Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: subsistence

62 Reverse Innovation in Subsistence and Developed Markets

Authors: Hailu Getnet

Abstract:

This study focus on reverse innovation on performance outcomes across developed and subsistence markets context. The subsistence market consists two third of the world population and the largest international market. To date, it has been neglected because of its issues of perceived challenges and seeming unattractiveness compared to the established markets in the west. However, subsistence markets are becoming source of reverse innovation; an innovation that is likely to be adopted first in developing world and successfully traded globally. In response, there is a growing interest on reverse innovation to power the future. Based on the theories of innovation and growing subsistence market literatures, the study propose drivers and outcomes of reverse innovation, a potential similarities and difference in benefiting and challenging firms and consumers in subsistence and developed markets.

Keywords: reverse innovation, subsistence market, developing world, developed market

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61 Mitigating the Vulnerability of Subsistence Farmers through Ground Water Optimisation

Authors: Olayemi Bakre

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The majoritant of the South African rural populace are directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural practices for a livelihood. However, impediments such as the climate change and inadequacy of governmental support has undermined the once thriving subsistence farming communities of South Africa. Furthermore, the poor leadership in hydrology, coupled with lack of depths in skills to facilitate the understanding and acceptance of groundwater from national level to local governance has made it near impossible for subsistence farmers to optimally benefit from the groundwater beneath their feet. The 2012 drought experienced in South Africa paralysed the farming activities across several subsistence farming communities across the KwaZulu-Natal Province. To revamp subsistence farming, a variety of interventions and strategies such as the Resource Poor Farmers (RPF) and Water Allocation Reforms (WAR) have been launched by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) as an agendum to galvanising the defunct subsistence farming communities of KwaZulu-Natal as well as other subsistence farming communities across South Africa. Despite the enormous resources expended on the subsistence farming communities whom often fall under the Historically Disadvantaged Individuals (HDI); indicators such as the unsustainable farming practices, poor crop yield, pitiable living condition as well as the poor standard of living, are evidential to the claim that these afore cited interventions and a host of other similar strategies indicates that these initiatives have not yield the desired result. Thus, this paper seeks to suggest practicable interventions aimed at salvaging the vulnerability of subsistence farmers within the province understudy. The study pursued a qualitative approach as the view of experts on ground water and similarly related fields from the DWS were solicited as an agendum to obtaining in-depth perspective into the current study. Some of the core challenges undermining the sustainability and growth of subsistence farming in the area of study were - inadequacy of experts (engineers, scientist, researchers) in ground water; water shortages; lack of political will as well as lack of coordination among stakeholders. As an agendum to optimising the ground water usage for subsistence farming, this paper advocates the strengthening of geohydrological skills, development of technical training capacity, interactive participation among stakeholders as well as the initiation of Participatory Action Research as an agenda to optimising the available ground water in KwaZulu-Natal which is intended to orchestrate a sustainable and viable subsistence farming practice within the province.

Keywords: subsistence farming, ground water optimisation, resource poor farmers, and water allocation reforms, hydrology

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60 Psychological Resilience Factors Associated with Climate Change Adaptations by Subsistence Farmers in a Rural Community, South Africa

Authors: Kgopa Bontle, Tholen Sodi

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Climate change poses a major threat to the well-being of both people and the environment, with subsistence farmers most affected as they rely on local supply systems that are sensitive to climate variation. This study documented psychological resilience factors associated with climate change adaptations by subsistence farmers in Maruleng Municipality, Limpopo Province. A qualitative study was conducted to examine the notions of climate change by subsistence farmers, the psychological resilience factors, the strategies to cope with climate change, adaptation methods, and the development of subsistence farmers’ psychological resilience factors model. Data were collected through direct interactions with participants using a grounded theory research design. An open-ended interview was used to collect data with a sample of 15 participants selected through theoretical sampling in Maruleng Municipality. The participants were both Sepedi and Xitsonga speaking from 2 villages, mostly unemployed, pensioners and dependent on social grants. The study included both males and females who were predominately the elderly. The research findings indicate that farmers have limited knowledge of what climate change is and what causes it. Furthermore, the research reflects that although their responses were non-scientific but sensible enough to know what they were dealing with. They mentioned extreme weather, which includes hot days and less rainfall and changes in seasons, as some of the impacts brought by climate change. The results also indicated that participants have learned to adapt through several adaptation strategies, including mulching, changes in irrigation time slots and being innovative. The resilience factors that emerged from the study were a passion for farming, hope, enthusiasm, courage, acceptance/tolerance, livelihood and belief systems. Looking at the socio-economic factors of the current study setting argumentation leads to the conclusion that it is important that government should assist the subsistence farmers as it was observed from the participants that they felt neglected by the government and policymakers as they are small scale farmers and are not included like commercial farmers.

Keywords: climate change, psychological resilience factors, human adaptation, subsistence farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
59 Enhancing Food Security through Cabbage Production by Local Fammers in Nkokobe Municipality

Authors: Sipumle Qapeshu, Bongiwe Mcata, Ajuruchukwu Obi

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Subsistence farmers practice farming for survival while commercial farmers produce to feed themselves and larger society with the motive to achieve highest profit. These types of farmers are characterised by growing what they eat, live without making regular purchases in the markets. The main objective of subsistence/peasant farmers is to ensure food security at household level. Cabbage is a crop that has been identified to have vital food nutrient sources like Vitamin A, B and C, protein, calcium, iron and antioxidative compounds beneficial for preventing cancer. This paper, therefore, looks at the potential that cabbage production has in enhancing household food security and also the challenges encountered by these cabbage producers. Primary data was obtained from 50 respondents, and linear regression model was used to analyse the data used. Income was used as food security measure. The results showed that three variables were statistically significant and they are gender (10%), education (5%) and household size (5%). Meaning that these are variables that influenced cabbage production by these households, and it also affects their food security status since income is affected.

Keywords: subsistence farmers, food security, cabbage, farming

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58 Assessment of Non-Timber Forest Products from Community Managed Forest of Thenzawl Forest Division, Mizoram, Northeast India

Authors: K. Lalhmingsangi, U. K. Sahoo

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Non-Timber Forest Products represent one of the key sources of income and subsistence to the fringe communities living in rural areas. A study was conducted for the assessment of NTFP within the community forest of five villages under Thenzawl forest division. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), questionnaire, field exercise, discussion and interview with the first hand NTFP exploiter and sellers was adopted for the field study. Fuel wood, medicinal plants, fodder, wild vegetables, fruits, broom grass, thatch grass, bamboo pole and cane species are the main NTFP harvested from the community forest. Among all the NTFPs, the highest percentage of household involvement was found in fuel wood, i.e. 53% of household and least in medicinal plants 5%. They harvest for their own consumption as well as for selling to the market to meet their needs. Edible food and fruits are sold to the market and it was estimated that 300 (Rs/hh/yr) was earned by each household through the selling of this NTFP from the community forest alone. No marketing channels are linked with fuelwood, medicinal plants and fodder since they harvest only for their own consumption.

Keywords: community forest, subsistence, non-timber forest products, Thenzawl Forest Division

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
57 The Ocean at the Center of Geopolitics: Between an Overflowing Land and an Under-Exploited Sea

Authors: Ana Maria De Azevedo

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We are living a remarkable period, responsible for the thriving of the human population to unprecedented levels. Still, it is empirically obvious that sustaining such a huge population puts a tremendous pressure on our planet. Once Land resources grow scarcer, there is a mounting pressure to find alternatives to support basic human needs elsewhere. Occupying most of our planet, it’s therefore natural that, is not a so distant future, humankind look for such basic subsistence means at the Ocean. Thus, once the Ocean becomes essential to Human subsistence, it is predictable it's moving to the foreground of Geopolitics. Both future technologies and uses of the Ocean, as bidding for the exploration of its resources away from the natural territory of influence of a Country, are susceptible of raising the risk of conflict between traditional political adversaries and/or the dilemma of having to balance economic interests, with various security and defense concerns. Those empirical observations suggest the need to further research on this perspective shift of the main Geopolitical axis to the Ocean, the new sources of conflict that can result thereon, and how to address them. The author suggests a systematic analysis of this problematic, to attain a political and legal international consensus, namely on what concerns updating of the 'United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea' of 10 December 1982, and/or its annexes. To proceed with the present research, the primary analysis was based on a quantitative observation, but reasoning thereon relied essentially on a qualitative process of prospective scenarios assessment.

Keywords: marine resources, ocean geopolitics, security and defense, sustainable development

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56 Women as Victims of Land Grabbing: Implications for Household Food Security and Livelihoods in Cameroon

Authors: Valentine Ndi

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This multi-sited research will make use of primary and secondary data to understand the multiple implications of land grabbing for local food production and rural livelihoods in Cameroon. Amidst restricted access to land and forest resources, this study will demonstrate how land previously accessed by communities to grow crops and to harvest forest resources is being acquired and transformed into commercial oil palm plantations by Herakles Farms, a US-based company, with Sithe Global Sustainable Oils Cameroon as its local subsidiary. Focusing on selected land grabbing communities in Cameroon, the study uses a feminist political ecology lens to examine the gendered nature in resources access and its impacts for women’s food production in particular, and rural livelihoods in general. The paper will argue that the change in land use particularly erodes women’s rights to access land and forest resources, and in turn negatively affects local food production and rural livelihood in the region. It will show how women in the region play instrumental and dominant roles in ensuring local food production through subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture but are unfortunately the main losers of territory that the state considers as ‘empty’ or underutilized - and is subjected to appropriation. The paper will conclude that, rural women’s active participation in the decision-making processes concerning the use of and/or allotment of land to foreign investors is indispensable to guarantee local, national and global food security, but also to ensure that alternative livelihood options are provided, particularly to those rural women facing dispossession or at risk of being dispossessed.

Keywords: land grabbing, feminst political ecology, gender, access to resources, rural livelihoods, Cameroon

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55 Assessing the Financial Potential of an Agroforestry-Based Farming Practice in a Labor Scarce Subsistence Economy

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Rajesh Kumar Rai

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Agroforestry is long practiced in Nepal as a means of subsistence livelihoods. Given its potential to climate change mitigation, this practice is being recommended as a climate-smart farming practice in the recent years. However, the financial attractiveness of this practice is not well-documented in a labor scarce economy such as Nepal. This study attempts to examine the financial suitability of an agroforestry-based farming practice in the present socio-economic context of Nepal where labor is in short supply. A total of 200 households were randomly selected for household surveys in Dhanusha district during April to July 2015. Two farming practices were found to be dominant in the study area: 1) conventional farming (field crops only) in which at least two field crops are annually grown, and 2) agroforestry-based farming (agroforest, home garden and field crops combined) practice (ABFP). The ABFP was found to be less labor intensive than the conventional farming (137 Man days/yr/ha vs 218 Man days/yr/ha). The ex-ante financial analysis indicated that both the farming practices generated positive NPVs (Net Present Values) and B/C (Benefit-Cost) ratios greater than one, indicating both are financially attractive farming enterprises under the base discount rate of 12%. However, the ABFP generated higher NPV and greater B/C ratio than the conventional farming, indicating the former was financially more attractive than the later. The sensitivity analysis showed that the conventional farming was more sensitive to change in labor wage rate than that of the ABFP. Up to the 24% discount rate, the ABFP generated higher NPV and in case of B/C ratio, the ratio was found greater for ABFP even in 50% discount rate.

Keywords: agroforestry, benefit-cost analysis, conventional farming, net present value

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
54 Place Attachment as Basic Condition for Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction in East African Wetland Users

Authors: Sophie-Bo Heinkel, Andrea Rechenburg, Thomas Kistemann

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The current status of wellbeing and life satisfaction of subsistence farmers in a wetland in Uganda and the contributing role of place attachment has been assessed. The aim of this study is to shed light on environmental factors supporting wellbeing in a wetland setting. Furthermore, it has been assessed, how the emotional bonding to the wetland as ‘place’ influences the peoples’ wellbeing and life satisfaction. The results shed light on the human-environment-relationship. A survey was carried out in three communities in urban and rural areas in a wetland basin in Uganda. A sample (n=235) provided information about the attachment to the wetland, the participants’ relation to the place of their residence and their emotional wellbeing. The Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) was assessed as well as the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem scale (RSE). Furthermore, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was applied as well as the Place Attachment Inventory (PAI), which consists of the two intertwined dimensions of place identity and place dependence. Beside this, binary indicators as ‘feeling save’ and ‘feeling comfortable’ and ‘enjoying to live at the place of residence’ have been assessed. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed a high interconnectivity between all metric scales. Especially, the subscale ‘place identity’ showed significances with all other scales. A cluster analysis revealed three groups, which differed in the perception of place-related indicators and their attachment to the wetland as well as the status of wellbeing. First, a cluster whose majority is dissatisfied with their lives, but mainly had a good status of emotional well-being. This group does not feel attached to the wetland and lives in a town. Comparably less persons of this group feel safe and comfortable at their place of residence. In the second cluster, persons feel highly attached to the wetland and identify with it. This group was characterized by the high number of persons preferring their current place of residence and do not consider moving. All persons feel well and satisfied with their lives. The third group of persons is mainly living in rural areas and feels highly attached to the wetland. They are satisfied with their lives, but only a small minority is in a good emotional state of wellbeing. The emotional attachment to a place influences life satisfaction and, indirectly, the emotional wellbeing. In the present study it could be shown that subsistence farmers are attached to the wetland, as it is the source of their livelihood. While those living in areas with a good infrastructure are less dependent on the wetland and, therefore, less attached to. This feeling also was mirrored in the perception of a place as being safe and comfortable. The identification with a place is crucial for the feeling of being at “home”. Subsistence farmers feel attached to the ecosystem, but they also might be exposed to environmental and social stressors influencing their short-term emotional wellbeing. The provision of place identity is an ecosystem service provided by wetlands, which supports the status of wellbeing in human beings.

Keywords: mental health, positive environments, quality of life, wellbeing

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53 Supporting Women's Economic Development in Rural Papua New Guinea

Authors: Katja Mikhailovich, Barbara Pamphilon

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Farmer training in Papua New Guinea has focused mainly on technology transfer approaches. This has primarily benefited men and often excluded women whose literacy, low education and role in subsistence crops has precluded participation in formal training. The paper discusses an approach that uses both a brokerage model of agricultural extension to link smallholders with private sector agencies and an innovative family team’s approach that aims to support the economic empowerment of women in families and encourages sustainable and gender equitable farming and business practices.

Keywords: women, economic development, agriculture, training

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52 Impact of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystem Services: In situ Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Tropical Forests

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Pandey

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Forest genetic resources not only represent regional biodiversity but also have immense value as the wealth for securing livelihood of poor people. These are vulnerable to ecological due to depletion/deforestation and /or impact of climate change. These resources of various plant categories are vulnerable on the floor of natural tropical forests, and leading to the threat on the growth and development of future forests. More than 170 species, including NTFPs, are in critical condition for their survival in natural tropical forests of Central India. Forest degradation, commensurate with biodiversity loss, is now pervasive, disproportionately affecting the rural poor who directly depend on forests for their subsistence. Looking ahead the interaction between forest and water, soil, precipitation, climate change, etc. and its impact on biodiversity of tropical forests, it is inevitable to develop co-operation policies and programmes to address new emerging realities. Forests ecosystem also known as the 'wealth of poor' providing goods and ecosystem services on a sustainable basis, are now recognized as a stepping stone to move poor people beyond subsistence. Poverty alleviation is the prime objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, environmental sustainability including other MDGs, is essential to ensure successful elimination of poverty and well being of human society. Loss and degradation of ecosystem are the most serious threats to achieving development goals worldwide. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) was an attempt to identify provisioning and regulating cultural and supporting ecosystem services to provide livelihood security of human beings. Climate change may have a substantial impact on ecological structure and function of forests, provisioning, regulations and management of resources which can affect sustainable flow of ecosystem services. To overcome these limitations, policy guidelines with respect to planning and consistent research strategy need to be framed for conservation and sustainable development of forest genetic resources.

Keywords: climate change, forest ecosystem services, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation

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51 Passport Confiscation as a Violation of Human Rights: Analysing the Kafala System

Authors: Samantha Vargas-Alfonso

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The phenomenon of migration has been long-recorded since ancient history but never has mobility in huge numbers been so rapid and constant than that of the present. A significant portion of these migrants move for the promise of better economic subsistence by finding employment in foreign lands; while there are local and international instruments to protect these migrant workers, they still face human rights violations amongst other hurdles in integrating themselves into their host country. This research aims to look at the occurrence of Passport Confiscation for Filipino migrant workers (blue-collar workers) who are situated in Saudi Arabia. In addition to this, the study will look at the Kafala System which GCC countries practice regulating their foreign employees. The research attempts to prove that international conventions lack power in constraining the occurrence of passport confiscation and that while the kafala system exists, there is very little opportunity to address this issue.

Keywords: kafala, labor, migration, passport

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50 Urban Poor: The Situations and Characteristics of the Problem and Social Welfare Service of Bangkok Metropolis

Authors: Sanchai Ratthanakwan

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This research aims to study situations and characteristics of the problems facing the urban poor. The data and information are collected by focus group and in-depth interview leader and members of Four Regions Slum Network, community representatives and the social welfare officer. The research can be concluded that the problems of the urban poor faced with three major problems: Firstly, the shortage of housing and stability issues in housing; secondly, the problem of substandard quality of life; and thirdly, the debt problem. The study found that a solution will be found in two ways: First way is the creation of housing for the urban poor in slums or community intrusion by the state. Second way is the stability in the housing and subsistence provided by the community center called “housing stability”.

Keywords: urban poor, social welfare, Bangkok metropolis, housing stability

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49 Investigating Problems and Social Support for Mothers of Poor Households

Authors: Niken Hartati

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This study provides a description of the problem and sources of social support that given to 90 mothers from poor households. Data were collected using structured interviews with the three main questions: 1) what kind of problem in mothers daily life, 2) to whom mothers ask for help to overcome it and 3) the form of the assistances that provided. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques were then coded and categorized. The results of the study illustrate the problems experienced by mothers of poor households in the form of: subsistence (37%), child care (27%), management of money and time (20%), housework (5%), bad place of living (5%), the main breadwinner (3%), and extra costs (3%). While the sources of social support that obtained by mothers were; neighbors (10%), extended family (8%), children (8%), husband (7%), parents (7%), and siblings (5%). Unfortunately, more mothers who admitted not getting any social support when having problems (55%). The form of social support that given to mother from poor household were: instrumental support (91%), emotional support (5%) and informational support (2%). Implications for further intervention also discussed in this study.

Keywords: household problems, social support, mothers, poor households

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48 Sacidava and Its Role of Military Outpost in the Moesian Sector of the Danube Limes: Animal Food Resources and Landscape Reconstruction

Authors: Margareta Simina Stanc, Aurel Mototolea, Tiberiu Potarniche

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Sacidava archeological site is located in Dobrudja region, Romania, on a hill on the right bank of the Danube - the Musait point, located at about 5 km north-east from Dunareni village. The place-name documents the fact that, prior to the Roman conquest, in the area, there was a Getic settlement. The location of the Sacidava was made possible by corroborating the data provided by the ancient sources with the epigraphic documents (the milial pillar during the time of Emperor Decius). The tegular findings attest that an infantry unit, cohors I Cilicum milliaria equitata, as well as detachments from Legio V Macedonica and Legio XI Claudia, were confined to Sacidava. During the period of the Dominion, the garrison of the fortification is the host of a cavalry unit: cuneus equitum scutariorum. In the immediate vicinity to the Roman fortress, to the east, were identified two other fortifications: a Getic settlement (4th-1st century B.C.) and an Early Medieval settlement (9th-10th century A.C.). The archaeological material recovered during the research is represented by ceramic forms such as amphoras, jugs, pots, cups, plates, to which are added oil lamps, some of them typologically new at the time of discovery. Local ceramic shapes were also founded, worked by hand or by wheel, considered un-Romanized or in the course of Romanization. During the time of the Principality, Sacidava it represented an important military outpost serving mainly the city of Tropaeum Traiani, controlling also the supply and transport on the Danube limes in the Moesic sector. This role will determine the development of the fortress and the appearance of extramuros civil structures, thus becoming an important landmark during the 5th-6th centuries A.C., becoming a representation of power of the Roman empire in an area of continuous conflict. During recent archaeological researches, faunal remains were recovered, and their analysis allowed to estimate the animal resources and subsistence practices (animal husbandry, hunting, fishing) in the settlement. The methodology was specific to archaeozoology, mainly consisting of anatomical, taxonomical, and taphonomical identifications, recording, and quantification of the data. The remains of domestic mammals have the highest proportion indicating the importance of animal husbandry; the predominant species are Bos taurus, Ovis aries/Capra hircus, and Sus domesticus. Fishing and hunting were of secondary importance in the subsistence economy of the community. Wild boar and the red deer were the most frequently hunted species. Just a few fish bones were recovered. Thus, the ancient city of Sacidava is proving to be an important element of cultural heritage of the south-eastern part of Romania, for whose conservation and enhancement efforts must be made, especially by landscape reconstruction.

Keywords: archaeozoology, landscape reconstruction, limes, military outpost

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47 Non-Timber Forest Products and Livelihood Linkages: A Case of Lamabagar, Nepal

Authors: Sandhya Rijal, Saroj Adhikari, Ramesh R. Pant

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Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have attracted substantial interest in the recent years with the increasing recognition that these can provide essential community needs for improved and diversified rural livelihood and support the objectives of biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, various challenges are witnessed in their sustainable harvest and management. Assuming that sustainable management with community stewardship can offer one of the solutions to existing challenges, the study assesses the linkages between NTFPs and rural livelihood in Lamabagar village of Dolakha, Nepal. The major objective was to document the status of NTFPs and their contributions in households of Lamabagar. For status documentation, vegetation sampling was done using systematic random sampling technique. 30 plots of 10 m × 10 m were laid down in six parallel transect lines at horizontal distance of 160 m in two different community forests. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 76 households (excluding non-response rate) using stratified random sampling technique for contribution analysis. Likewise, key informant interview and focus group discussions were also conducted for data triangulations. 36 different NTFPs were recorded from the vegetation sample in two community forests of which 50% were used for medicinal purposes. The other uses include fodder, religious value, and edible fruits and vegetables. Species like Juniperus indica, Daphne bholua Aconitum spicatum, and Lyonia ovalifolia were frequently used for trade as a source of income, which was sold in local market. The protected species like Taxus wallichiana and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora were also recorded in the area for which the trade is prohibited. The protection of these species urgently needs community stewardship. More than half of the surveyed households (55%) were depending on NTFPs for their daily uses, other than economic purpose whereas 45% of them sold those products in the market directly or in the form of local handmade products as a source of livelihood. NTFPs were the major source of primary health curing agents especially for the poor and unemployed people in the study area. Hence, the NTFPs contributed to livelihood under three different categories: subsistence, supplement income and emergency support, depending upon the economic status of the households. Although the status of forest improved after handover to the user group, the availability of valuable medicinal herbs like Rhododendron anthopogon, Swertia nervosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, and Aconitum spicatum were declining. Inadequacy of technology, lack of easy transport access, and absence of good market facility were the major limitations for external trade of NTFPs in the study site. It was observed that people were interested towards conservation only if they could get some returns: economic in terms of rural settlements. Thus, the study concludes that NTFPs could contribute rural livelihood and support conservation objectives only if local communities are provided with the easy access of technology, market and capital.

Keywords: contribution, medicinal, subsistence, sustainable harvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
46 Production, Utilization and Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka M. Chidieber-Mark, Roseline D. Ejike

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Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have been described as all biological materials, other than timber extracted from natural and managed forests for human subsistence and economic activities. This study focused on the production, utilization and marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study. Data were from primary sources only. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical tools as well as Net Income Analysis. Results show that a vast number of plant based and animal based NTFPs exist in the study area. They are harvested and used for multiple purposes. NTFPs are a source of income for the indigenes that depend on it for their livelihood. Unsustainable production and harvesting as well as poor marketing information was among the constraints impeding the growth and development of NTFPs sub-sector in the study area.

Keywords: non-timber forest products, production, utilization, marketing

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45 The Fall of Cultural Consumption in Spain during the Economic Crisis of 2008: Lessons for the Upcoming Crisis

Authors: Pau Rausell-Koster, Jordi Sanjuan-Belda

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The economic crisis of 2008 had a special impact on cultural consumption in Spain. It fell by almost 30% in a few years, and its share of total family spending decreased from 3.19% in 2007 to 2.38% in 2015. In 2017, unlike other indicators, cultural consumption levels were still far from recovering their pre-crisis values. In times of economic difficulties, the satisfaction of primary subsistence needs takes priority over that of social, cultural and experiential needs, among which cultural consumption would mostly be framed. However, its evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to macroeconomic trends. In parallel to these, technological advances mainly related to the Internet have been disseminated in recent years, which have a very marked impact on the consumption patterns of some cultural sectors. Thus, the aim of this study is to define the causes of the decline in cultural consumption in Spain in recent years, and analyse what type of products, territories and population profiles suffered it especially. From the data analysis of the Family Budget Survey, the study seeks to improve the understanding of the determinants of cultural consumption and their behaviour in the face of macroeconomic trends, as well as identify and extract some policy implications regarding to the upcoming crisis caused by COVID-19.

Keywords: consume patterns, cultural consumption, economic crisis, economic trends

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
44 Simulation Model for Evaluating the Impact of Adaptive E-Learning in the Agricultural Sector

Authors: Maria Nabakooza

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Efficient agricultural production is very significant in attaining food sufficiency and security in the world. Many methods are employed by the farmers while attending to their gardens, from manual to mechanized, with Farmers range from subsistence to commercial depending on the motive. This creates a lacuna in the modes of operation in this field as different farmers will take different approaches. This has led to many e-Learning courses being introduced to address this gap. Many e-learning systems use advanced network technologies like Web services, grid computing to promote learning at any time and any place. Many of the existing systems have not inculcated the applicability of the modules in them, the tools to be used and further access whether they are the right tools for the right job. A thorough investigation into the applicability of adaptive eLearning in the agricultural sector has not been taken into account; enabling the assumption that eLearning is the right tool for boosting productivity in this sector. This study comes in to provide an insight and thorough analysis as to whether adaptive eLearning is the right tool for boosting agricultural productivity. The Simulation will adopt a system dynamics modeling approach as a way of examining causality and effect relationship. This study will provide teachers with an insight into which tools they should adopt in designing, and provide students the opportunities to achieve an orderly learning experience through adaptive navigating e-learning services.

Keywords: agriculture, adaptive, e-learning, technology

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43 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi

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Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: salinity, stress, vitamin c, antioxidant, NaCl, enzyme

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42 Lewis Turning Point in China: Interviewing Perceptions of Fertility Policies by Unmarried Female Millennials

Authors: Yunqi Wang

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Benefiting from the demographic dividend, China has enjoyed export-led economic growth since 1978. While Lewis's model marks the structural transformation from the low-wage 'subsistence' sector to the 'modern sector' as the end of labour surplus, the Chinese government seems eager to extend such benefit by promoting a series of fertility encouragement policies, contrasting to its firm and strict birth control since last century. Based on a Attride-Stirling’s thematic analysis of interviews with unmarried female millennials in China, this paper argues that the young female generation responded to current fertility policies negatively, where the policy ineffectiveness and irresponsiveness have further worsened their marriage and childbirth reluctance. Instead of focusing on changes in wage level, this research contributes a qualitative perspective to the existing theoretical debate on the Lewis turning point, implying an inevitable end of demographic dividend in China. Highlighting the greater focus on female consciousness among the younger generation, it also suggests a policy orientation towards resolving outdated social norms to accommodate the rising female consciousness since millennials will become the childbirth mainstay in forthcoming years.

Keywords: lewis model, fertility policy, demographic dividend, one-child policy

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41 Carrot: A Possible Source of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Transmission

Authors: M. Dahiru, O. I. Enabulele

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The research wish to investigate the occurrence of multidrug- resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of carrot in its transmission, in a rapidly growing urban population. Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater irrigation farms and analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates tested against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively. Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A. baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and co-trimoxazole, were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from 37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs tested. There was a similarity in the resistant shown by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones drugs and β- lactame drugs families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Interestingly, when resistant similarities to different antibiotics were compared for A. baumannii and A. lwoffii as a whole, significant correlation was observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%) respectively, and high multi drug resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and overall MDR of 42.11% in all isolates. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.

Keywords: urban agriculture, public health, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, multidrug-resistance

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40 Factors Affecting Households' Decision to Allocate Credit for Livestock Production: Evidence from Ethiopia

Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin, Dereje Legesse

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Access to credit is often viewed as a key to transform semi-subsistence smallholders into market oriented producers. However, only a few studies have examined factors that affect farmers’ decision to allocate credit on farm activities in general and livestock production in particular. A trivariate probit model with double selection is employed to identify factors that affect farmers’ decision to allocate credit on livestock production using data collected from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. After controlling for two sample selection bias – taking credit for the production season and decision to allocate credit on farm activities – land ownership and access to a livestock centered extension service are found to have a significant (p<0.001) effect on farmers decision to use credit for livestock production. The result showed farmers with large land holding, and access to a livestock centered extension services are more likely to utilize credit for livestock production. However since the effect of land ownership squared is negative the effect of land ownership for those who own a large plot of land lessens. The study highlights the fact that improving access to credit does not automatically translate into more productive households. Improving farmers’ access to credit should be followed by a focused extension services.

Keywords: livestock production, credit access, credit allocation, household decision, double sample selection

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39 Categorization of Cattle Farmers Based on Market Participation in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Mohammed Ibrahim Girei

Abstract:

Adamawa state is one the major producers of both crop and animals in Nigeria. Agricultural production serves as the major means livelihood of the people in the state. However, the agricultural activities of the farmers in the state are at subsistence level. However integration of these small scale farmers in local, national and international market is paramount importance. The paper was designed to categorize farmers based on market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The multistage sampling procedure was employed. To achieve this procedure, structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics. The result revealed that the majority of market participants were net sellers (78.51 %) (Sales greater than purchase), net buyers were (purchase greater than sales) 12.95 % and only 9% were autarkic (sales equal purchase). The study recommends that Government should provide more effective security services in cattle farming communities, which is very important as the market participants in the study area were net sellers (producers), it will help in addressing the problem of cattle rustling and promote more investment in cattle industry. There is a need to establish a standard cattle market, veterinary services and grazing reserves in the area so that to facilitate the cattle production and marketing system in the area and to meet up with the challenging of livestock development as a result of rapid human population growth in developing countries like Nigeria.

Keywords: categories, cattle, farmers, market, participation

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38 Nexus Between Agricultural Insurance Scheme and Performance of Agribusiness in Nigeria

Authors: Festus Epetimehin

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Agriculture remains the dominant sector in the rural areas where over 70% of Nigerian reside and it’s still the backbone of our economy. The observed poor performance of farmers in agricultural productivity is due to the nature of risks and uncertainties in agriculture.Agricultural insurance is one of the mechanisms by which farmers can stabilize farm income and investment. The study examined the relationship between agricultural insurance scheme (AIS) and performance of agribusiness in Nigeria. The study adopted exploratory research design which is an ex-ante research approach. One hundred copies of structured questionnaire were administered for the purpose of the study. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were employed for the study. The correlation analysis of the finding revealed that the independent variable; agricultural insurance scheme (AIS) is positively and significantly correlated with the set of dependent variables; where turnover (ABT)=0.582**, profitability (ABP)=0.321**, solvency (ABS)=0.418**and cost of production (ABC)=0.23** respectively. The regression analysis result also revealed the degree of relationship between the independent variable (AIS) and set of dependent variables where one(1%) percent increase in independent variable will lead to 33.9% (ABT), 9.7% (ABP), 17.5%(ABS) and 1.5%(ABC).The study recommended that the Federal Government in collaboration with the participating Agricultural insurers embark on awareness campaign through to the length and breadth of Nigeria on government support and insurance scheme for farmers. Government should also ensure that the loan and insurance scheme should extend beyond the mechanized farmers and include the intensive subsistence farmers in view of the fact that they are the dominants in most of the farm produce markets.

Keywords: agribusiness, agricultural insurance, performance, turnover, solvency, agricultural risks

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37 Assessing the Resilience to Economic Shocks of the Households in Bistekville 2, Quezon City, Philippines

Authors: Maria Elisa B. Manuel

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The Philippine housing sector is bracing challenges with the massive housing backlog and the adamant cycle of relocation, resettlement and returns to the cities of informal settler families due to the vast inaccessibility of necessities and opportunities in the past off-city housing projects. Bistekville 2 has been established as a model socialized housing project by utilizing government partnerships with private developers and individuals in the first in-city and onsite resettlement effort in the country. The study looked into the resilience of the residents to idiosyncratic economic shocks by analyzing their vulnerabilities, assets and coping strategies. The study formulated an economic resilience framework to identify how these factors that interact to build the household’s capacity to positively adapt to sudden expenses in their households. The framework is supplemented with a scale that presents the proximity of the household to resilience by identifying through its indicators whether the households are in the level of subsistence, coping, adaptive or transformative. Survey interviews were conducted with 91 households from Bistekville 2 on the components that have been identified by the framework that was processed with qualitative and quantitative processes. The study has found that the households are highly vulnerable due to their family composition and other conditions such as unhealthy loans, inconsistent amortization payment. Along with their high vulnerability, the households have inadequate strategies to anticipate shocks and primarily react to the shock. This has led to the conclusion that the households do not reflect resilience to idiosyncratic economic shocks and are still at the level of coping.

Keywords: idiosyncratic economic shocks, socialized housing, economic resilience, economic vulnerability, adaptive capacity

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36 Climate-Smart Adaptations to Traditional Milpa Farming Practices in Mayan Communities of Southern Belize

Authors: Kristin Drexler

Abstract:

Climate change has exacerbated food and livelihood insecurity for Mayan milpa farmers in southern Belize, Central America. For centuries, the traditional milpa has been sustainable for subsistence; however, in the past 50 years, it has become less reliable due to accelerating climate change, re-source degradation, declining markets, poverty, and other factors. Increasing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) aspects of existing traditional milpa practices (i.e., no-burn mulching, soil enrichment) may be needed. Using a modified Community Capitals Framework, this study finds four key Community Capitals, Human-Capacity, Financial, Infrastructure, and Governance-Justice Capitals, are barriers for increasing CSA practices in milpa communities. Barriers include lack of CSA technology sharing and pest management (Human-Capacity), unreliable water service and poor roads (Infrastructure), low budget for Extension services, and overall sense of marginalization of Maya communities (Governance-Justice), and closure of small markets and crop-buying programs (Financial). Government action to reduce barriers for these four Capitals can positively influence CSA practices. Increasing CSA aspects of traditional milpa practices can increase crop productivity, promote food and livelihood security, and enable climate resilience of Mayan milpa communities in Belize.

Keywords: socio-ecological systems, sustainability, milpa farming, belize, climate-smart agriculture, food security, community capitals

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35 Role of Social Workers in Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change in Makonde Communal Lands, Zimbabwe

Authors: Louis Nyahunda, Frans Koketso Matlakala, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele

Abstract:

Climate change is among the most vital environmental aspects that the human community is endowed with. Climate as a factor of life is particularly strong to low income rural communities whose livelihoods heavily depend on rain-fed subsistence agriculture like Makonde communal lands. The purpose of social work within the context of climate change is to enhance community expertise and empower members for participation in the decision-making process through all stages of risk assessment, rescue, planning and intervention for recovery and preparedness. This paper sought to explore the role of social workers in mitigating the effects of climate change in Makonde communal lands of Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to identify what roles if any are social workers playing in mitigating the effects of climate change and if not, what are the impediments in that sphere. A qualitative research approach was followed within the traditional framework of descriptive and exploratory designs. Simple random, purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to gather twenty-five participants in the study. The Thematic Content Analysis was followed to analyse data inductively. The study found that Social Workers are not directly involved in climate change interventions in the Makonde area owing it to lack of training on climate change issues. The study recommends that climate change falls within the purview of the social work practice therefore social workers must take the lead in supporting families and communities affected by climate change following the values, knowledge base, skills and principles of the profession.

Keywords: role, social workers, mitigation, climate change, Makonde communal lands

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34 Marketing of Non Timber Forest Products and Forest Management in Kaffa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia

Authors: Amleset Haile

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Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Ethiopia, Kaffa as a source of household income. market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to getther information on elements of marketing system–products, product differentiation, value addition, pricing, promotion, distribution, and marketing chains. The study, therefore, was conducted in Kaffa Biosphere reserve of southwest Ethiopia with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to the conservation of the biosphere reserve and to identify factors influencing in the marketing of the NTFP. Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from Bonga town and availability of NTFP. Formal survey was carried out on rural households selected using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that Local people practice diverse livelihood activities mainly crops cultivation (cereals and cash crops) and livestock husbandry, gather forest products and off-farm/off-forest activities for surviva. NTFP trade is not a common phenomenon in southwest Ethiopia. The greatest opportunity exists for local level marketing of spices and other non timber forest products. Very little local value addition takes place within the region,and as a result local market players have little control. Policy interventions arc required to enhance the returns to local collectors, which will also contribute to sustainable management of forest resources in Kaffa biosphere reserve.

Keywords: forest management, biosphere reserve, marketing, local people

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33 Pyrethroid Resistance and Its Mechanism in Field Populations of the Sand Termite, Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux

Authors: Mai. M. Toughan, Ahmed A. A. Sallam, Ashraf O. Abd El-Latif

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Termites are eusocial insects that are found on all continents except Antarctica. Termites have serious destructive impact, damaging local huts and crops of poor subsistence. The annual cost of termite damage and its control is determined in the billions globally. In Egypt, most of these damages are due to the subterranean termite species especially the sand termite, P. hypostoma. Pyrethroids became the primary weapon for subterranean termite control, after the use of chlorpyrifos as a soil termiticide was banned. Despite the important role of pyrethroids in termite control, its extensive use in pest control led to the eventual rise of insecticide resistance which may make many of the pyrethroids ineffective. The ability to diagnose the precise mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in any insect species would be the key component of its management at specified location for a specific population. In the present study, detailed toxicological and biochemical studies was conducted on the mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in P. hypostoma. The susceptibility of field populations of P. hypostoma against deltamethrin, α-cypermethrin and ƛ-cyhalothrin was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the workers of P. hypostoma have developed high resistance level against the tested pyrethroids. Studies carried out through estimation of detoxification enzyme activity indicated that enhanced esterase and cytochrome P450 activities were probably important mechanisms for pyrethroid resistance in field populations. Elevated esterase activity and also additional esterase isozyme were observed in the pyrethroid-resistant populations compared to the susceptible populations. Strong positive correlation between cytochrome P450 activity and pyrethroid resistance was also reported. |Deltamethrin could be recommended as a resistance-breaking pyrethroid that is active against resistant populations of P. hypostoma.

Keywords: Psammotermes hypostoma, pyrethroid resistance, esterase, cytochrome P450

Procedia PDF Downloads 100