthy activities from recurrence. Therefore, a remote monitoring device must be developed in order to capture critical real-time data such as temperature, humidity, gaseous, fire, and rain detection which indicates the current and preserved natural state and habitat in the forest. Besides, this device location can be detected via GPS by showing the latitudes and longitudes of its current location and then to be transmitted by SMS via GSM system. All of its readings will be sent in real-time for data management and analysis. This result will be benefited to the monitoring bodies or relevant authority in keeping the forest in the natural habitat. Furthermore, this research is to gather a unified data and then will be analysed for its comparison with an existing method.

Keywords: remote monitoring system, forest data, GSM, GPS, wireless sensor

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1856 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

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1855 Prediction of the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Tunnel Concrete

Authors: Seung Cho Yang, Jae Sung Lee, Se Hee Park

Abstract:

This study suggests the analysis method to predict the damages of tunnel concrete caused by fires. The result obtained from the analyses of concrete temperatures at a fire in a tunnel using ABAQUS was compared with the test result. After the reliability of the analysis method was verified, the temperatures of a tunnel at a real fire and those of concrete during the fire were estimated to predict fire damages. The temperatures inside the tunnel were estimated by FDS, a CFD model. It was deduced that the fire performance of tunnel lining and the fire damages of the structure at an actual fire could be estimated by the analysis method.

Keywords: fire resistance, heat transfer, numerical analysis, tunnel fire

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1854 Satellite Images to Determine Levels of Fire Severity in a Native Chilean Forest: Assessing the Responses of Soil Mesofauna Diversity to a Fire Event

Authors: Carolina Morales, Ricardo Castro-Huerta, Enrique A. Mundaca

Abstract:

The edaphic fauna is the main factor involved in the transformation of nutrients and soil decomposition processes. Edaphic organisms are highly sensitive to soil disturbances, which normally causes changes in the composition and abundance of such organisms. Fire is known to be a disturbing factor since it affects the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and the whole ecosystem. During the summer (December-March) of 2017, Chile suffered the major fire events recorded in its modern history, which affected a vast area and a number of ecosystem types. The objective of this study was first to use remote sensing satellite images and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to assess and identify levels of fire severity in disturbed areas and to compare the responses of the soil mesofauna diversity among such areas. We identified four areas (treatments) with an ascending level of severity, namely: mild, medium, high severity, and free of fire. A non-affected patch of forest was established as a control. Three samples from each treatment were collected in the form of a soil cube (10x10x10 cm). Edaphic mesofauna was obtained from each sample through the Berlese-Tullgren funnel method. Collected specimens were quantified and identified, using the RTU (Recognisable Taxonomic Unit) criterion. Diversity was analysed using inferential statistics to compare Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indexes across treatments. As predicted, the unburned forest patch (control) exhibited higher diversity values than the treatments. Significantly higher diversity values were recorded in those treatments subjected to lower fire severity. We conclude that remote sensing zoning is an adequate tool to identify different levels of fire severity and that an edaphic mesofauna is a group of organisms that qualify as good bioindicators for monitoring soil recovery after fire events.

Keywords: bioindicator, Chile, fire severity level, soil

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1853 Characterization of Forest Fire Fuel in Shivalik Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Authors: Neha Devi, P. K. Joshi

Abstract:

Fire fuel map is one of the most critical factors for planning and managing the fire hazard and risk. One of the most significant forms of global disturbance, impacting community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and local and regional climate across a wide range of ecosystems ranging from boreal forests to tropical rainforest is wildfire Assessment of fire danger is a function of forest type, fuelwood stock volume, moisture content, degree of senescence and fire management strategy adopted in the ground. Remote sensing has potential of reduction the uncertainty in mapping fuels. Hyperspectral remote sensing is emerging to be a very promising technology for wildfire fuels characterization. Fine spectral information also facilitates mapping of biophysical and chemical information that is directly related to the quality of forest fire fuels including above ground live biomass, canopy moisture, etc. We used Hyperion imagery acquired in February, 2016 and analysed four fuel characteristics using Hyperion sensor data on-board EO-1 satellite, acquired over the Shiwalik Himalayas covering the area of Champawat, Uttarakhand state. The main objective of this study was to present an overview of methodologies for mapping fuel properties using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Fuel characteristics analysed include fuel biomass, fuel moisture, and fuel condition and fuel type. Fuel moisture and fuel biomass were assessed through the expression of the liquid water bands. Fuel condition and type was assessed using green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil as Endmember for spectral mixture analysis. Linear Spectral Unmixing, a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil.

Keywords: forest fire fuel, Hyperion, hyperspectral, linear spectral unmixing, spectral mixture analysis

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1852 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

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1851 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Authors: Ki Ok Choi, Sung Ho Hong, Dong Suck Kim, Don Mook Choi

Abstract:

Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.

Keywords: fire detector, rack, response characteristic, warehouse

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1850 Prediction of Fire Growth of the Office by Real-Scale Fire Experiment

Authors: Kweon Oh-Sang, Kim Heung-Youl

Abstract:

Estimating the engineering properties of fires is important to be prepared for the complex and various fire risks of large-scale structures such as super-tall buildings, large stadiums, and multi-purpose structures. In this study, a mock-up of a compartment which was 2.4(L) x 3.6 (W) x 2.4 (H) meter in dimensions was fabricated at the 10MW LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) and combustible office supplies were placed in the compartment for a real-scale fire test. Maximum heat release rate was 4.1 MW and total energy release obtained through the application of t2 fire growth rate was 6705.9 MJ.

Keywords: fire growth, fire experiment, t2 curve, large scale calorimeter

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1849 Insect Outbreaks, Harvesting and Wildfire in Forests: Mathematical Models for Coupling Disturbances

Authors: M. C. A. Leite, B. Chen-Charpentier, F. Agusto

Abstract:

A long-term goal of sustainable forest management is a relatively stable source of wood and a stable forest age-class structure has become the goal of many forest management practices. In the absence of disturbances, this forest management goal could easily be achieved. However, in the face of recurring insect outbreaks and other disruptive processes forest planning becomes more difficult, requiring knowledge of the effects on the forest of a wide variety of environmental factors (e.g., habitat heterogeneity, fire size and frequency, harvesting, insect outbreaks, and age distributions). The association between distinct forest disturbances and the potential effect on forest dynamics is a complex matter, particularly when evaluated over time and at large scale, and is not well understood. However, gaining knowledge in this area is crucial for a sustainable forest management. Mathematical modeling is a tool that can be used to broader the understanding in this area. In this talk we will introduce mathematical models formulation incorporating the effect of insect outbreaks either as a single disturbance in the forest population dynamics or coupled with other disturbances: either wildfire or harvesting. The results and ecological insights will be discussed.

Keywords: age-structured forest population, disturbances interaction, harvesting insects outbreak dynamics, mathematical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
1848 A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

Authors: M. Arabghahestani, A. Darwish Ahmad, N. K. Akafuah

Abstract:

In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Keywords: boundary layer profile, fire whirls, near-ground height, vortex interactions

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1847 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
1846 Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire

Authors: Christian Gaigl, Martin Mensinger

Abstract:

Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.

Keywords: fire resistance, hot-dip galvanizing, steel constructions, R30 requirement, emissivity

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1845 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1844 Assessing the Legacy Effects of Wildfire on Eucalypt Canopy Structure of South Eastern Australia

Authors: Yogendra K. Karna, Lauren T. Bennett

Abstract:

Fire-tolerant eucalypt forests are one of the major forest ecosystems of south-eastern Australia and thought to be highly resistant to frequent high severity wildfires. However, the impact of different severity wildfires on the canopy structure of fire-tolerant forest type is under-studied, and there are significant knowledge gaps in relation to the assessment of tree and stand level canopy structural dynamics and recovery after fire. Assessment of canopy structure is a complex task involving accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical arrangement of the canopy in space and time. This study examined the utility of multitemporal, small-footprint lidar data to describe the changes in the horizontal and vertical canopy structure of fire-tolerant eucalypt forests seven years after wildfire of different severities from the tree to stand level. Extensive ground measurements were carried out in four severity classes to describe and validate canopy cover and height metrics as they change after wildfire. Several metrics such as crown height and width, crown base height and clumpiness of crown were assessed at tree and stand level using several individual tree top detection and measurement algorithm. Persistent effects of high severity fire 8 years after both on tree crowns and stand canopy were observed. High severity fire increased the crown depth but decreased the crown projective cover leading to more open canopy.

Keywords: canopy gaps, canopy structure, crown architecture, crown projective cover, multi-temporal lidar, wildfire severity

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1843 Accidental Compartment Fire Dynamics: Experiment, Computational Fluid Dynamics Weakness and Expert Interview Analysis

Authors: Timothy Onyenobi

Abstract:

Accidental fires and its dynamic as it relates to building compartmentation and the impact of the compartment morphology, is still an on-going area of study; especially with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling methods. With better knowledge on this subject come better solution recommendations by fire engineers. Interviews were carried out for this study where it was identified that the response perspectives to accidental fire were different with the fire engineer providing qualitative data which is based on “what is expected in real fires” and the fire fighters provided information on “what actually obtains in real fires”. This further led to a study and analysis of two real and comprehensively instrumented fire experiments: the Open Plan Office Project by National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) USA (to study time to flashover) and the TF2000 project by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) UK (to test for conformity with Building Regulation requirements). The findings from the analysis of the experiments revealed the relative yet critical weakness of fire prediction using a CFD model (usually used by fire engineers) as well as explained the differences in response perspectives of the fire engineers and firefighters from the interview analysis.

Keywords: CFD, compartment fire, experiment, fire fighters, fire engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 213