Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: sonar

18 Image Distortion Correction Method of 2-MHz Side Scan Sonar for Underwater Structure Inspection

Authors: Youngseok Kim, Chul Park, Jonghwa Yi, Sangsik Choi

Abstract:

The 2-MHz Side Scan SONAR (SSS) attached to the boat for inspection of underwater structures is affected by shaking. It is difficult to determine the exact scale of damage of structure. In this study, a motion sensor is attached to the inside of the 2-MHz SSS to get roll, pitch, and yaw direction data, and developed the image stabilization tool to correct the sonar image. We checked that reliable data can be obtained with an average error rate of 1.99% between the measured value and the actual distance through experiment. It is possible to get the accurate sonar data to inspect damage in underwater structure.

Keywords: image stabilization, motion sensor, safety inspection, sonar image, underwater structure

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17 A Regression Analysis Study of the Applicability of Side Scan Sonar based Safety Inspection of Underwater Structures

Authors: Chul Park, Youngseok Kim, Sangsik Choi

Abstract:

This study developed an electric jig for underwater structure inspection in order to solve the problem of the application of side scan sonar to underwater inspection, and analyzed correlations of empirical data in order to enhance sonar data resolution. For the application of tow-typed sonar to underwater structure inspection, an electric jig was developed. In fact, it was difficult to inspect a cross-section at the time of inspection with tow-typed equipment. With the development of the electric jig for underwater structure inspection, it was possible to shorten an inspection time over 20%, compared to conventional tow-typed side scan sonar, and to inspect a proper cross-section through accurate angle control. The indoor test conducted to enhance sonar data resolution proved that a water depth, the distance from an underwater structure, and a filming angle influenced a resolution and data quality. Based on the data accumulated through field experience, multiple regression analysis was conducted on correlations between three variables. As a result, the relational equation of sonar operation according to a water depth was drawn.

Keywords: underwater structure, SONAR, safety inspection, resolution

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16 Sensor Registration in Multi-Static Sonar Fusion Detection

Authors: Longxiang Guo, Haoyan Hao, Xueli Sheng, Hanjun Yu, Jingwei Yin

Abstract:

In order to prevent target splitting and ensure the accuracy of fusion, system error registration is an important step in multi-static sonar fusion detection system. To eliminate the inherent system errors including distance error and angle error of each sonar in detection, this paper uses offline estimation method for error registration. Suppose several sonars from different platforms work together to detect a target. The target position detected by each sonar is based on each sonar’s own reference coordinate system. Based on the two-dimensional stereo projection method, this paper uses real-time quality control (RTQC) method and least squares (LS) method to estimate sensor biases. The RTQC method takes the average value of each sonar’s data as the observation value and the LS method makes the least square processing of each sonar’s data to get the observation value. In the underwater acoustic environment, matlab simulation is carried out and the simulation results show that both algorithms can estimate the distance and angle error of sonar system. The performance of the two algorithms is also compared through the root mean square error and the influence of measurement noise on registration accuracy is explored by simulation. The system error convergence of RTQC method is rapid, but the distribution of targets has a serious impact on its performance. LS method can not be affected by target distribution, but the increase of random noise will slow down the convergence rate. LS method is an improvement of RTQC method, which is widely used in two-dimensional registration. The improved method can be used for underwater multi-target detection registration.

Keywords: data fusion, multi-static sonar detection, offline estimation, sensor registration problem

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15 Autonomic Sonar Sensor Fault Manager for Mobile Robots

Authors: Martin Doran, Roy Sterritt, George Wilkie

Abstract:

NASA, ESA, and NSSC space agencies have plans to put planetary rovers on Mars in 2020. For these future planetary rovers to succeed, they will heavily depend on sensors to detect obstacles. This will also become of vital importance in the future, if rovers become less dependent on commands received from earth-based control and more dependent on self-configuration and self-decision making. These planetary rovers will face harsh environments and the possibility of hardware failure is high, as seen in missions from the past. In this paper, we focus on using Autonomic principles where self-healing, self-optimization, and self-adaption are explored using the MAPE-K model and expanding this model to encapsulate the attributes such as Awareness, Analysis, and Adjustment (AAA-3). In the experimentation, a Pioneer P3-DX research robot is used to simulate a planetary rover. The sonar sensors on the P3-DX robot are used to simulate the sensors on a planetary rover (even though in reality, sonar sensors cannot operate in a vacuum). Experiments using the P3-DX robot focus on how our software system can be adapted with the loss of sonar sensor functionality. The autonomic manager system is responsible for the decision making on how to make use of remaining ‘enabled’ sonars sensors to compensate for those sonar sensors that are ‘disabled’. The key to this research is that the robot can still detect objects even with reduced sonar sensor capability.

Keywords: autonomic, self-adaption, self-healing, self-optimization

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14 Evaluation of Fusion Sonar and Stereo Camera System for 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Archaeological Object

Authors: Yadpiroon Onmek, Jean Triboulet, Sebastien Druon, Bruno Jouvencel

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to develop the 3D underwater reconstruction of archaeology object, which is based on the fusion between a sonar system and stereo camera system. The underwater images are obtained from a calibrated camera system. The multiples image pairs are input, and we first solve the problem of image processing by applying the well-known filter, therefore to improve the quality of underwater images. The features of interest between image pairs are selected by well-known methods: a FAST detector and FLANN descriptor. Subsequently, the RANSAC method is applied to reject outlier points. The putative inliers are matched by triangulation to produce the local sparse point clouds in 3D space, using a pinhole camera model and Euclidean distance estimation. The SFM technique is used to carry out the global sparse point clouds. Finally, the ICP method is used to fusion the sonar information with the stereo model. The final 3D models have a précised by measurement comparing with the real object.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, archaeology, fusion, stereo system, sonar system, underwater

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13 Improve Divers Tracking and Classification in Sonar Images Using Robust Diver Wake Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Tarek Al Muallim, Ozhan Duzenli, Ceyhun Ilguy

Abstract:

Harbor protection systems are so important. The need for automatic protection systems has increased over the last years. Diver detection active sonar has great significance. It used to detect underwater threats such as divers and autonomous underwater vehicle. To automatically detect such threats the sonar image is processed by algorithms. These algorithms used to detect, track and classify of underwater objects. In this work, divers tracking and classification algorithm is improved be proposing a robust wake detection method. To detect objects the sonar images is normalized then segmented based on fixed threshold. Next, the centroids of the segments are found and clustered based on distance metric. Then to track the objects linear Kalman filter is applied. To reduce effect of noise and creation of false tracks, the Kalman tracker is fine tuned. The tuning is done based on our active sonar specifications. After the tracks are initialed and updated they are subjected to a filtering stage to eliminate the noisy and unstable tracks. Also to eliminate object with a speed out of the diver speed range such as buoys and fast boats. Afterwards the result tracks are subjected to a classification stage to deiced the type of the object been tracked. Here the classification stage is to deice wither if the tracked object is an open circuit diver or a close circuit diver. At the classification stage, a small area around the object is extracted and a novel wake detection method is applied. The morphological features of the object with his wake is extracted. We used support vector machine to find the best classifier. The sonar training images and the test images are collected by ARMELSAN Defense Technologies Company using the portable diver detection sonar ARAS-2023. After applying the algorithm to the test sonar data, we get fine and stable tracks of the divers. The total classification accuracy achieved with the diver type is 97%.

Keywords: harbor protection, diver detection, active sonar, wake detection, diver classification

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12 Efficient Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Fishing through Surveillance for Fishermen

Authors: T. Ahilan, V. Aswin Adityan, S. Kailash

Abstract:

UAV’s are small remote operated or automated aerial surveillance systems without a human pilot aboard. UAV’s generally finds its use in military and special operation application, a recent growing trend in UAV’s finds its application in several civil and non military works such as inspection of power or pipelines. The objective of this paper is the augmentation of a UAV in order to replace the existing expensive sonar (sound navigation and ranging) based equipment amongst small scale fisherman, for whom access to sonar equipment are restricted due to limited economic resources. The surveillance equipment’s present in the UAV will relay data and GPS location onto a receiver on the fishing boat using RF signals, using which the location of the schools of fishes can be found. In addition to this, an emergency beacon system is present for rescue operations and drone recovery.

Keywords: UAV, Surveillance, RF signals, fishing, sonar, GPS, video stream, school of fish

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11 Design and Test a Robust Bearing-Only Target Motion Analysis Algorithm Based on Modified Gain Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Mohammad Tarek Al Muallim, Ozhan Duzenli, Ceyhun Ilguy

Abstract:

Passive sonar is a method for detecting acoustic signals in the ocean. It detects the acoustic signals emanating from external sources. With passive sonar, we can determine the bearing of the target only, no information about the range of the target. Target Motion Analysis (TMA) is a process to estimate the position and speed of a target using passive sonar information. Since bearing is the only available information, the TMA technique called Bearing-only TMA. Many TMA techniques have been developed. However, until now, there is not a very effective method that could be used to always track an unknown target and extract its moving trace. In this work, a design of effective Bearing-only TMA Algorithm is done. The measured bearing angles are very noisy. Moreover, for multi-beam sonar, the measurements is quantized due to the sonar beam width. To deal with this, modified gain extended Kalman filter algorithm is used. The algorithm is fine-tuned, and many modules are added to improve the performance. A special validation gate module is used to insure stability of the algorithm. Many indicators of the performance and confidence level measurement are designed and tested. A new method to detect if the target is maneuvering is proposed. Moreover, a reactive optimal observer maneuver based on bearing measurements is proposed, which insure converging to the right solution all of the times. To test the performance of the proposed TMA algorithm a simulation is done with a MATLAB program. The simulator program tries to model a discrete scenario for an observer and a target. The simulator takes into consideration all the practical aspects of the problem such as a smooth transition in the speed, a circular turn of the ship, noisy measurements, and a quantized bearing measurement come for multi-beam sonar. The tests are done for a lot of given test scenarios. For all the tests, full tracking is achieved within 10 minutes with very little error. The range estimation error was less than 5%, speed error less than 5% and heading error less than 2 degree. For the online performance estimator, it is mostly aligned with the real performance. The range estimation confidence level gives a value equal to 90% when the range error less than 10%. The experiments show that the proposed TMA algorithm is very robust and has low estimation error. However, the converging time of the algorithm is needed to be improved.

Keywords: target motion analysis, Kalman filter, passive sonar, bearing-only tracking

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10 Submarines Unmanned Vehicle for Underwater Exploration and Monitoring System in Indonesia

Authors: Nabila Dwi Agustin, Ria Septitis Mentari, Nugroho Adi Sasongko

Abstract:

Indonesia is experiencing a crisis in the development of defense equipment. Most of Indonesia's defense equipment must import its parts from other countries. Moreover, the area of Indonesia is 2/3 of its territory is the sea areas. For the protection of marine areas, Indonesia relies solely on submarines in monitoring conditions and whether or not intruders enter their territory. In fact, we know the submarine has a large size so that the expenses are getting bigger, the time it takes longer and needs a big maneuver to operate the submarine. Indeed, the submarine can only be operated for deeper seas. Many other countries enter the underwater world of Indonesia but Indonesia could not do anything due to the limitations of underwater monitoring system. At the same time, reconnaissance and monitor for shallow seas cannot be done by submarine. Equipment that can be used for surveillance of shallow underwater areas shall be made. This study reviewed the current research and development initiative of the submarine unmanned vehicle (SUV) or unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) in Indonesia. This can explore underwater without the need for an operator to operate in it, but we can monitor it from a long distance. UUV has several advantages that size can be reduced as we desired, rechargeable ship batteries, has a detection sonar commonly found on a submarine and agile movement to detect at shallow sea depth. In the sonar sensors consisted of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System), the sonar system runs more efficiently and effectively to monitor the target. UUV that has been developed will be very useful if the equipment is used around the outlying islands and outer from Indonesia especially the island frequented by foreign submarines without us know. The impact of this may not be felt now but it will allow foreign countries to attack Indonesia from within for the future. In addition, UUV needs to be equipped with a anti-radar system so that submarines of other countries crossing borders cannot detect it and Indonesia anti-submarine vessels can take further security measures. As the recommendation, Indonesia should take decisive steps in the state border rules, especially submarines of other countries that deliberately cross the borders of the state. This decisive action not only by word alone but also action as well. Indonesia government should show the strength and sovereignty as the entire society unites and applies the principle of universal peace.

Keywords: submarine unmanned vehicle, submarine, development of defense equipment, the border of Indonesia

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9 Design of an Acoustic Imaging Sensor Array for Mobile Robots

Authors: Dibyendu Roy, V. Ramu Reddy, Parijat Deshpande, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Imaging of underwater objects is primarily conducted by acoustic imagery due to the severe attenuation of electro-magnetic waves in water. Acoustic imagery underwater has varied range of significant applications such as side-scan sonar, mine hunting sonar. It also finds utility in other domains such as imaging of body tissues via ultrasonography and non-destructive testing of objects. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using active acoustic imagery in air and simulate phased array beamforming techniques available in literature for various array designs to achieve a suitable acoustic sensor array design for a portable mobile robot which can be applied to detect the presence/absence of anomalous objects in a room. The multi-path reflection effects especially in enclosed rooms and environmental noise factors are currently not simulated and will be dealt with during the experimental phase. The related hardware is designed with the same feasibility criterion that the developed system needs to be deployed on a portable mobile robot. There is a trade of between image resolution and range with the array size, number of elements and the imaging frequency and has to be iteratively simulated to achieve the desired acoustic sensor array design. The designed acoustic imaging array system is to be mounted on a portable mobile robot and targeted for use in surveillance missions for intruder alerts and imaging objects during dark and smoky scenarios where conventional optic based systems do not function well.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, acoustic imagery, anomaly detection, phased array beamforming

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8 Marine Ecosystem Mapping of Taman Laut Labuan: The First Habitat Mapping Effort to Support Marine Parks Management in Malaysia

Authors: K. Ismail, A. Ali, R. C. Hasan, I. Khalil, Z. Bachok, N. M. Said, A. M. Muslim, M. S. Che Din, W. S. Chong

Abstract:

The marine ecosystem in Malaysia holds invaluable potential in terms of economics, food security, pharmaceuticals components and protection from natural hazards. Although exploration of oil and gas industry and fisheries are active within Malaysian waters, knowledge of the seascape and ecological functioning of benthic habitats is still extremely poor in the marine parks around Malaysia due to the lack of detailed seafloor information. Consequently, it is difficult to manage marine resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas and set legislation to safeguard the marine parks. The limited baseline data hinders scientific linkage to support effective marine spatial management in Malaysia. This became the main driver behind the first seabed mapping effort at the national level. Taman Laut Labuan (TLL) is located to the west coast of Sabah and to the east of South China Sea. The total area of TLL is approximately 158.15 km2, comprises of three islands namely Pulau Kuraman, Rusukan Besar and Rusukan Kecil and is characterised by shallow fringing reef with few submerged shallow reef. The unfamiliar rocky shorelines limit the survey of multibeam echosounder to area with depth more than 10 m. Whereas, singlebeam and side scan sonar systems were used to acquire the data for area with depth less than 10 m. By integrating data from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter with singlebeam bathymetry and side sonar images, we produce a substrate map and coral coverage map for the TLL using i) marine landscape mapping technique and ii) RSOBIA ArcGIS toolbar (developed by T. Le Bas). We take the initiative to explore the ability of aerial drone and satellite image (WorldView-3) to derive the depths and substrate type within the intertidal and subtidal zone where it is not accessible via acoustic mapping. Although the coverage was limited, the outcome showed a promising technique to be incorporated towards establishing a guideline to facilitate a standard practice for efficient marine spatial management in Malaysia.

Keywords: habitat mapping, marine spatial management, South China Sea, National seabed mapping

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7 Investigation of Yard Seam Workings for the Proposed Newcastle Light Rail Project

Authors: David L. Knott, Robert Kingsland, Alistair Hitchon

Abstract:

The proposed Newcastle Light Rail is a key part of the revitalisation of Newcastle, NSW and will provide a frequent and reliable travel option throughout the city centre, running from Newcastle Interchange at Wickham to Pacific Park in Newcastle East, a total of 2.7 kilometers in length. Approximately one-third of the route, along Hunter and Scott Streets, is subject to potential shallow underground mine workings. The extent of mining and seams mined is unclear. Convicts mined the Yard Seam and overlying Dudley (Dirty) Seam in Newcastle sometime between 1800 and 1830. The Australian Agricultural Company mined the Yard Seam from about 1831 to the 1860s in the alignment area. The Yard Seam was about 3 feet (0.9m) thick, and therefore, known as the Yard Seam. Mine maps do not exist for the workings in the area of interest and it was unclear if both or just one seam was mined. Information from 1830s geological mapping and other data showing shaft locations were used along Scott Street and information from the 1908 Royal Commission was used along Hunter Street to develop an investigation program. In addition, mining was encountered for several sites to the south of the alignment at depths of about 7 m to 25 m. Based on the anticipated depths of mining, it was considered prudent to assess the potential for sinkhole development on the proposed alignment and realigned underground utilities and to obtain approval for the work from Subsidence Advisory NSW (SA NSW). The assessment consisted of a desktop study, followed by a subsurface investigation. Four boreholes were drilled along Scott Street and three boreholes were drilled along Hunter Street using HQ coring techniques in the rock. The placement of boreholes was complicated by the presence of utilities in the roadway and traffic constraints. All the boreholes encountered the Yard Seam, with conditions varying from unmined coal to an open void, indicating the presence of mining. The geotechnical information obtained from the boreholes was expanded by using various downhole techniques including; borehole camera, borehole sonar, and downhole geophysical logging. The camera provided views of the rock and helped to explain zones of no recovery. In addition, timber props within the void were observed. Borehole sonar was performed in the void and provided an indication of room size as well as the presence of timber props within the room. Downhole geophysical logging was performed in the boreholes to measure density, natural gamma, and borehole deviation. The data helped confirm that all the mining was in the Yard Seam and that the overlying Dudley Seam had been eroded in the past over much of the alignment. In summary, the assessment allowed the potential for sinkhole subsidence to be assessed and a mitigation approach developed to allow conditional approval by SA NSW. It also confirmed the presence of mining in the Yard Seam, the depth to the seam and mining conditions, and indicated that subsidence did not appear to have occurred in the past.

Keywords: downhole investigation techniques, drilling, mine subsidence, yard seam

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6 Performance Degradation for the GLR Test-Statistics for Spatial Signal Detection

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexander Maltsev

Abstract:

Antenna arrays are widely used in modern radio systems in sonar and communications. The solving of the detection problems of a useful signal on the background of noise is based on the GLRT method. There is a large number of problem which depends on the known a priori information. In this work, in contrast to the majority of already solved problems, it is used only difference spatial properties of the signal and noise for detection. We are analyzing the influence of the degree of non-coherence of signal and noise unhomogeneity on the performance characteristics of different GLRT statistics. The description of the signal and noise is carried out by means of the spatial covariance matrices C in the cases of different number of known information. The partially coherent signal is simulated as a plane wave with a random angle of incidence of the wave concerning a normal. Background noise is simulated as random process with uniform distribution function in each element. The results of investigation of degradation of performance characteristics for different cases are represented in this work.

Keywords: GLRT, Neumann-Pearson’s criterion, Test-statistics, degradation, spatial processing, multielement antenna array

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5 Geographic Information Systems and Remotely Sensed Data for the Hydrological Modelling of Mazowe Dam

Authors: Ellen Nhedzi Gozo

Abstract:

Unavailability of adequate hydro-meteorological data has always limited the analysis and understanding of hydrological behaviour of several dam catchments including Mazowe Dam in Zimbabwe. The problem of insufficient data for Mazowe Dam catchment analysis was solved by extracting catchment characteristics and aerial hydro-meteorological data from ASTER, LANDSAT, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission SRTM remote sensing (RS) images using ILWIS, ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine geographic information systems (GIS) software. Available observed hydrological as well as meteorological data complemented the use of the remotely sensed information. Ground truth land cover was mapped using a Garmin Etrex global positioning system (GPS) system. This information was then used to validate land cover classification detail that was obtained from remote sensing images. A bathymetry survey was conducted using a SONAR system connected to GPS. Hydrological modelling using the HBV model was then performed to simulate the hydrological process of the catchment in an effort to verify the reliability of the derived parameters. The model output shows a high Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient that is close to 1 indicating that the parameters derived from remote sensing and GIS can be applied with confidence in the analysis of Mazowe Dam catchment.

Keywords: geographic information systems, hydrological modelling, remote sensing, water resources management

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4 Design and Development of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Irrigation Canal Monitoring

Authors: Mamoon Masud, Suleman Mazhar

Abstract:

Indus river basin’s irrigation system in Pakistan is extremely complex, spanning over 50,000 km. Maintenance and monitoring of this demands enormous resources. This paper describes the development of a streamlined and low-cost autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for the monitoring of irrigation canals including water quality monitoring and water theft detection. The vehicle is a hovering-type AUV, designed mainly for monitoring irrigation canals, with fully documented design and open source code. It has a length of 17 inches, and a radius of 3.5 inches with a depth rating of 5m. Multiple sensors are present onboard the AUV for monitoring water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and dissolved oxygen. A 9-DOF Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), GY-85, is used, which incorporates an Accelerometer (ADXL345), a Gyroscope (ITG-3200) and a Magnetometer (HMC5883L). The readings from these sensors are fused together using directional cosine matrix (DCM) algorithm, providing the AUV with the heading angle, while a pressure sensor gives the depth of the AUV. 2 sonar-based range sensors are used for obstacle detection, enabling the vehicle to align itself with the irrigation canals edges. 4 thrusters control the vehicle’s surge, heading and heave, providing 3 DOF. The thrusters are controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control system, with heading angle and depth being the controller’s input and the thruster motor speed as the output. A flow sensor has been incorporated to monitor canal water level to detect water-theft event in the irrigation system. In addition to water theft detection, the vehicle also provides information on water quality, providing us with the ability to identify the source(s) of water contamination. Detection of such events can provide useful policy inputs for improving irrigation efficiency and reducing water contamination. The AUV being low cost, small sized and suitable for autonomous maneuvering, water level and quality monitoring in the irrigation canals, can be used for irrigation network monitoring at a large scale.

Keywords: the autonomous underwater vehicle, irrigation canal monitoring, water quality monitoring, underwater line tracking

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3 Regional Rates of Sand Supply to the New South Wales Coast: Southeastern Australia

Authors: Marta Ribo, Ian D. Goodwin, Thomas Mortlock, Phil O’Brien

Abstract:

Coastal behavior is best investigated using a sediment budget approach, based on the identification of sediment sources and sinks. Grain size distribution over the New South Wales (NSW) continental shelf has been widely characterized since the 1970’s. Coarser sediment has generally accumulated on the outer shelf, and/or nearshore zones, with the latter related to the presence of nearshore reef and bedrocks. The central part of the NSW shelf is characterized by the presence of fine sediments distributed parallel to the coastline. This study presents new grain size distribution maps along the NSW continental shelf, built using all available NSW and Commonwealth Government holdings. All available seabed bathymetric data form prior projects, single and multibeam sonar, and aerial LiDAR surveys were integrated into a single bathymetric surface for the NSW continental shelf. Grain size information was extracted from the sediment sample data collected in more than 30 studies. The information extracted from the sediment collections varied between reports. Thus, given the inconsistency of the grain size data, a common grain size classification was her defined using the phi scale. The new sediment distribution maps produced, together with new detailed seabed bathymetric data enabled us to revise the delineation of sediment compartments to more accurately reflect the true nature of sediment movement on the inner shelf and nearshore. Accordingly, nine primary mega coastal compartments were delineated along the NSW coast and shelf. The sediment compartments are bounded by prominent nearshore headlands and reefs, and major river and estuarine inlets that act as sediment sources and/or sinks. The new sediment grain size distribution was used as an input in the morphological modelling to quantify the sediment transport patterns (and indicative rates of transport), used to investigate sand supply rates and processes from the lower shoreface to the NSW coast. The rate of sand supply to the NSW coast from deep water is a major uncertainty in projecting future coastal response to sea-level rise. Offshore transport of sand is generally expected as beaches respond to rising sea levels but an onshore supply from the lower shoreface has the potential to offset some of the impacts of sea-level rise, such as coastline recession. Sediment exchange between the lower shoreface and sub-aerial beach has been modelled across the south, central, mid-north and far-north coast of NSW. Our model approach is that high-energy storm events are the primary agents of sand transport in deep water, while non-storm conditions are responsible for re-distributing sand within the beach and surf zone.

Keywords: New South Wales coast, off-shore transport, sand supply, sediment distribution maps

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2 Ionian Sea Aquarium-Museum in Kefallinia Island, Greece: A Hub Developing the Underwater Natural and Cultural Resources in the Ionian Sea and Advancing the Ocean Literacy to the Public

Authors: Ferentinos George, Papatheodorou George, Belmonte Genuario, Geraga Maria, Christodoulou Dimitris, Fakiris Elias, Iatrou Margarita, Kordella Stravroula, Prevenios Michail, Mentogianis Vassilis, Sotiropoulos Makis

Abstract:

The Ionian Sea Aquarium-Museum in Kefallinia Island, Greece and its twinning with that of Santa Maria al Bagno in the Salento peninsula, Italy, are recently established Hubs in the Ionian Sea funded by the European Territorial Cooperation Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013. The objectives of the Ionian Sea Aquarium-Museum are: (i) exhibiting to the public the underwater natural and cultural treasures of the seas surrounding the island, (ii) the functioning of a recreational/vocational hub for all educational levels but also for sea users and stakeholders, to raise their awareness of the seas and engage them in the European notion of the Blue Growth of the Seas and (iii) setting up diving parks in sites of natural and cultural importance. The natural heritage in the Aquarium-Museum is exhibited in five tanks displaying the two most important benthic habitats in the Mediterranean Sea, that is, the Posidonia oceanica and the Coralligene assemblages with the associated rich fauna. The cultural heritage is exhibited in: (i) Dioramas displaying scale model replicas of the three best preserved ancient and historic wrecks. -The Fiscardo Roman wreck dating between 1st cent B.C. and 2nd cent. A.D., which is one of the largest and best preserved in the Mediterranean Sea. -The HMS PERSEUS British submarine, which is known for the second deepest submarine escape from all sunken submarines in WW II, and -A wooden wreck, the Italian ship Alma probably, which was requisitioned by the German army and used for transporting supplies and ammunition. (ii) Documentaries: The first two present the complete story from launching to sinking of: the HMS PERSEUS British submarine, the SS Ardena which is associated with the Italian Aqui Division killed by the German forces in Kefallinia and made known from the book and film “Captain Corelli’s Mandolin” and the third documentary deals with the birth place of seafaring in the world, which took place in the Greek. Archipelago by Neanderthals and modern humans between 115 and 35 thousand years ago. The Aquarium-Museum starts from next year (a) educational programmes for schools and tourists to discover the natural and cultural treasures around Kefallinia island, (b) recreational/vocational holiday activities centered on eco-diving and get involved in mapping and monitoring NATURA 2000 sites around the island and thus actively engaged in the Blue Growth of the seas and (c) summer schools aimed at under/post-graduate students, who are interested in marine archaeology and geo-habitat mapping and are looking for a job in the sustainable management of the seas. The exhibition themes in the Aquarium-Museum as well as the recreational /vocational and educational activities are prepared by the Oceanus Net laboratories of Patras University and were selected after surveying the seafloor using the latest state of art sonar and camera technologies.

Keywords: aquarium-museum, cultural and natural treasures, ionian sea, Kefallinia Island

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1 An Autonomous Passive Acoustic System for Detection, Tracking and Classification of Motorboats in Portofino Sea

Authors: A. Casale, J. Alessi, C. N. Bianchi, G. Bozzini, M. Brunoldi, V. Cappanera, P. Corvisiero, G. Fanciulli, D. Grosso, N. Magnoli, A. Mandich, C. Melchiorre, C. Morri, P. Povero, N. Stasi, M. Taiuti, G. Viano, M. Wurtz

Abstract:

This work describes a real-time algorithm for detecting, tracking and classifying single motorboats, developed using the acoustic data recorded by a hydrophone array within the framework of EU LIFE + project ARION (LIFE09NAT/IT/000190). The project aims to improve the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins through a real-time simultaneous monitoring of their population and surface ship traffic. A Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) system is installed on two autonomous permanent marine buoys, located close to the boundaries of the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Portofino (Ligurian Sea- Italy). Detecting surface ships is also a necessity in many other sensible areas, such as wind farms, oil platforms, and harbours. A PAM system could be an effective alternative to the usual monitoring systems, as radar or active sonar, for localizing unauthorized ship presence or illegal activities, with the advantage of not revealing its presence. Each ARION buoy consists of a particular type of structure, named meda elastica (elastic beacon) composed of a main pole, about 30-meter length, emerging for 7 meters, anchored to a mooring of 30 tons at 90 m depth by an anti-twist steel wire. Each buoy is equipped with a floating element and a hydrophone tetrahedron array, whose raw data are send via a Wi-Fi bridge to a ground station where real-time analysis is performed. Bottlenose dolphin detection algorithm and ship monitoring algorithm are operating in parallel and in real time. Three modules were developed and commissioned for ship monitoring. The first is the detection algorithm, based on Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) measurements, i.e., the evaluation of angular direction of the target respect to each buoy and the triangulation for obtaining the target position. The second is the tracking algorithm, based on a Kalman filter, i.e., the estimate of the real course and speed of the target through a predictor filter. At last, the classification algorithm is based on the DEMON method, i.e., the extraction of the acoustic signature of single vessels. The following results were obtained; the detection algorithm succeeded in evaluating the bearing angle with respect to each buoy and the position of the target, with an uncertainty of 2 degrees and a maximum range of 2.5 km. The tracking algorithm succeeded in reconstructing the real vessel courses and estimating the speed with an accuracy of 20% respect to the Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals. The classification algorithm succeeded in isolating the acoustic signature of single vessels, demonstrating its temporal stability and the consistency of both buoys results. As reference, the results were compared with the Hilbert transform of single channel signals. The algorithm for tracking multiple targets is ready to be developed, thanks to the modularity of the single ship algorithm: the classification module will enumerate and identify all targets present in the study area; for each of them, the detection module and the tracking module will be applied to monitor their course.

Keywords: acoustic-noise, bottlenose-dolphin, hydrophone, motorboat

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