Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4010

Search results for: family relationships

4010 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration

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4009 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

Abstract:

Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

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4008 Examining the Mediating and Moderating Role of Relationships in the Association between Poverty and Children’s Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Esther Yin-Nei Cho

Abstract:

There is inconsistency among studies about whether there is an association between poverty and the subjective wellbeing of children. Some have found a positive association, though its magnitude could be limited, others have shown no association. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that household income, an often-adopted measure of child poverty, may not accurately and stably reflect the actual life experience of children. Some studies have suggested, however, that material deprivation covering various dimensions of children’s lives could be a better measure of child poverty. Another possible explanation for the inconsistency is that the link between poverty and subjective wellbeing of children may not be that straightforward, as there could be underlying mechanisms, such as mediation and moderation, influencing its direction or strength. While a mediator refers to the mechanism through which an independent variable affects a dependent variable, a moderator changes the direction or strength of the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. As suggested by empirical evidence, family relationships and friendships could be potential mediators or moderators of the link between poverty and subjective well-being: poverty affects relationships; relationships are an important element in children’s subjective well-being; and economic status affects child outcomes, though not necessarily subjective wellbeing, through relationships. Since the potential links have not been adequately understood, this study fills this gap by examining the possible role of family relationships and friendships as mediators or moderators between poverty (using child-derived material deprivation as measure) and the subjective wellbeing of children. Improving subjective wellbeing is increasingly considered as a policy goal. The finding of no or a limited association between poverty and subjective wellbeing of children could be a justification for less effort to improve poverty in this regard. But if the observed magnitude of that association is due to some underlying mechanisms at work, the effect of poverty may be underestimated and the potentially useful strategies that take into account both poverty and other mediators or moderators for improving children’s subjective well-being may be overlooked. Multiple mediation, and multiple moderation models, based on regression analyses, are performed to a sample of approximately 1,600 children, who are aged 10 to 15, from the wellbeing survey conducted by The Children’s Society in England from 2010 to 2011. Results show that the effect of children’s material deprivation on their subjective well-being is mediated by their family relationships and friendships. Moreover, family relationships are a significant moderator. It is found that the negative impact of child deprivation on subjective wellbeing could be exacerbated if family relationships are not going well, while good family relationships may prevent the further decline in subjective well-being. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. In particular, policy measures that focus on strengthening the family relationships or nurturing home environment through supporting household’s economic security and parental time with children could promote the subjective wellbeing of children.

Keywords: child poverty, mediation, moderation, subjective well-being of children

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4007 A Dimensional Approach to Family Involvement in Forensic Mental Health Settings - Prevention of the Systemic Replication of Abuse, Need for Accepted Falsehoods and Family Guilt and Shame

Authors: Katie E. Jennings

Abstract:

The interactions between family dynamics and environmental factors with mental health vulnerability in individuals are well known and are a theme for on-going research and debate. The impact upon mental health issues and forensic issues on family dynamics, experience, and emotional wellbeing cannot be over-Emphasised. For forensic patients with diagnosed mental disorders, these relationships and environments may have also been functionally linked to the development and maintenance of those disorders; with significant adverse childhood experiences being a common feature of many Patient’s histories. Mental health hospitals remove the patient from their home environments and provide treatment outside of these relationships and often outside of the home area. There is, therefore, a major focus on Services ensuring that patients are able to build and maintain relationships with family and friends, requiring services to involve families in Patients' care and treatment wherever possible. There are standards set by Government and clinical bodies that require absolute demonstration of the inclusion of family and friends in all aspects of the care and treatment of forensic patients. For some patients and family members, this push to take on a “role” in care can be unhelpful, extremely stressful, and has constant implications for the potential delicate reparation of relationships. Based on work undertaken for over 20 years in forensic mental health settings, this paper explores the positive psychology approach to a dimensional model to family inclusion in mental health care that learns from family court work and allows for the maintenance of relationships to be at both proximal and Distil levels; to prevent the replication of abuse, decrease the need for falsehoods and assist the recovery of all. The model is based on allowing families to choose to not be involved or be involved in different ways if this is seen to be more helpful. It also allows patients to choose the level of potential involvement that they would find helpful, and for this to be reviewed at a timeframe agreed by all parties, rather than when the next survey is due or the patient has a significant care meeting. This paper is significant as there is a lack of research to support services to use a positive psychology approach to work in this area, the assumption that being asked to be involved must be positive for all seems naïve at best for this patient group. Work relating to the psychology of family can significantly contribute to the development of knowledge in this area. The development of a dimensional model will support choice within families and assist in the development of more honest and open relationships.

Keywords: family dynamics, forensic, mental disorder, positive psychology

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4006 Effect of Company Value, Leadership, and Ownership Succession on Financial Performance of Family Business

Authors: Theresia Dwi Hastuti, Kristiana Haryanti, Agustine Eva Maria Soekesi

Abstract:

Today's family business continues to grow in big cities and in rural areas throughout Indonesia in line with the development of the business world and global competition. This study aims to analyze the effect of company value, leadership, and ownership succession on the financial performance of the family business. The research method was carried out quantitatively with multiple regression. The respondent amounted to 63 entrepreneurs. This study found that company value, leadership succession, relationships, and communication affect the financial performance of the family business.

Keywords: company value, family business, financial performance, leadership succession, ownership succession

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4005 Therapeutic Journey towards Self: Developing Positivity with Indications of Cluster B and C Personality Traits

Authors: Shweta Jha, Nandita Chaube

Abstract:

The concept of self has a major role to play in the study of personality which drives the current study in its present form. This is a case of Miss S, a 17-year-old Hindu, currently in eleventh standard, with no family history of mental illness but with a past history of inability to manage relationships, multiple emotional and sexual relationships, repeated self harming behaviour, and sexual abuse over a period of 2 months at the age of 10 years. She comes with a psychiatric history of one episode of dissociative fall followed by a stressful event which left the patient with many psychological disturbances matching the criterion of Cluster B and C traits. Current episode precipitated due to the relationship failure, predisposing factor is her personality traits, and poor social and family support. Considering the patient’s aspiration for positivity and demand of the therapy, ventilation sessions were carried out which made her capable of understanding and dealing with her negative emotions, also strengthened mother child bond, helped her maintain meaningful and healthy relationships, also helped her increase her problem solving ability and adaptive coping skills making her feel more positive and acceptable towards herself, family members and others.

Keywords: cluster B and C traits, personality, therapy, self

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4004 The Experience of Grandparenthood among Grandparents of Children with Autism in the Arab–Bedouin Society

Authors: Binoun Chaki Hagar

Abstract:

Studies have investigated grandparents' perceptions relating to their grandchildren with disabilities. Literature on grandparenthood focuses on the Western grandparents. Autism within the Arab populations has also being investigated. Moreover, the Bedouin population can also be seen in various studies related to different experiences and different perceptions about disabilities in general and among children in particular. However, as far as we know, no studies were found on grand parenting a child with autism in Bedouin society. This study combines three areas of knowledge, to create another knowledge domain. The aim of this study was to learn about the experience of grand parenting an autistic child in the Bedouin Arab society, to examine how it affects the grandparents' relationships, feelings, and functioning within the family, and as individuals, as well as to examine their coping mechanisms and their social support networks. This study is significant and as it examines autism and grandparents among the Bedouin Arab population in Israel, a population that has unique socio-demographic, cultural and traditional characteristics. The study revealed three themes concerning the meaning of grandparenthood to be associated with family continuity, how autism is perceived, and the importance of religion. It also suggests another category – the status of the elderly in the Arab-Bedouin family. It is recognized that the role of the elderly is held in high esteem, and can be affected by the grandchild’s’ autism.

Keywords: Arab–Bedouin family, autism, grandparents, family relationships

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4003 Happiness Determinants in MBA Student Life

Authors: Vivek Nair

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to find out happiness determinants in MBA student life. To figure out the factors influencing happiness in life is sorted by their personal profiles. This paper used survey method to collect data. The survey was mainly conducted among Management Students and is based on three hypothesis viz. Family relationship, Friendship and God as a source of happiness, and whether happiness is manageable and controllable. The statistics used for interpreting the results included the frequencies, percentages, and z test analysis. The findings revealed that family relationships and friendship have the same effect on individual happiness.

Keywords: happiness, family, MBA students, friends

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
4002 The Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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4001 A Qualitative Study of the Effect of Sibling and Parental Relationships on Coping Mechanisms in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Smriti Gour, Neelam Pandey

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to describe and analyse the mutual relationship between the coping mechanisms used by the families of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and family dynamics and the effect sibling interactions have on the dynamics and coping mechanisms in an urban setup. In-depth interviews were conducted for 25 families, with 4 members each in the Delhi NCR area in India. The families who were interviewed had a younger child who had received a diagnosis of ASD between the ages of 5-12. The in-depth questionnaires contained open-ended questions and the interviews were conducted separately for the mother, father and the typically developing sibling. The key findings of the study suggested that lack of communication was a common factor in most families (n=19) leading to other difficulties like stress and relationship dysfunction. It also fostered a fallacious perception of the relationship dynamics in the family in most of the interviewed families and changed depending on the family member being interviewed. In families where the typically developing elder sibling had a good relationship with the autistic child, the family dynamics were found to be more stable, and the overall family well-being was better maintained. The coping mechanisms employed by the families were also more positive and tended to work better if the typically developing sibling maintained a positive and interactive relationship with the parents and the autistic child. The type of coping mechanisms had a major impact on the relationship between the parents and in dictating the dynamics of the family of the child with ASD. Spirituality, professional help, family support and household help emerged to be the most effective coping mechanisms for the families, with spirituality emerging to be the most positive and effective coping mechanism in the families interviewed.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, coping mechanism, family dynamics, parental relationships, siblings

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4000 Using Athletics to Mitigate the Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
3999 Relationships of Clergy Work-Family Enrichment with Job Attitudes

Authors: John Faucett, Hao Wu, Bruce Moore, Sean Nadji

Abstract:

The demands of the ministry often conflict with responsibilities at home, and clergy often experience domain ambiguity between the domains of work and family. However, the unique level of family involvement in the pastor’s profession might enrich the pastor’s ministry as well as the functioning of the family unit. Life in the church family might offer clergy family members a sense of meaning and purpose, social support, and a feeling of belonging. Church activities can offer enhanced opportunities for family interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of work/family enrichment to clergy job satisfaction, burnout, engagement, and withdrawal. Method: Participants were clergy serving within a state conference of the United Methodist Church. A survey was administered electronically, with e-mails and the United Methodist Church (UMC) Facebook page used as access points to the survey. Usable responses for this portion of the survey were obtained from 132 clergy. Participants completed The Work-Family Enrichment Scales, The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, The Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry, The Satisfaction in Ministry Scale, and a scale of withdrawal developed for the present study. They also answered questions relating to how involved their spouses are in their ministry and the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry. Findings: Higher scores for work to family enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = - .69, p < .01) and engagement (r = .50, p < .01), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01) and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Higher scores for family to work enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = .29, p = .01) and engagement (.24, p < .05), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01), and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Hierarchical regression analysis suggested that clergy perceptions concerning the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry moderates the relationship between degree of spouse involvement in church activities and clergy withdrawal. To the degree that spouse involvement is believed to strengthen ministry, high spouse involvement is related to less clergy withdrawal (Multiple R-Squared = .068, Adj. R-Squared = .043, F = 2.69 on 3 & 110 DF, p = .05). Concluding Statement: Clergy job attitudes are related to work/family enrichment. Spouse involvement in parish ministry is associated with less clergy withdrawal, as long as clergy believe spouse involvement strengthens their ministry.

Keywords: clergy, emotional exhaustion, job engagement, job satisfaction, work/family enrichment

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
3998 Non-Family Members as Successors of Choice in South African Family Businesses

Authors: Jonathan Marks, Lauren Katz

Abstract:

Family firms are a vital component of a country’s stability, prosperity and development. Their sustainability, longevity and continuity are critical. Given the premise that family firms wish to continue the business for the benefit of the family, the family founder / owner is faced with an emotionally charged transition option; either to transfer the family business to a family member or to transfer the firm to a non-family member. The rationale employed by family founders to select non-family members as successors/ executives of choice and the concomitant rationale employed by non-family members to select family firms as employers of choice, has been under-researched in the literature of family business succession planning. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to gain access to family firm founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives and industry experts on family business. The findings indicated that the rationale for family members to select non-family successors/ executives was underpinned by the objective to grow the family firm for the benefit of the family. If non-family members were the most suitable candidates to ensure this outcome, family members were comfortable to employ non-family members. Non- family members, despite the knowledge that benefit lay primarily with family members, chose to work for family firms for personal benefits in terms of wealth, security and close connections. A commonly shared value system was a pre-requisite for all respondents. The research study provides insights from family founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives, and industry experts on the subject of succession planning outside the family structure.

Keywords: agency theory, family business, institutional logics, non-family successors, Stewardship Theory

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3997 Caring for the Bedridden Older Members: Beliefs and Values of Northern Thai Families

Authors: Budsarin Padwang, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Thawan Nieamsup, Autchareeya Patumwan, Rutja Phuphaibul

Abstract:

In Northern Thailand, a pilot study by the qualitative data, on caring for family members with chronic illness/bedridden based on in-depth interviews of the 12 elderly caregivers in family was carried out during November to December 2017. There are four families that living with three generations in the family. This report is part of a larger study of 'The intergenerational contract of the family in long-term care for older members' to understand the situation and context related to the research questions. Content analysis was obtained and the results revealed as followings. 1) No choice and no freedom: most caregivers were asked by their family members to do the care giving roles because of various appropriate reasons and they could not refuse and felt like having no freedom. 2) ‘Katanyu’ to the parents: The Thai ideology of making merit by taking care of parents was beliefs to do the best in their caregiver roles. 3) The family commitments: The issues of family caring and relationships were the key value of keeping family members to take care of older members with chronic illness/bedridden. The preliminary findings can be beneficial for other regions and will lead to in-depth explore to answer the research questions of the larger study in the future.

Keywords: intergenerational contract, long term care, older members, generational family

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3996 Associations between Parental Divorce Process Variables and Parent-Child Relationships Quality in Young Adulthood

Authors: Klara Smith-Etxeberria

Abstract:

main goal of this study was to analyze the predictive ability of some variables associated with the parental divorce process alongside attachment history with parents on both, mother-child and father-child relationship quality. Our sample consisted of 173 undergraduate and vocational school students from the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. All of them belonged to a divorced family. Results showed that adequate maternal strategies during the divorce process (e.g.: stable, continuous and positive role as a mother) was the variable with greater predictive ability on mother-child relationships quality. In addition, secure attachment history with mother also predicted positive mother-child relationships. On the other hand, father-child relationship quality was predicted by adequate paternal strategies during the divorce process, such as his stable, continuous and positive role as a father, along with not badmouthing the mother and promoting good mother-child relationships. Furthermore, paternal negative emotional state due to divorce was positively associated with father-child relationships quality, and both, history of attachment with mother and with father predicted father-child relationships quality. In conclusion, our data indicate that both, paternal and maternal strategies for children´s adequate adjustment during the divorce process influence on mother-child and father-child relationships quality. However, these results suggest that paternal strategies during the divorce process have a greater predictive ability on father-child relationships quality, whereas maternal positive strategies during divorce determine positive mother-child relationships among young adults.

Keywords: father-child relationships quality, mother-child relationships quality, parental divorce process, young adulthood

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3995 Men's Relationships in D. H. Lawrence's 'Sons and Lovers'

Authors: Chaich Hamza Walid

Abstract:

The primary goal of this paper is to question the situation of men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. Our question is what is the role of each man in the novel? And how a mother’s possessiveness had changed the life of all men in the family? David Herbert Lawrence was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century. He wrote many great works, one of his most popular novels, Sons and Loves, is an autobiographical account of his youth. This novel is about the life of the Morels. The author develops the story by portraying the relationships between many characters, especially the male ones we focus on. ‘Sons and Lovers’ seems to be written especially to women, all what Lawrence wrote is about women but when we go deeper, we see that Lawrence was also interested in men. This work will approach the question in two ways. The first chapter will deal with men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, more exactly with Paul and his father Walter Morel, and with Baxter Dawes. We will focus on each man’s behavior with one another. In the second chapter, we will analyze possessiveness, that is to say, the desire of holding or having someone as one’s own or under one’s control. We will try to prove this view from the spiritual and symbolic possession of different relationships. Our study will be through an intensive psychological analysis of a wife’s possessiveness to her husband, and a mother’s possessiveness to her son’s; William and Paul. The conclusion will review all the important aspects of this analysis. It is very important to know about men’s relationships in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers this will give us another vision of the novel, and where we can situate Paul’s true relationships, that is to say, his relationships with his father and the other men in the novel.

Keywords: language, literature, English, civilisation

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3994 Systematic Taxonomy and Phylogenetic of Commercial Fish Species of Family Nemipetridae from Malaysian Waters and Neighboring Seas

Authors: Ayesha Imtiaz, Darlina Md. Naim

Abstract:

Family Nemipteridae is among the most abundantly distributed family in Malaysian fish markets due to its high contribution to landing sites of Malaysia. Using an advanced molecular approach that used two mitochondrial (Cytochrome oxidase c I and Cytochrome oxidase b) and one nuclear gene (Recombination activating gene, RAGI) to expose cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among commercially important species of family Nemipteridae. Our research covered all genera (including 31 species out total 45 species) of family Nemipteridae, distributed in Malaysia. We also found certain type of geographical barriers in the South China sea that reduces dispersal and stops a few species to intermix. Northside of the South China Sea (near Vietnam) does not allow genetic diversity to mix with the Southern side of the South China sea (Sarawak) and reduces dispersal. Straits of Malacca reduce the intermixing genetic diversity of South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.

Keywords: Nemipteridae, RAG I, south east Asia, Malaysia

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3993 Contested Fathering: Cameroonian Fathers Facing the Welfare State Parenthood

Authors: Mathias Ebot, Päivi Harinen

Abstract:

This article focuses on challenges of parenthood for Sub-Saharan African fathers in Finland. In this analysis Finland represents a Nordic welfare society where family relationships are strongly guided by national family policies and discourses. These policies are based on both traditional ideas of a proper Finnish family, as well as on the contemporary waves of female liberation and emphasis on children’s rights. We analyze how especially Cameroonian fathers perceive their parenthood positions and how they characterize and frame their fathering experiences in relation to the mainstream sociopolitical, cultural and national representations of fatherhood in Finland. The analysis is based on interviews and narrative reports collected among Cameroonian fathers living in Finland with their African spouses. The scrutiny shows that in the context where the mainstream cultural and national family representation is created by equality between parents and also between parents and their children, and where “good fatherhood” is created by embodied presence and warm relationships with children these fathers have difficulties: They have to fulfill another fatherhood duty – bread-winning – and thus ensure their labor possibilities all the time, from very marginalized positions of the labor market. When comparing their fatherhood position with the one in Cameroon they also feel embarrassed as the Finnish educational system teaches and encourages their children to challenge their authority as up-raising adults, which in Cameroon could not be possible.

Keywords: Cameroonian fathers, perception, fathering experiences, Finland

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3992 Family Business Succession through the Eye of the Upper Echelon Theory: A Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Ruswiati Suryasaputra, Linda Salim

Abstract:

This concept paper, initially a proposal for the completion of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is seeking to gain more understanding of family business succession in order to extend the average lifespan of family business that has shrunken significantly for the past 20 years. While multitude studies have been done in family business succession, the average lifespan of a family business continues to decline sharply over the past two decades to only 24 years, or 1.5 generations, in 2010, from 50-60 years, equivalent to 3 generations, as recently as 1990. While the qualitative approach of this study will not churn a theoretical framework unique to the family business field, it will bring to the surface important issues during a family business succession process that have been hidden behind the mostly profit-making issues that have been the main highlight of the family business field.

Keywords: family business, succession, nepotism, family studies

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3991 Diagnose of the Future of Family Businesses Based on the Study of Spanish Family Businesses Founders

Authors: Fernando Doral

Abstract:

Family businesses are a key phenomenon within the business landscape. Nevertheless, it involves two terms (“family” and “business”) which are nowadays rapidly evolving. Consequently, it isn't easy to diagnose if a family business will be a growing or decreasing phenomenon, which is the objective of this study. For that purpose, a sample of 50 Spanish-established companies from various sectors was taken. Different factors were identified for each enterprise, related to the profile of the founders, such as age, the number of sons and daughters, or support received from the family at the moment to start it up. That information was taken as an input for a clustering method to identify groups, which could help define the founders' profiles. That characterization was carried as a base to identify three factors whose evolution should be analyzed: family structures, business landscape and entrepreneurs' motivations. The analysis of the evolution of these three factors seems to indicate a negative tendency of family businesses. Therefore the consequent diagnosis of this study is to consider family businesses as a declining phenomenon.

Keywords: business diagnose, business trends, family business, family business founders

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3990 Children and Parents Left behind in Transnational Families: The Problem of Care Deficit

Authors: Joanna Bielecka-Prus

Abstract:

In the view of increasing number of labour migrations associated with broadly understood economic crisis, many families experience migration separation. Currently, in the era of globalization, migration movements include an increasing number of families, more and more frequently a new type of family, a transnational family. Accordingly, the functions of the family, family practice of care, and the relationships between members of the group change especially in the case of female migration. Sociologists highlight the emotional aspects of migrants’ family lives: managing emotions, coping with guilt, loneliness and rejection. Not without significance is the fact that today's public discourse often represents migrant women in a negative light. On the one hand, consumption and expanding material resources are assessed positively, on the other hand, deficits emotional and devastation of family life in the transnational families appear. Opinions expressed by different environments: the media, the political environment, etc. do not always take into account the context of mobility and their different effects on family life. The paper will present the analysis of qualitative studies of Polish female migrants’ families left-behind (children, parents, caregivers N = 100) and their coping strategies in different situations in the event of migration separation. The main area of care deficit will be defined and it will be showed who and how help to solve the problems.

Keywords: care, children left behind, female migration, parents left behind

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3989 The Right to Family Reunification of Immigrants in Spain

Authors: María José Benitez Jimenez

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This study seeks to make clear the importance of family reunification in order to establish consolidated habits of coexistence of immigrants, directly favoring the relationship of the family nucleus and indirectly the social integration of foreigners. In addition to the theoretical analysis of the subject, information has been reviewed by the National Institute of Statistics and Reports of Spanish organizations that compile data on immigrants and specifically on family reunification. The Spanish regulations on foreigners include the right of foreigners legally residing in Spain to regroup their families. The general conditions required to exercise this right are having legally resided in Spain for one year and having obtained authorization to reside for one more year. There are exceptions to the requirement of having resided for one year in our country. Article 39 of the Spanish Constitution, although it does not express what is to be understood as a family, does refer to the fact that ‘the public authorities ensure the social, economic and legal protection of the family’. Therefore for the Spanish State, the family institution, in a broad sense, enjoys a privileged treatment that is revealed in the Supreme Norm and that reflects the interest of our society to address the relationships that subjects have in their immediate environment. Although we are aware of the reluctant position of the Spanish Constitutional Court to consider as a fundamental right the right to family life despite being enshrined in Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, it is questionable whether access to authorization for family reunification should be more uniform in terms of requirements related to nationality, employment or training of applicants in order to have an egalitarian character. The requirement of having resided one year in Spain to be able to request successful family reunification seems dispensable because if foreigners can obviate this requirement by having a certain status, its abolition would be feasible by equating all situations and benefiting foreigners in general. The achievement of this proposal would help to strengthen the family life of immigrants from the beginning of their life in Spain.

Keywords: family, immigrants, social integration, reunification

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3988 The Lasting Impact of Parental Conflict on Self-Differentiation of Young Adult OffspringThe Lasting Impact of Parental Conflict on Self-Differentiation of Young Adult Offspring

Authors: A. Benedetto, P. Wong, N. Papouchis, L. W. Samstag

Abstract:

Bowen’s concept of self-differentiation describes a healthy balance of autonomy and intimacy in close relationships, and it has been widely researched in the context of family dynamics. The current study aimed to clarify the impact of family dysfunction on self-differentiation by specifically examining conflict between parents, and by including young adults, an underexamined age group in this domain (N = 300; ages 18 to 30). It also identified a protective factor for offspring from conflictual homes. The 300 young adults (recruited online through Mechanical Turk) completed the Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI), the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC), the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Analyses revealed that interparental conflict significantly impairs self-differentiation among young adult offspring. Specifically, exposure to parental conflict showed a negative impact on young adults’ sense of self, emotional reactivity, and interpersonal cutoff in the context of close relationships. Parental conflict was also related to increased psychological distress among offspring. Surprisingly, the study found that parental divorce does not impair self-differentiation in offspring, demonstrating the distinctly harmful impact of conflict. These results clarify a unique type of family dysfunction that impairs self-differentiation, specifically in distinguishing it from parental divorce; it examines young adults, a critical age group not previously examined in this domain; and it identifies a moderating protective factor (a strong parent-child bond) for offspring exposed to conflict. Overall, results suggest the need for modifications in parental behavior in order to protect offspring at risk of lasting emotional and interpersonal damage.

Keywords: divorce, family dysfunction, parental conflict, parent-child bond, relationships, self-differentiation, young adults

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3987 Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction

Authors: Nadezda Sergunicheva, Victoria Vasilenko

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The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.

Keywords: emotional characteristics, family interaction, fears, parental styles, preschoolers

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3986 Role of Family for Grooming a Child: A Protective Step for Vulnerable Child

Authors: Arpita Sabat, Kanaklata Samal

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A child is the most innocent being on the earth. It is born innocent but the family, the community, the institution and the world at large always butcher its innocence. This paper aims at the role of family for the development of a child in different ethnic or social groups. Family, in fact, is the nucleus in the growth and development of the child. A child grows up with the idea that a family is the world around him. The child tries to emulate consciously or unconsciously from the surrounding. This imitation has serious impact on the development of the child. It even sometimes cripples or stunts the growth of a mind. It results in the disability of the child. All policies about education or changing of curriculum can not bring about a change in the plight of a child’s life unless there is a serious thinking about the role of a family and the contribution of a family to the development of a child.

Keywords: vulnerable child, grooming, surrounding, role of family

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3985 Distorted Digital Mediated Communication: An Analysis of the Effect of Smartphone on Family Communication in Nigeria

Authors: Peter E. Egielewa

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Communication through the smartphone connects people globally. However, since the last 10 years, there has been an increasing shift from the social engagement in the family to the digital mediated communication aided by the smartphone. The traditional family communication had largely been oral and relational, which the smartphone is now digitally mediating. The study employs mixed research method of quantitative and qualitative research design and deploys questionnaire to elicit responses from both parents and children of 50 purposively selected families from five villages in Southern Nigeria that are very active with smartphone use. Based on the Theory of Family Systems, preliminary findings show that the smartphone is becoming an addiction among Nigerian family members and has shifted the dynamics of family communication from relational to digital culture. The research concludes that smartphone use affects family communication negatively and recommends the moderation of smartphone use in the family and the search for alternative platforms for family communication that minimises smartphone addiction.

Keywords: digital, distorted communication, family, Nigeria, smartphone

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3984 Applying Bowen’s Theory to Intern Supervision

Authors: Jeff A. Tysinger, Dawn P. Tysinger

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The aim of this paper is to theoretically apply Bowen’s understanding of triangulation and triads to school psychology intern supervision so that it can assist in the conceptualization of the dynamics of intern supervision and provide some key methods to address common issues. The school psychology internship is the capstone experience for the school psychologist in training. It involves three key participants whose relationships will determine the success of the internship.  To understand the potential effect, Bowen’s family systems theory can be applied to the supervision relationship. He describes a way to resolve stress between two people by triangulating or binging in a third person. He applies this to a nuclear family, but school psychology intern supervision requires the marriage of an intern, field supervisor, and university supervisor; thus, setting all up for possible triangulation. The consequences of triangulation can apply to standards and requirements, direct supervision, and intern evaluation. Strategies from family systems theory to decrease the negative impact of supervision triangulation.

Keywords: family systems theory, intern supervision, school psychology training, triangulation

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3983 The Effect of Interpersonal Relationships on Eating Patterns and Physical Activity among Asian-American and European-American Adolescents

Authors: Jamil Lane, Jason Freeman

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Background: The role of interpersonal relationships is vital predictors of adolescents’ eating habits, exercise activity, and health problems including obesity. The effect of interpersonal relationships (i.e. family, friends, and intimate partners) on individual health behaviors and development have gained considerable attention during the past 10 years. Teenagers eating habits and exercise activities are established through a dynamic course involving internal and external factors such as food preferences, body weight perception, and parental and peer influence. When conceptualizing one’s interpersonal relationships, it is important to understand that how one relates to others is shaped by their culture. East-Asian culture has been characterized as collectivistic, which describes the significant role intergroup relationships play in their construction of the self. Cultures found in North America, on the other hand, can be characterized as individualistic, meaning that these cultures encourage individuals to prioritize their interest over the needs and want of their compatriots. Individuals from collectivistic cultures typically have stronger boundaries between in-group and out-group membership, whereas those from individualistic cultures see themselves as distinct and separate from strangers as well as family or friends. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of collectivism and individualism on interpersonal relationships that shapes eating patterns and physical activity among Asian-American and European-American adolescents. Design/Methods: Analyses were based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States who were surveyed from 1994 through 2008. This data will be used to examine interpersonal relationship factors that shape dietary intake and physical activity patterns within the Asian-American and European-American population in the United States. Factors relating to relationship strength, eating, and exercise behaviors were reported by participants in this first wave of data collection (1995). We plan to analyze our data using intragroup comparisons among those who identified as 'Asian-American' (n = 270) and 'White or European American' (n = 4,294) among the domains of positivity of peer influence and level of physical activity / healthy eating. Further, intergroup comparisons of these relationships will be made to extricate how the role positive peer influence in maintaining healthy eating and exercise habits differs with cultural variation. Results: We hypothesize that East-Asian participants with a higher degree of positivity in their peer and family relationships will experience a significantly greater rise in healthy eating and exercise behaviors than European-American participants with similar degrees of relationship positivity.

Keywords: interpersonal relationships, eating patterns, physical activity, adolescent health

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3982 The Effect of Family Support on Employee Satisfaction and Perception of Work-Family Conflict: The Case of Oil Sector Employees in Kuwait

Authors: Ali H. Muhammad

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This paper investigates both instrumental and emotional family support on employee job satisfaction and perception of work-family conflict. Instrumental family support is manifested in family behavior that contributes to the reduction of employee’s family responsibilities and keeping the physical home environment in a proper shape. Emotional family support includes the encouragement and praise that the employee receives from his family and families for the employee’s work problem and their role in assisting the employees in dealing with these problems. The paper suggests that instrumental and emotional family support increases employee’s job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study proposes that family support decreases employee’s perception of work-family conflict. In addition, this study examines the reliability and validity of the family support index developed by Lynda King and her colleagues in 1995. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the validity of the instrument in an Arab business setting. A paper-pencil questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 70 Kuwaiti employees working in the oil sector. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, reliability tests, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the research hypothesis. Family support had a positive effect on job satisfaction. Furthermore, family support significantly contributed to the reduction of employee perception of work-family conflict.

Keywords: family support, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, Kuwait oil sector

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3981 Experiences and Coping of Adults with Death of Siblings during Childhood in Chinese Context: Implications for Therapeutic Interventions

Authors: Sze Yee Lee

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The death of a sibling in childhood leads to significant impacts on both the personal and family development of the surviving siblings. Yet, the effects of sibling loss in Chinese societies such as Hong Kong have been inadequately documented in the literature. In particular, there is a gap in the literature about the long term impacts on surviving siblings. This paper explores the experience of adult siblings encountering siblings’ death during childhood with the use of in-depth interviews. Through thematic analysis and in-depth interviews, the author explores the impacts on surviving siblings’ emotions, coping styles, struggles and challenges, and personal development. Furthermore, the influences on family dynamics are explored thoroughly, including the changes in a family atmosphere, family roles, family relationships, family communication, and parenting styles. More importantly, the author identifies (i) existing continuing bonds, (ii) crying, (iii) adequate social support, (iv) hiding own emotions as a gesture of protecting parents as the crucial elements pertinent to surviving siblings’ successful adaptation in the face of sibling loss. In addition, 'child-centered' and 'family-centered' interventions for families with siblings' death in a Chinese context are discussed. With the use of age-appropriate language and children’s participation in the preparation of death and after-death arrangements, surviving siblings could be assisted in transforming bereavement into opportunities for growth. In addition, the bereaved family could better cope with grief with open communication platforms, adequate social support, and family education resources. Meanwhile, life-and-death education at both school and community levels could enhance the public’s awareness and understanding of the bereaved individuals to prevent creating further harm to them.

Keywords: children and adolescent bereavement, children-centered, family-centered, sibling’s death

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