Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1245

Search results for: Abubakar Ahmed

1245 Rainfall-Runoff Forecasting Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

Authors: Ahmed Najah Ahmed Al-Mahfoodh, Ali Najah Ahmed Al-Mahfoodh, Ahmed Al-Shafie

Abstract:

In this study, genetic programming (GP) technique has been investigated in prediction of set of rainfall-runoff data. To assess the effect of input parameters on the model, the sensitivity analysis was adopted. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, three statistical indexes were used, namely; Correlation Coefficient (CC), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Correlation of Efficiency (CE). The principle aim of this study is to develop a computationally efficient and robust approach for predict of rainfall-runoff which could reduce the cost and labour for measuring these parameters. This research concentrates on the Johor River in Johor State, Malaysia.

Keywords: genetic programming, prediction, rainfall-runoff, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1244 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile

Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur

Abstract:

In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.

Keywords: Ahmed body, bi-stability, LES, near wake

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1243 Ethno-Medical Potentials of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. (Periplocaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Ahmed, Zainab Mohammed, Hadiza D. Nuhu, Hamisu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Introduction: The plant Tacazzea apiculata Oliv (Periplocaceae) is widely distributed in tropical West Africa. It is claimed to have multiple uses in traditional medicine among which are its use to treat hemorrhoids, inflammations and cancers. Methods: Ethno-botanical survey through interview and using show-and-tell method of data collection were conducted among Hausa and Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria with the view to document useful information on the numerous claims by the local people on the plant. Results: The results revealed that the plant T. apiculata has relative popularity among the herbalist (38.2 %), nomads (14.8 %) and fishermen (16.0%). The most important uses of the plant in traditional medicine are inflammation (Fedelity level: 25.7 %) and Haemorrhoids (Fedelity level: 17.1 %) Conclusion: These results suggest the relevance of T. apiculata in traditional medicine and as a good candidate for drug Development.

Keywords: ethno-botany, periplocaceae, Tacazzea apiculata, traditional medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1242 Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes for Computations of Flow Around Three-Dimensional Ahmed Bodies

Authors: Maryam Mirzaei, Sinisa Krajnovic´

Abstract:

The paper reports a study about the prediction of flows around simplified vehicles using Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS). Numerical simulations are performed for two simplified vehicles: A slanted-back Ahmed body at Re=30 000 and a square back Ahmed body at Re=300 000. A comparison of the resolved and modeled physical flow scales is made with corresponding LES and experimental data for a better understanding of the performance of the PANS model. The PANS model is compared for coarse and fine grid resolutions and it is indicated that even a coarse-grid PANS simulation is able to produce fairly close flow predictions to those from a well-resolved LES simulation. The results indicate the possibility of improvement of the predictions by employing a finer grid resolution.

Keywords: partially-averaged Navier-Stokes, large eddy simulation, PANS, LES, Ahmed body

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1241 A Survey of the Constraints Associated with the Mechanized Tillage of the Fadama Using Animal Drawn Tillage Implements

Authors: L. G. Abubakar, A. M. El-Okene, M. L. Suleiman, Z. Abubakar

Abstract:

Fadama tillage in Northern Nigeria and in Zaria in particular, has relied on manual labour and corresponding implements which are associated with drudgery, loss of human energy due to bending and reduced productivity. A survey was conducted to study the present tillage practices and determine the constraints associated with the use of animal traction for mechanized tillage of the Fadama. The study revealed that Fadama farmers (mostly aged between 36 and 60 years) use manual labour with tools like small hoe, big hoe and rake to till during the dry season (October of one year to March of the next year). Most of the Fadama farmers believe that tillage operations like ploughing, harrowing and basin making are very important tillage activities in the preparation of seedbeds for crops like green maize, sugarcane and vegetables, but are constrained to using animal traction for tillage due to beliefs like unsuitability of the workbulls and corresponding implements, Fadama soil being too heavy for the system and the non-attainment of deep tillage required by crops like sugarcane and potato. These were affirmed by local blacksmiths of animal traction implements and agricultural officers of government establishments.

Keywords: snimal traction, Fadama, tillage implements, workbulls

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1240 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters

Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman

Abstract:

This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.

Keywords: Sallen-Key, fractance, stability, low-pass filter, analog filter

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1239 Optimization of Scheduling through Altering Layout Using Pro-Model

Authors: Zouhair Issa Ahmed, Ahmed Abdulrasool Ahmed, Falah Hassan Abdulsada

Abstract:

This paper presents a layout of a factory using Pro-Model simulation by choosing the best layout that gives the highest productivity and least work in process. The general problem is to find the best sequence in which jobs pass between the machines which are compatible with the technological constraints and optimal with respect to some performance criteria. The best simulation with Pro-Model program increased productivity and reduced work in process by balancing lines of production compared with the current layout of factory when productivity increased from 45 products to 180 products through 720 hours.

Keywords: scheduling, Pro-Model, simulation, balancing lines of production, layout planning, WIP

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1238 A Comparative Performance of Polyaspartic Acid and Sodium Polyacrylate on Silicate Scale Inhibition

Authors: Ismail Bin Mohd Saaid, Abubakar Abubakar Umar

Abstract:

Despite the successes recorded by Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP) flooding as an effective chemical EOR technique, the combination CEOR is not unassociated with stern glitches, one of which is the scaling of downhole equipment. One of the major issues inside the oil industry is how to control scale formation, regardless of whether it is in the wellhead equipment, down-hole pipelines or even the actual field formation. The best approach to handle the challenge associated with oilfield scale formation is the application of scale inhibitors to avert the scale formation. Chemical inhibitors have been employed in doing such. But due to environmental regulations, the industry have focused on using green scale inhibitors to mitigate the formation of scales. This paper compares the scale inhibition performance of Polyaspartic acid and sodium polyacrylic acid, both commercial green scale inhibitors, in mitigating silicate scales formed during Alkaline/Surfactant/polymer flooding under static conditions. Both PASP and TH5000 are non-threshold inhibitors, therefore their efficiency was only seeing in delaying the deposition of the silicate scales.

Keywords: alkaline/surfactant/polymer flooding (ASP), polyaspartic acid (PASP), sodium polyacrylate (SPA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1237 Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic from Sorghum Husks

Authors: Hannatu Abubakar Sani, Abubakar Umar Birnin Yauri, Aliyu Muhammad, Mujahid Salau, Aminu Musa, Hadiza Adamu Kwazo

Abstract:

The increase in the global population and advances in technology have made plastic materials to have wide applications in every aspect of life. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials and their increasing accumulation in the environment has been a threat to the planet and has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for ‘green’ alternatives for which agricultural waste remains the front liner. Sorghum husk, an agricultural waste with potentials as a raw material in the production of bioplastic, was used in this research to prepare bioplastic using sulphuric acid-catalyzed acetylation process. The prepared bioplastic was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the structure of the prepared bioplastic was confirmed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the product displayed the presence of OH, C-H, C=O, and C-O absorption peaks. The bioplastic obtained is biodegradable and is affected by acid, salt, and alkali to a lesser extent. Other tests like solubility and swelling studies were carried out to ensure the commercial properties of these bioplastic materials. Therefore, this revealed that new bioplastics with better environmental and sustainable properties could be produced from agricultural waste, which may have applications in many industries.

Keywords: agricultural waste, bioplastic, characterization, Sorghum Husk

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1236 Economic Analysis of Cassava Value Chain by Farmers in Ilesa West Local Government Area of Osun State

Authors: Maikasuwa Mohammed Abubakar, Okebiorun Ola, M. H. Sidi, Ala Ahmed Ladan, Ango Aabdullahi Kamba

Abstract:

The study examines the economic analysis of cassava value chain by farmers in Ilesa West Local Government Area of Osun State. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data from 200 respondents from purposively selected wards in the L.G.A. The data collected were analyzed using budgetary analysis and value addition model. The result shows that an average total cost incurred by the input dealers was ₦9,062,127.74 while the average net profit realized was ₦1,038,102.40. Other actors such as producers, processors and marketers incurred an average total cost of ₦23,324.00, ₦130,177.00 and ₦523,755.00 per production season, respectively and the average net profit realized was ₦102,614.00 for cassava producers, ₦51,131.00 for cassava processors and ₦79,045.00 for cassava marketers during cassava production season. Further analysis shows the rate of investment for cassava input dealers was ₦0.1, for cassava producers was ₦4.4, for cassava processors were ₦0.40 and for cassava marketers was ₦0.20. This indicated that rate of return on cassava was higher in cassava production than in others corridors along the value chain of cassava. However, value added the cassava producers (₦102,536.16/season) was the highest when compared with value added by cassava processors (₦51,853.82/season) and cassava marketers (₦100,885.56/season).

Keywords: Cassava, value chain, Ilesa West, Nigeria

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1235 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa

Abstract:

Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus

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1234 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan

Abstract:

This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

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1233 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Ahmed Elsayed Ahmed, Ashraf Hafez, A. N. Ouda, Hossam Eldin Hussein Ahmed, Hala Mohamed ABD-Elkader

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: UAV, equations of motion, modeling, linearization

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1232 An Analysis of Methodological Approaches of Ahmed Cevdet and Fatma Aliye towards the Ottoman Historiography in a Comparative Context

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu Esiner

Abstract:

As an intellectual, scholar, bureaucrat, and statesman, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-1895) was the prominent figure of “Tanzimat” (reorganization) reforms of the Ottoman State while his daughter Fatma Aliye (1862-1936) was a novelist, columnist, essayist, and women’s rights activist. His father had numerous books on law, grammar, linguistics, logic, and astronomy, moreover, Aliye accepted as the first female novelist in the Turkish literature and the Islamic world. Even if she was better known as a novelist, she also published some works on philosophy, Islam, poetry. In addition, Aliye who was one of the pioneers of the Ottoman women’s movement, also wrote historical works. Her historical works which titled as Tarih-i Osmaninin Bir Devre-i Mühimmesi Kosova Zaferi-Ankara Hezimeti (An Important Era of the Ottoman History: Kosova Victory-Ankara Defeat), and Ahmed Cevdet Paşa ve Zamanı (Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and His Time) have been generally ignored in the literature. However, Aliye’s works in history field are worth being studied in terms of her methodological approach to the Ottoman historiography. On the other hand, written by Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, such as Tarih-i Cevdet (History of Cevdet), Tezâkir (Memoir), Mâruzat (Reports, the events that took place between 1839-1876, 1890), Kısas-ı Enbiya ve Tevârîh-i Hulefa (Retaliation of the Prophets and the History of Calips), Kırım ve Kafkas Tarihçesi (Crimean and Caucasian History) are the most important works in terms of historiography in the 19th century. In contrast to the traditional methodology, Cevdet Pasha brought a new understanding to the Ottoman historiography by making a synthesis between the traditional and modern methods. In this research, the historical works of these two prominent figures of the Ottoman State will be analyzed in terms of their approaches to the Ottoman historiography while evaluating the following questions: to what extent that their use of local and foreign historical sources and their handling of the historical events differ, or if it is possible to talk about a methodological similarities in terms of historiography.

Keywords: Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Fatma Aliye, historiography, methodology

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1231 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

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1230 Comparative Study for Power Systems Transient Stability Improvement Using SFCL ,SVC,TCBR

Authors: Sabir Messalti, Ahmed Gherbi, Ahmed Bouchlaghem

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative study for power systems transient stability improvement using three FACTS devices: the SVC(Static Var Compensator), the Thyristor Control Breaking Resistor (TCBR) and superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL)The transient stability is assessed by the criterion of relative rotor angles. Critical Clearing Time (CCT) is used as an index for evaluated transient stability. The present study is tested on the WSCC3 nine-bus system in the case of three-phase short circuit fault on one transmission line.

Keywords: SVC, TCBR, SFCL, power systems transient stability improvement

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1229 Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah

Abstract:

The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Keywords: eigenvalues, eigenvectors, population, growth/stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1228 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeans

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1227 Investigating the Influence of Roof Fairing on Aerodynamic Drag of a Bluff Body

Authors: Kushal Kumar Chode

Abstract:

Increase in demand for fuel saving and demand for faster vehicles with decent fuel economy, researchers around the world started investigating in various passive flow control devices to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles. In this paper, A roof fairing was investigated for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff body. The bluff body considered for this work is Ahmed model with a rake angle of 25deg was and subjected to flow with a velocity of 40m/s having Reynolds number of 2.68million was analysed using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code Star CCM+. It was evident that pressure drag is the main source of drag on an Ahmed body from the initial study. Adding a roof fairing has delayed the flow separation and resulted in delaying wake formation, thus improving the pressure in near weak and reducing the wake region. Adding a roof fairing of height and length equal to 1/7H and 1/3L respectively has shown a drag reduction by 9%. However, an optimised fairing, which was obtained by changing height, length and width by 5% increase, recorded a drag reduction close 12%.

Keywords: Ahmed model, aerodynamic drag, passive flow control, roof fairing, wake formation

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1226 Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats

Authors: Sani Ismaila, Shafiu Yau, Abubakar Salisu, Buhari Salisu, Sharifat Balogun, Mustapha Abubakar, Biobaku Khalid, Agaie Bello

Abstract:

Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p <0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p<0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p<0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.

Keywords: analgesia, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective effect, japanese quail egg

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1225 Aesthetic and Social Vision in Abubakar Gimba’s a Toast in the Cemetery

Authors: James Funsho Tope

Abstract:

Being the prolific writer that he is, Gimba’s collection of Short Stories, A Toast in the Cemetery, brings out the themes of decay and corruption in the urban setting through the use of images, symbols, setting and character. Gimba seeks through these media to reveal the decay and corruption in the society. Gimba uses aesthetics to convey his message, thus making a call for change in the fabrics of society.

Keywords: corruption, decay, character, setting, symbolism, images, society

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1224 Optimal Design of Substation Grounding Grid Based on Genetic Algorithm Technique

Authors: Ahmed Z. Gabr, Ahmed A. Helal, Hussein E. Said

Abstract:

With the incessant increase of power systems capacity and voltage grade, the safety of grounding grid becomes more and more prominent. In this paper, the designing substation grounding grid is presented by means of genetic algorithm (GA). This approach purposes to control the grounding cost of the power system with the aid of controlling grounding rod number and conductor lengths under the same safety limitations. The proposed technique is used for the design of the substation grounding grid in Khalda Petroleum Company “El-Qasr” power plant and the design was simulated by using CYMGRD software for results verification. The result of the design is highly complying with IEEE 80-2000 standard requirements.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimum grounding grid design, power system analysis, power system protection, single layer model, substation

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1223 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Ali Elheber Ahmed

Abstract:

Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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1222 MY ATBU: A Rebranding Campaign Using Promotional Products

Authors: Azeez Ayodele

Abstract:

Promotional products take symbolic roles, they can become an emblem, and they can become part of a rebrand and even be a brand itself. Promotional products express both an institution’s inspirations and its aspirations; it can reflect a continuum. This stimulates the interest of the study, which is to examine the impact of rebranding Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria, using promotional products. It examines the concept of rebranding with the aim to discuss the effectiveness of the promotional products in branding higher educational sector that needs to be assessed and measured. Therefore, some measures of branding activities are proposed. Conclusion suggests that university rebranding is effective and the use of a commercial approach can be easier.

Keywords: branding, higher education, promotional products, rebranding

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1221 Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria

Authors: S. B. Tende, H. L. Abubakar

Abstract:

It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.

Keywords: culture, entrepreneurial ethics, performance, SME

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1220 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu

Abstract:

Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: women, entrepreneurs, issues, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1219 A New Floating Point Implementation of Base 2 Logarithm

Authors: Ahmed M. Mansour, Ali M. El-Sawy, Ahmed T. Sayed

Abstract:

Logarithms reduce products to sums and powers to products; they play an important role in signal processing, communication and information theory. They are primarily used for hardware calculations, handling multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots effectively. There are three commonly used bases for logarithms; the logarithm with base-10 is called the common logarithm, the natural logarithm with base-e and the binary logarithm with base-2. This paper demonstrates different methods of calculation for log2 showing the complexity of each and finds out the most accurate and efficient besides giving in- sights to their hardware design. We present a new method called Floor Shift for fast calculation of log2, and then we combine this algorithm with Taylor series to improve the accuracy of the output, we illustrate that by using two examples. We finally compare the algorithms and conclude with our remarks.

Keywords: logarithms, log2, floor, iterative, CORDIC, Taylor series

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1218 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty

Abstract:

In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

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1217 The Element of Episode and Idea in the Descriptive Poetry of Hutai'A

Authors: Abubakar Ismaila Yusuf

Abstract:

This research studied element of episode (events) and idea in the descriptive poetry of Hutai’a with the intention to sale the opinion of this type of analysis to others, and also encourage and open door for researchers that thinks only in drama and novel those elements can be implemented. The research uses explanatory method to point out the element of episode and ideology from the said poetry to show that the same element of drama can be seen in poetry. The research finds that element of drama and novel can be seen and implemented analytically in dramatic and some descriptive poetry and its likes. The researcher finally advice colleague to widened scope of research and always think of modernizing it.

Keywords: Hutai'a, poetry, drama, novel

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1216 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Ahmed Bakry, Moustafa Ahmed

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 486