Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Okafor Joachim Chukwuma

48 Educating Farmers and Fishermen in Rural Areas in Nigeria on Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation for Global Sustainability

Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye, Okafor Joachim Chukwuma, Olamire James

Abstract:

The impacts of climate change are greatly felt on Nigeria’s agricultural sector which in turn affects the economy of the nation. There is an urgent need to educate farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria on climate change adaptation and mitigation for sustainable development. Through our literature and participant observation, it has been discovered that many farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria have little or no knowledge about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper seeks to draw the attention of policy makers in government, private sectors, non-governmental organizations and interested individuals to the need to seek for innovative ways of educating farmers and fishermen in rural areas about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability. This study also explores the effective methods of bridging the communication gaps through efficient information dissemination, intensive awareness outreach, use of climate change poems and blogs, innovative loan scheme to farmers and fishermen, etc. to help ensure that farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria are adequately educated about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, farmers, fishermen

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
47 Innovative Power Engineering in a Selected Rural Commune

Authors: Pawel Sowa, Joachim Bargiel

Abstract:

This paper presents modern solutions of distributed generation in rural communities aiming at the improvement of energy and environmental security, as well as power supply reliability to important customers (e.g. health care, sensitive consumer required continuity). Distributed sources are mainly gas and biogas cogeneration units, as well as wind and photovoltaic sources. Some examples of their applications in a selected Silesian community are given.

Keywords: energy security, mini energy centres , power engineering, power supply reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
46 Forms and Aesthetics In Our Community Buildings

Authors: Anya Chukwuma, Eme Mekwa

Abstract:

The term ‘’FORM’’ in design could be referred to as the combination of various shapes of different sizes and assembling them in appropriate positions to achieve a unique figure of high aesthetic value. A deduction from this definition is that forms contribute immensely to the actualization of aesthetics in a building. When these various shapes and figures are properly assembled, it may give rise to a concept in design. However some architects and other designers either misuse or abuse the use of these shapes, hence resulting to a design imbalance, lack of uniformity, and expression. This academic work is designed to educate the public on the proper usage of some regular shapes like circles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, triangles, etc., to achieve a unique form in design. By the end of this work, one should be able to assemble different shapes to express different emotions of the mind, such as peace, love, confusion, war, and unity. Some elements of design such as balance, stability, functionality, and aesthetics will also be achieved even as the building maintains its unique form.

Keywords: forms, shapes, concept, aesthetics

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45 Forms and Aesthetics in Buildings

Authors: Anya Chukwuma, Iwuagwu Ben, Kingsley Chukwuemeka

Abstract:

The term 'form' in design could be referred to as the combination of various shapes of different sizes and assembling them in appropriate positions to achieve a unique figure of high aesthetic value. A deduction from this definition is that forms contribute immensely to the actualization of aesthetics in a building. When these various shapes and figures are properly assembled, it may give rise to a concept in design. However some architects and other designers either misuse or abuse the use of these shapes, hence resulting to a design imbalance, lack of uniformity and expression. This academic work is designed to educate the public on the proper usage of some regular shapes like circles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, triangles etc., to achieve a unique form in design. By the end of this work, one should be able to assemble different shapes to express different emotions of the mind such as peace, love, confusion, war, and unity. Some elements of design such as balance, stability, functionality and aesthetics will also be achieved even as the building maintains its unique form.

Keywords: aesthetics, concept, form, shapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
44 Potential Hydrocarbon Degraders Present in Oil from WWII Wrecks in the Pacific

Authors: Awei Bainivalu, Joachim Larsen, Logesh Panneerselvan, Toby Mills, Brett Neilan, Megharaj Mallavarapu

Abstract:

World War II (WWII) shipwrecks harbour up to 20 million tonnes of oil. More than 3000 wrecks are in the Pacific Ocean; 300 are oil tankers. Compared to other oil removal methods, bioremediation is environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Oil's microbial community and hydrocarbon properties from the Pacific WWII wrecks were identified. Dominant phyla are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Native marine bacteria oil-degraders were isolated for bioremediation. Petroleum degradation data from the bacterial consortium will be analyzed over the next three months.

Keywords: oil bioremediation, marine bacteria, WWII shipwrecks, pacific

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
43 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

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42 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani

Abstract:

A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
41 Investigation of Water Transport Dynamics in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Based on a Gas Diffusion Media Layers

Authors: Saad S. Alrwashdeh, Henning Markötter, Handri Ammari, Jan Haußmann, Tobias Arlt, Joachim Scholta, Ingo Manke

Abstract:

In this investigation, synchrotron X-ray imaging is used to study water transport inside polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Two measurement techniques are used, namely in-situ radiography and quasi-in-situ tomography combining together in order to reveal the relationship between the structures of the microporous layers (MPLs) and the gas diffusion layers (GDLs), the operation temperature and the water flow. The developed cell is equipped with a thick GDL and a high back pressure MPL. It is found that these modifications strongly influence the overall water transport in the whole adjacent GDM.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, microporous layer, water transport, radiography, tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
40 Skills Needed Amongst Secondary School Students for Artificial Intelligence Development in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Chukwuma Mgboji

Abstract:

Since the advent of Artificial Intelligence, robots have become a major stay in developing societies. Robots are deployed in Education, Health, Food and in other spheres of life. Nigeria a country in West Africa has a very low profile in the advancement of Artificial Intelligence especially in the grass roots. The benefits of Artificial intelligence are not fully maximised and harnessed. Advances in artificial intelligence are perceived as impossible or observed as irrelevant. This study seeks to ascertain the needed skills for the development of artificialintelligence amongst secondary schools in Nigeria. The study focused on South East Nigeria with Five states namely Imo, Abia, Ebonyi, Anambra and Enugu. The sample size is 1000 students drawn from Five Government owned Universities offering Computer Science, Computer Education, Electronics Engineering across the Five South East states. Survey method was used to solicit responses from respondents. The findings from the study identified mathematical skills, analytical skills, problem solving skills, computing skills, programming skills, algorithm skills amongst others. The result of this study to the best of the author’s knowledge will be highly beneficial to all stakeholders involved in the advancements and development of artificial intelligence.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, secondary school, robotics, skills

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39 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, electrodeposition, optical band gap, optical conductivity, electrical conductivity

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38 Historical Analysis of Nigeria Politics, 1960–2010

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

Abstract:

Nigeria as nation got independence in 1960 from British government which allowed indigenous people to form self-government and rule themselves base on the acceptable laws and orders provided by indigenes. All citizens saw it as a welcome development that gave them opportunity to develop at their own pace. Certainly, this occurred at the first instance up to the first republic of 1963. But things became worse for the country when the first military coup of January 15, 1966 sowed apple of discord between the three major tribes in Nigeria Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo as a result of miscarriage of well-conceived plan of master-minder of that coup Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Although, the argument had emanated from different quarters that if Nigeria was given opportunity to develop at the pace it was going at that time probably the Nigeria would have been among developed nation today, but that ill-fated coup was a clog in the wheel of nation’s progress. The base of this argument is that Nigeria achievements after independence still depend on the work of leaders who secure independence and also directed the affairs of nation within that short period of time up till today. Since then Nigeria has been grasping with different system of government, yet, the nation is still far from the solution. This paper will analyze Nigeria politics from independence, offer suggestion on the way forward. The source is strictly base on secondary source from textbook, newspapers, internet and journals.

Keywords: politics, government, independence, development

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37 The Influence of Torquato Tasso's Poetry on Monteverdi's Madrigals

Authors: Christian Giddings

Abstract:

Using rhetorical analysis, this paper analyzes thirteen madrigalian settings of Torquato Tasso's (1544-1595) poetry by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) published between 1587 (Book One) and 1619 (Book Seven). Such analysis suggests that the composer consistently responded to the expressivity and increased formal freedom typical of Tasso's poetry by making greater use of musico-rhetorical figures, as described by the German theorist Joachim Burmeister (1564-1629) in his treatise Musica poetica (1606). The use of rhetorical analysis when examining the influence of the poet Tasso on Monteverdi can illustrate the influence of literary components on music. One cannot overestimate the importance of these texts and their influence on composers of the day. The evidence presented in this paper strongly suggests that exposure to the poems of Torquato Tasso early in his career encouraged Claudio Monteverdi to increasingly adopt a more rhetorical approach in his madrigal compositions.

Keywords: Claudio Monteverdi, musico-rhetorical analysis, renaissance, torquato tasso

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36 Intelligent Swarm-Finding in Formation Control of Multi-Robots to Track a Moving Target

Authors: Anh Duc Dang, Joachim Horn

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach to control robots, which can quickly find their swarm while tracking a moving target through the obstacles of the environment. In this approach, an artificial potential field is generated between each free-robot and the virtual attractive point of the swarm. This artificial potential field will lead free-robots to their swarm. The swarm-finding of these free-robots dose not influence the general motion of their swarm and nor other robots. When one singular robot approaches the swarm then its swarm-search will finish, and it will further participate with its swarm to reach the position of the target. The connections between member-robots with their neighbours are controlled by the artificial attractive/repulsive force field between them to avoid collisions and keep the constant distances between them in ordered formation. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified in simulations.

Keywords: formation control, potential field method, obstacle avoidance, swarm intelligence, multi-agent systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
35 Modeling and Optimization of Performance of Four Stroke Spark Ignition Injector Engine

Authors: A. A. Okafor, C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. G. Ozoegwu

Abstract:

The performance of an engine whose basic design parameters are known can be predicted with the assistance of simulation programs into the less time, cost and near value of actual. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine. The essence of this research work is to develop a mathematical model for the analysis of engine performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine before embarking on full scale construction, this will ensure that only optimal parameters are in the design and development of an engine and also allow to check and develop the design of the engine and it’s operation alternatives in an inexpensive way and less time, instead of using experimental method which requires costly research test beds. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the performance parameters (sfc, thermal efficiency, mep and A/F). The equations were used to simulate and optimize the engine performance of the model for various engine speeds. The optimal values obtained for the developed bivariate mathematical models are: sfc is 0.2833kg/kwh, efficiency is 28.77% and a/f is 20.75.

Keywords: bivariate models, engine performance, injector engine, optimization, performance parameters, simulation, spark ignition

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34 On-Farm Diversification in Vietnam: Determinants and Trends

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung, Joachim Aurbacher

Abstract:

This study aims to measure the level of on-farm diversification in Vietnam. The empirical results of the research carried out reflect regional differences in terms of on-farm diversification and its determinants. Households in the northern regions have adapted to the fragmented and small-sized parcels of land held by diversifying their on-farm activities. In contrast, the Mekong delta region in the south of Vietnam is characterized by larger agricultural parcels and a specialization in rice production. Land use fragmentation, as reflected by a large number of plots in a given area, is one of the most important reasons for the high levels of on-farm diversification seen, while the higher share of non-farm income in total income is the reason of lower levels of on-farm diversification. Households have reacted to natural and economic shocks by diversifying their on-farm activities. The non-stationary Markov chain model used here shows various diversification scenarios and trends. In most cases, on-farm diversification generally tends to reduce over the next few years.

Keywords: diversification, simpson index, fixed effects, non-stationary markov chain

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33 Technical and Economic Environment in the Polish Power System as the Basis for Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Sources Development

Authors: Pawel Sowa, Joachim Bargiel, Bogdan Mol, Katarzyna Luszcz

Abstract:

The article raises the issue of the development of local renewable energy sources and the production of distributed energy in context of improving the reliability of the Polish Power System and the beneficial impact on local and national energy security. The paper refers to the current problems of local governments in the process of investment in the area of distributed energy projects, and discusses the issues of the future role and cooperation within the local power plants and distributed energy. Attention is paid to the local communities the chance to raise their own resources and management of energy fuels (biomass, wind, gas mining) and improving the local energy balance. The material presented takes the issue of the development of the energy potential of municipalities and future cooperation with professional energy. As an example, practical solutions used in one of the communes in Silesia.

Keywords: distributed generation, mini centers energy, renewable energy sources, reliability of supply of rural commune

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
32 Fermentable Bio-Ethanol Using Bakers and Palmwine Yeasts: Indices of Bioavailability of Carbohydrate and Sugar from Fungal Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen, Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel

Abstract:

Pure strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), aspergillus niger (AN), aspergillus oryzae (AO), trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), trichophyton rubrum (TR) and Trichophyton soudanense (TS) were isolated from decomposing rice husk. Freshly processed rice husk in Mandle’s medium were heat pre-treated using an autoclave at 121oC for 20 minutes. The isolated fungi as monoculture and di-culture combinations were inoculated into each of the pre-treated rice husk with the exception of two controls. Seven days hydrolysis was followed by estimation of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar. Fungal treated rice husks were left to ferment for 7 days with introduction of both baker’s and palm wine yeast. The result obtained in the work gave the highest carbohydrate (20.53 ± 2.73 %) from rice husks treated with TS + TR di-culture. The highest soluble reducing sugar (2.66 ± 0.14 %) was obtained from rice husk treated with TM. The highest soluble nonreducing sugar (18.08 ± 2.61 %) was from AF. The introduction of yeasts from palm wine gave the highest bio-ethanol (12.82 ± 0.39 %) from AO. The highest bio-ethanol (6.60 ± 0.10 %) from baker's yeast fermentation was in AO + TS treated rice husk. There was increased availability of sugar and moderate yield of bio-ethanol, especially from palm wine yeast.

Keywords: fungi, rice husk, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, ethanol, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
31 Plasma Lipid Profiles and Atherogenic Indices of Rats Fed Raw and Processed Jack Fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds Diets at Different Concentrations

Authors: O. E. Okafor, L. U. S. Ezeanyika, C. G. Nkwonta, C. J. Okonkwo

Abstract:

The effect of processing on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed Artocarpus heterophyllus seed diets at different concentrations were investigated. Fifty five rats were used for this study, they were divided into eleven groups of five rats each (one control group and ten test groups), the test groups were fed raw, boiled, roasted, fermented, and soaked diets at 10 % and 40% concentrations. The study lasted for thirty five days. The diets led to significant decrease (p < 0.05) in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol of rats fed 10% and 40% concentrations of the diets, and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 40% concentrations of the test diets. The diets also produced decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), cardiac risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherogenic coefficient (AC) at 40% concentrations except the soaked group that showed slight elevation of LDL, CRR, AC and AIP at 40% concentration. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds could be beneficial to health because of its ability to increase plasma HDL and reduce plasma LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic indices at higher diet concentration.

Keywords: artocarpus heterophyllus, atherogenic indices, concentrations, lipid profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
30 Repair Workshop Queue System Modification Using Priority Scheme

Authors: C. Okonkwo Ugochukwu, E. Sinebe Jude, N. Odoh Blessing, E. Okafor Christian

Abstract:

In this paper, a modification on repair workshop queuing system using multi priority scheme was carried out. Chi square goodness of fit test was used to determine the random distribution of the inter arrival time and service time of crankshafts that come for maintenance in the workshop. The chi square values obtained for all the prioritized classes show that the distribution conforms to Poisson distribution. The mean waiting time in queue results of non-preemptive priority for 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes show 0.066, 0.09, and 0.224 day respectively, while preemptive priority show 0.007, 0.036 and 0.258 day. However, when non priority is used, which obviously has no class distinction it amounts to 0.17 days. From the results, one can observe that the preemptive priority system provides a very dramatic improvement over the non preemptive priority as it concerns arrivals that are of higher priority. However, the improvement has a detrimental effect on the low priority class. The trend of the results is similar to the mean waiting time in the system as a result of addition of the actual service time. Even though the mean waiting time for the queue and that of the system for no priority takes the least time when compared with the least priority, urgent and semi-urgent jobs will terribly suffer which will most likely result in reneging or balking of many urgent jobs. Hence, the adoption of priority scheme in this type of scenario will result in huge profit to the Company and more customer satisfaction.

Keywords: queue, priority class, preemptive, non-preemptive, mean waiting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
29 Food and Feeding Habit of Clarias anguillaris in Tagwai Reservoir, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: B. U. Ibrahim, A. Okafor

Abstract:

Sixty-two (62) samples of Clarias anguillaris were collected from Tagwai Reservoir and used for the study. 29 male and 33 female samples were obtained for the study. Body measurement indicated that different sizes were collected for the study. Males, females and combined sexes had standard length and total length means of 26.56±4.99 and 31.13±6.43, 27.17±5.21 and 30.62±5.43, 26.88±5.08 and 30.86±5.88 cm, respectively. The weights of males, females and combined sexes have mean weights of 241.10±96.27, 225.75±78.66 and 232.93±86.95 gm, respectively. Eight items; fish, insects, plant materials, sand grains, crustaceans, algae, detritus and unidentified items were eaten as food by Clarias anguilarias in Tagwai Reservoir. Frequency of occurrence and numerical methods used in stomach contents analysis indicated that fish was the highest, followed by insect, while the lowest was the algae. Frequency of stomach fullness of Clarias anguillaris showed low percentage of empty stomachs or stomachs without food (21.00%) and high percentage of stomachs with food (79.00%), which showed high abundance of food and high feeding intensity during the period of study. Classification of fish based on feeding habits showed that Clarias anguillaris in this study is an omnivore because it consumed both plant and animal materials.

Keywords: stomach content, feeding habit, Clarias anguillaris, Tagwai Reservoir

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28 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Proximate, Functional, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Weaning Foods Formulated from Maize (Zea mays) and Soybean (Glycine max) Flour Blends

Authors: C. O. Agu, C. C. Okafor

Abstract:

Maize and soybean flours were produced using different methods of processing which include fermentation (FWF), roasting (RWF) and malting (MWF). Products from the different methods were mixed in the ratio 60:40 maize/soybean, respectively. These composites mixed with other ingredients such as sugar, vegetable oil, vanilla flavour and vitamin mix were analyzed for proximate composition, physical/functional, sensory and nutritional properties. The results for the protein content ranged between 6.25% and 16.65% with sample RWF having the highest value. Crude fibre values ranged from 3.72 to 10.0%, carbohydrate from 58.98% to 64.2%, ash from 1.27 to 2.45%. Physical and functional properties such as bulk density, wettability, gelation capacity have values between 0.74 and 0.76g/ml, 20.33 and 46.33 min and 0.73 to 0.93g/ml, respectively. On the sensory quality colour, flavour, taste, texture and general acceptability were determined. In terms of colour and flavour there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) while the values for taste ranged between 4.89 and 7.1 l, texture 5.50 to 8.38 and general acceptability 6.09 and 7.89. Nutritionally there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sample RWF and the control in all parameters considered. Samples FWF and MWF showed significantly (P < 0.5) lower values in all parameters determined. In the light of the above findings, roasting method is highly recommend in the production of weaning foods.

Keywords: fermentation, malting, ratio, roasting, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
27 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: broiler, diet, dietary, potato leaves, wheat offal

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
26 Governing Urban Water Infrasystems: A Case Study of Los Angeles in the Context of Global Frameworks

Authors: Joachim Monkelbaan, Marcia Hale

Abstract:

Now that global frameworks for sustainability governance (e.g. the Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Climate Agreement and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction) are in place, the question is how these aspirations that represent major transitions can be put into practice. Water ‘infrasystems’ can play an especially significant role in strengthening regional sustainability. Infrasystems include both hard and soft infrastructure, such as pipes and technology for delivering water, as well as the institutions and governance models that direct its delivery. As such, an integrated infrasystems view is crucial for Integrative Water Management (IWM). Due to frequently contested ownership of and responsibility for water resources, these infrasystems can also play an important role in facilitating conflict and catalysing community empowerment, especially through participatory approaches to governance. In this paper, we analyze the water infrasystem of the Los Angeles region through the lens of global frameworks for sustainability governance. By complementing a solid overview of governance theories with empirical data from interviews with water actors in the LA metropolitan region (including NGOs, water managers, scientists and elected officials), this paper elucidates ways for this infrasystem to be better aligned with global sustainability frameworks. In addition, it opens up the opportunity to scrutinize the appropriateness of global frameworks when it comes to fostering sustainability action at the local level.

Keywords: governance, transitions, global frameworks, infrasystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
25 Comparative Growth Rates of Treculia africana Decne: Embryo in Varied Strengths of Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

Authors: Okafor C. Uche, Agbo P. Ejiofor, Okezie C. Eziuche

Abstract:

This study provides a regeneration protocol for Treculia africana Decne (an endangered plant) through embryo culture. Mature zygotic embryos of T. africana were excised from the seeds aseptically and cultured on varied strengths (full, half and quarter) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented. All treatments experienced 100±0.00 percent sprouting except for half and quarter strengths. Plantlets in MS full strength had the highest fresh weight, leaf area, and longest shoot length when compared to other treatments. All explants in full, half, quarter strengths and control had the same number of leaves and sprout rate. Between the treatments, there was a significant difference (P>0.05) in their effect on the length of shoot and root, number of adventitious root, leaf area, and fresh weight. Full strength had the highest mean value in all the above-mentioned parameters and differed significantly (P>0.05) from others except in shoot length, number of adventitious roots, and root length where it did not differ (P<0.05) from half strength. The result of this study indicates that full strength MS basal medium offers a better option for the optimum growth for Treculia africana regeneration in vitro.

Keywords: medium strengths, Murashige and Skoog, Treculia africana, zygotic embryos

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
24 Experimental Evaluation of Stand Alone Solar Driven Membrane Distillation System

Authors: Mejbri Sami, Zhani Khalifa, Zarzoum Kamel, Ben Bacha Habib, Koschikowski Joachim, Pfeifle Daniel

Abstract:

Many places worldwide, especially arid and semi-arid remote regions, are suffering from the lack of drinkable water and the situation will be aggravated in the near future. Furthermore, remote areas are characterised by lack of conventional energy sources, skilled personnel and maintenance facilities. Therefore, the development of small to medium size, stand-alone and robust solar desalination systems is needed to provide independent fresh water supply in remote areas. This paper is focused on experimental studies on compact membrane distillation (MD) solar desalination prototype located at the Mechanical Engineering Department site, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia. The pilot system is designed and manufactured as a part of a research and development project funded by the MESRS/BMBF. The pilot system is totally autonomous. The electrical energy required to operate the unit is generated through a field of 4 m² of photovoltaic panels, and the heating of feed water is provided by a field of 6 m² of solar collectors. The Kairouan plant performance of the first few months of operation is presented. The highest freshwater production of 150 L/d is obtained on a sunny day in July of 633 W/m²d.

Keywords: experimental, membrane distillation, solar desalination, Permeat gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
23 Housing Delivery in Nigeria’s Urban Areas: The Plight of the Poor in Owerri, Capital of Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Joachim Onyike

Abstract:

The Federal Government of Nigeria in 2012 came up with a new National Housing Policy; one of its major objectives was to make housing affordable to the poor. Six years down the line, this study was carried out to find out whether the poor have fared better under the new housing policy. Owerri, the capital of Imo State, was adopted as a case study to mirror the situation nationwide. The study population was made up of low-income civil servants, i.e., grade levels 1–6 in the Imo State Civil Service. The study looked at household size, household income, rental levels, house prices, costs of major building materials, land values, land tenure, the interest rate on mortgages, inflation rate, and the status of government interventions, owing to their obvious effect on housing affordability by the low-income earners. The study made use of physical observations, questionnaires, and interviews as well as library studies to elicit relevant information. Housing affordability by the subject population did not improve. It rather dropped. The study came to the conclusion that in spite of the new National Housing Policy, housing affordability by the low-income earners has not improved. The policy as it affects the poor has not been duly implemented by both Federal and State Governments.

Keywords: house prices, housing affordability, housing policy, land values, low-income earners

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22 Plantlet Regeneration from Zygotic Embryos of Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen

Authors: Uche C. Okafor, Nwanneka M. Okpokwu, Felix Nwafor, Carl E. A. Okezie

Abstract:

Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Violet tree) belongs to the family Polygalaceae characterised by papillionaceous purplish flowers. This medicinally valued plant disappears at an alarming rate due to intensified anthropopressure particularly the unregulated manner of subterranean plant parts' collection from natural stands. Some indiscriminately harvested plants bear seeds containing both mature and immature zygotic embryos that are often discarded. Here, such seeds are collected for this experiment. Seeds were collected, washed, de-coated, and dipped in 70 % (v/v) ethanol for 30 s followed by rising in 5 % solution sodium hypochlorite, containing two drops of tween 20, for another 25 min. Mature zygotic embryos (MZEs) were excised from seeds and cultured in two basal media (MS and B5), three carbon sources (sucrose, glucose and fructose) at five concentrations (0-40 g/L) while immature zygotic embryos (iMZEs) were composed on similar basal media and carbon source supplemented with 0-2 mg/L Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0-2 mg/L Indole acetic acid (IAA). MZEs cultured on MS + 30g/L sucrose differed significantly from other treatments at p≤0.05 with maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm). MZEs culture had the maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm) in medium containing MS+ 30g L-1 sucrose. iMZEs on the other hand had maximum growth on MS + 40g/L sucrose supplemented with 1.5 mg/L IAA+ 1.0 mg/L BAP. This study is a geared towards creating an alternative path for the maximum production of plants in vitro, thereby, preventing the plants from disappearing.

Keywords: Gamborg's medium, Murashige and Skoog medium, Securidaca longepedunculata, zygotic embryos

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21 Factors Associated with Oral Cavity Colonization by Candida albicans

Authors: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka, Nwafia Walter Chukwuma

Abstract:

Since the early 1980’s fungi have emerged as major causes of human diseases, especially among immunocompromised. The most commonly isolated yeast is Candida albicans and constitutes the 4th most common nosocomial BSI in humans. It is progressive and cumulative and become more complex over time.It can even lead to leaky gut syndrome that causes food and environmental allergies. It is worthy of note that all the available data on oral Candida risk factors in humans were documented essentially using data from studies conducted in other areas, hence there is need for comparative and complementary information from the South eastern part of Nigeria. Method: 200 subjects of all age groups of both sexes were randomly examined,by swabbing their palatine mucosa and dorsal tongue with sterile cotton wool,then cultured into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with antibiotics and incubated aerobically at 37 degree for 48 hrs. Identification of Candida albicans was done by germ tubes tests, chlamydospores production on cornmeal agar supplemented with 1% Tween 80.Sugar and nitrogen assimilation test using API 20C Auxanogram and potassium nitrate agar. Results: Out of 30 samples that were positive for candida, 15 (50%) were candida albicans. Using the anova test (P < 0.05) this variation is significant (P = 0016). followed by C. dublinensis 3 (13%), C. tropicalis 3 (10%), C. pseudotropicalis 3 (10%), C, glabrata 2 (7%), C. parapsilosis 2 (7%) and lastly C. krusei 1 (3%).However, 53% of the patients were female while 47% were male. Among the HIV positive isolates.67% were HIV isolates not on drugs while 33% positives isolates were on drugs and the percentages of candida species in these patients were as follows C. albicans were 45% followed by C. glabrata and C.tropicalis which were 17% each, C.parapsilosis, C.dubliensis and C.pseudotropicalis were all 8% each. Conclusion: Oral Candidiasis is a marker of systemic diseases and in some cases, it may be the first clinical presentation. There is need for more intensive clinical and laboratory monitoring and possible early intervention to prevent the reoccurrence and resistance to treatment.

Keywords: oral cavity, Candida species, oral Candidiasis, risk factors

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20 Optimization of Biomass Components from Rice Husk Treated with Trichophyton Soudanense and Trichophyton Mentagrophyte and Effect of Yeast on the Bio-Ethanol Yield

Authors: Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ikechukwu N. E. Onwurah, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Chibuike S. Ubani, Chigozie M. Ejikeme

Abstract:

Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte were isolated from the rice mill environment, cultured and used singly and as di-culture in the treatment of measure quantities of preheated rice husk. Optimized conditions studied showed that carboxymethylcellulase (CMCellulase) activity of 57.61 µg/ml/min was optimum for Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk crude enzymes at 50oC and 80oC respectively. Duration of 120 hours (5 days) gave the highest CMcellulase activity of 75.84 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk. However, 96 hours (4 days) duration gave maximum activity of 58.21 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton soudanense heat pretreated rice husk. Highest CMCellulase activities of 67.02 µg/ml/min and 69.02 µg/ml/min at pH of 5 were recorded for crude enzymes of monocultures of Trichophyton soudanense (TS) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) heat pretreated rice husk respectively. Biomass components showed that rice husk cooled after heating followed by treatment with Trichophyton mentagrophyte gave 44.50 ± 10.90 (% ± Standard Error of Mean) cellulose as the highest yield. Maximum total lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 (% ± SEM) was obtained from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM). The hemicellulose content of 30.50 ± 2.12 (% ± SEM) from pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton soudanense (TS); lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM); also carbohydrate content of 16.79 ± 9.14 (% ± SEM) , reducing and non-reducing sugar values of 2.66 ± 0.45 and 14.13 ± 8.69 (% ± SEM) were all obtained from for pre- heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM). All the values listed above were the highest values obtained from each rice husk treatment. The pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) fermented with palmwine yeast gave bio-ethanol value of 11.11 ± 0.21 (% ± Standard Deviation) as the highest yield.

Keywords: Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, biomass, bioethanol, rice husk

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19 Dead Bodies that Matter: A Consensual Qualitative Research on the Lived Experience of Embalmers

Authors: Mark N. Abello, Betina Velanie L. Cruz, Angelo Joachim D. C. De Castro, Arnel A. Diego, John Ezequel V. Murillo

Abstract:

Embalmers are widely recognized as someone who mends the cadavers, but behind that is a great deal of work. These professionals are competent in physiology, chemicals, and cosmetics. Another is that such professionals face cadavers day-to-day. Given this background, the researchers intended to find out the lived experience of embalmers. The purpose of the present study is to discover the essence of the work of these professionals, to determine factors that influence their work, the depths of their life and on how the occupation affects upon physical, emotional-mental, spiritual, moral and social aspects. The researchers used the Consensual Qualitative Research, and eight embalmers, seven male and one female, from Manila and Bulacan were interviewed using open-ended questions and were used to triangulate the results. A primary research team conducted the consensus of domains, and an external auditor reviewed the results. A personal data sheet was also used, this helped the researchers group the respondents according to demographic profile. The results of the consensual qualitative research investigation revealed the four core components of the lived experience of embalmers which are motivation, struggles, acceptance, and contentment. The results revealed core components that play an important role in their everyday lives as an embalmer, daily hardships, and source of their pleasures. The present study will help future researchers, embalmers, and society.

Keywords: embalmers, consensual qualitative research, lived experience, embalming

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