Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1113

Search results for: spectrum

1113 The Management of Radio Spectrum Resources in Thailand

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth


This research is the study of Spectrum Management and the increase in efficiency of Spectrum Utilization. It also proves that Cognitive Radio is a newer technology that will change the face of e-communications network today. This study used qualitative research methods by using in-depth interviews to collect data from a sample specific to those who work in Radio channel from 6 key informant and literature review from the related documents in online database. The result is the technique of Dynamic Spectrum Allocation that is the most suitable for Thailand. We conduct in-depth research for future purposes. Moreover, we can also develop a model that can be used in regulating and managing spectrum that is most suitable for Thailand. And also develop an important tool which can be of importance to allocation of spectrum as a natural resource appropriately. It will also guarantee quality and high benefit in a substantial way.

Keywords: cognitive radio, management of radio spectrum, spectrum management, spectrum scarcity

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1112 A Cloud-Based Spectrum Database Approach for Licensed Shared Spectrum Access

Authors: Hazem Abd El Megeed, Mohamed El-Refaay, Norhan Magdi Osman


Spectrum scarcity is a challenging obstacle in wireless communications systems. It hinders the introduction of innovative wireless services and technologies that require larger bandwidth comparing to legacy technologies. In addition, the current worldwide allocation of radio spectrum bands is already congested and can not afford additional squeezing or optimization to accommodate new wireless technologies. This challenge is a result of accumulative contributions from different factors that will be discussed later in this paper. One of these factors is the radio spectrum allocation policy governed by national regulatory authorities nowadays. The framework for this policy allocates specified portion of radio spectrum to a particular wireless service provider on exclusive utilization basis. This allocation is executed according to technical specification determined by the standard bodies of each Radio Access Technology (RAT). Dynamic access of spectrum is a framework for flexible utilization of radio spectrum resources. In this framework there is no exclusive allocation of radio spectrum and even the public safety agencies can share their spectrum bands according to a governing policy and service level agreements. In this paper, we explore different methods for accessing the spectrum dynamically and its associated implementation challenges.

Keywords: licensed shared access, cognitive radio, spectrum sharing, spectrum congestion, dynamic spectrum access, spectrum database, spectrum trading, reconfigurable radio systems, opportunistic spectrum allocation (OSA)

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1111 Spectrum Assignment Algorithms in Optical Networks with Protection

Authors: Qusay Alghazali, Tibor Cinkler, Abdulhalim Fayad


In modern optical networks, the flex grid spectrum usage is most widespread, where higher bit rate streams get larger spectrum slices while lower bit rate traffic streams get smaller spectrum slices. To our practice, under the ITU-T recommendation, G.694.1, spectrum slices of 50, 75, and 100 GHz are being used with central frequency at 193.1 THz. However, when these spectrum slices are not sufficient, multiple spectrum slices can use either one next to another or anywhere in the optical wavelength. In this paper, we propose the analysis of the wavelength assignment problem. We compare different algorithms for this spectrum assignment with and without protection. As a reference for comparisons, we concluded that the Integer Linear Programming (ILP) provides the global optimum for all cases. The most scalable algorithm is the greedy one, which yields results in subsequent ranges even for more significant network instances. The algorithms’ benchmark implemented using the LEMON C++ optimization library and simulation runs based on a minimum number of spectrum slices assigned to lightpaths and their execution time.

Keywords: spectrum assignment, integer linear programming, greedy algorithm, international telecommunication union, library for efficient modeling and optimization in networks

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1110 Spectrum Allocation Using Cognitive Radio in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Ayoub Alsarhan, Ahmed Otoom, Yousef Kilani, Abdel-Rahman al-GHuwairi


Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged recently to improve internet access and other networking services. WMNs provide network access to the clients and other networking functions such as routing, and packet forwarding. Spectrum scarcity is the main challenge that limits the performance of WMNs. Cognitive radio is proposed to solve spectrum scarcity problem. In this paper, we consider a cognitive wireless mesh network where unlicensed users (secondary users, SUs) can access free spectrum that is allocated to spectrum owners (primary users, PUs). Although considerable research has been conducted on spectrum allocation, spectrum assignment is still considered an important challenging problem. This problem can be solved using cognitive radio technology that allows SUs to intelligently locate free bands and access them without interfering with PUs. Our scheme considers several heuristics for spectrum allocation. These heuristics include: channel error rate, PUs activities, channel capacity and channel switching time. Performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows that the scheme is able to allocate the unused spectrum for SUs efficiently.

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, spectrum management, spectrum sharing, wireless mesh networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1109 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha


Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as P_f Vs P_d for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: spectrum sensing, energy detection, fading channels, probability of detection, probability of false alarm

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1108 A Self-Coexistence Strategy for Spectrum Allocation Using Selfish and Unselfish Game Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Noel Jeygar Robert, V. K.Vidya


Cognitive radio is a software-defined radio technology that allows cognitive users to operate on the vacant bands of spectrum allocated to licensed users. Cognitive radio plays a vital role in the efficient utilization of wireless radio spectrum available between cognitive users and licensed users without making any interference to licensed users. The spectrum allocation followed by spectrum sharing is done in a fashion where a cognitive user has to wait until spectrum holes are identified and allocated when the licensed user moves out of his own allocated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a self –coexistence strategy using bargaining and Cournot game model for achieving spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. The game-theoretic model analyses the behaviour of cognitive users in both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios and provides an equilibrium level of spectrum allocation. Game-theoretic models such as bargaining game model and Cournot game model produce a balanced distribution of spectrum resources and energy consumption. Simulation results show that both game theories achieve better performance compared to other popular techniques

Keywords: cognitive radio, game theory, bargaining game, Cournot game

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1107 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov


Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1106 UWB Open Spectrum Access for a Smart Software Radio

Authors: Hemalatha Rallapalli, K. Lal Kishore


In comparison to systems that are typically designed to provide capabilities over a narrow frequency range through hardware elements, the next generation cognitive radios are intended to implement a broader range of capabilities through efficient spectrum exploitation. This offers the user the promise of greater flexibility, seamless roaming possible on different networks, countries, frequencies, etc. It requires true paradigm shift i.e., liberalization over a wide band of spectrum as well as a growth path to more and greater capability. This work contributes towards the design and implementation of an open spectrum access (OSA) feature to unlicensed users thus offering a frequency agile radio platform that is capable of performing spectrum sensing over a wideband. Thus, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, which has the intelligence of spectrum sensing only, unlike the cognitive radio with complete intelligence, is named as a Smart Software Radio (SSR). The spectrum sensing mechanism is implemented based on energy detection. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of this method.

Keywords: cognitive radio, energy detection, software radio, spectrum sensing

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1105 The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale: A Tool for Planning Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum

Authors: Sonia Mastrangelo


The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale is a useful tool for obtaining information about the developmental capacities of children on the autism spectrum. The assessment, made up of 19 tasks in the areas of: body organization, contact with surroundings, expressive and receptive communication, representation, and social-emotional development, has been used with much success over the past 40 years. While many assessments are difficult to administer to children on the autism spectrum, the simplicity of the MUAS reveals key strengths and challenges for both low and high functioning children on the spectrum. The results guide parents and clinicians in providing a curriculum and/or home program that moves children up the developmental ladder.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, assessment, reading intervention, Miller method

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
1104 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi


The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
1103 Comparison of Various Response Spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant at Chashma Site

Authors: J. Iqbal, A. Shah, M. Zeeshan


UBC-97, USNRC, chines origin code GB50011-2011 and site response spectrum was used to make comparison between them for Chashma site and most conservative one was selected and the USNRC was the most conservative one. The dynamic analysis of CHASNUPP-2 containment building was performed using SAP-2000 for dead load, live load (crane), pre stressed loads, wind load, temperature load, accidental pressure during LOCA, earthquake loads and the conservative response spectrum. After applying selected response spectrum on model, detail comparison was made against area of steal calculated from the analysis and the actually provided. Then prepared curve of area of steal vs. g value which shows that if the particular site was design on that spectrum that much steel needed for structural integrity.

Keywords: response spectrum, USNRC, LOCA, area of steel, structure integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 593
1102 Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Tallataf Rasheed, Adnan Rashdi, Ahmad Naeem Akhtar


The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, energy detector, reliability factors, fuzzy logic

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1101 Medical Image Classification Using Legendre Multifractal Spectrum Features

Authors: R. Korchiyne, A. Sbihi, S. M. Farssi, R. Touahni, M. Tahiri Alaoui


Trabecular bone structure is important texture in the study of osteoporosis. Legendre multifractal spectrum can reflect the complex and self-similarity characteristic of structures. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique of medical image classification based on Legendre multifractal spectrum. Novel features have been developed from basic geometrical properties of this spectrum in a supervised image classification. The proposed method has been successfully used to classify medical images of bone trabeculations, and could be a useful supplement to the clinical observations for osteoporosis diagnosis. A comparative study with existing data reveals that the results of this approach are concordant.

Keywords: multifractal analysis, medical image, osteoporosis, fractal dimension, Legendre spectrum, supervised classification

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1100 An Intelligent Cloud Radio Access Network (RAN) Architecture for Future 5G Heterogeneous Wireless Network

Authors: Jin Xu


5G network developers need to satisfy the necessary requirements of additional capacity from massive users and spectrally efficient wireless technologies. Therefore, the significant amount of underutilized spectrum in network is motivating operators to combine long-term evolution (LTE) with intelligent spectrum management technology. This new LTE intelligent spectrum management in unlicensed band (LTE-U) has the physical layer topology to access spectrum, specifically the 5-GHz band. We proposed a new intelligent cloud RAN for 5G.

Keywords: cloud radio access network, wireless network, cloud computing, multi-agent

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1099 An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Daehyoung Kim, Pervez Khan, Hoon Kim


Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity. To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect, but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW) adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC.

Keywords: spectrum sharing, adaptive opportunistic transmission, unlicensed bands, heterogeneous networks

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1098 Symbolic Analysis of Power Spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch


This paper proposes for the first time symbolic formula of the power spectrum of cross couple oscillator and its modified circuit. Many principle existed to derived power spectrum in microwave textbook such as impedance, admittance parameters, ABCD, H parameters, etc. It can be compared by graph of power spectrum which methodology is the best from the point of view of practical measurement setup such as condition of impedance parameter which used superposition of current to derived (its current injection of the other port of the circuit is zero, which is impossible in reality). Four Graphs of impedance parameters of cross couple oscillator is proposed. After that four graphs of Scattering parameters of cross couple oscillator will be shown.

Keywords: optimization, power spectrum, impedance parameters, scattering parameter

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1097 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma


The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), localization, turbulence, turbulent spectrum

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1096 Ductility Spectrum Method for the Design and Verification of Structures

Authors: B. Chikh, L. Moussa, H. Bechtoula, Y. Mehani, A. Zerzour


This study presents a new method, applicable to evaluation and design of structures has been developed and illustrated by comparison with the capacity spectrum method (CSM, ATC-40). This method uses inelastic spectra and gives peak responses consistent with those obtained when using the nonlinear time history analysis. Hereafter, the seismic demands assessment method is called in this paper DSM, Ductility Spectrum Method. It is used to estimate the seismic deformation of Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) systems based on DDRS, Ductility Demand Response Spectrum, developed by the author.

Keywords: seismic demand, capacity, inelastic spectra, design and structure

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1095 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei


In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

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1094 Analysis of Decentralized on Demand Cross Layer in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network

Authors: A. Sri Janani, K. Immanuel Arokia James


Cognitive radio ad hoc networks different unlicensed users may acquire different available channel sets. This non-uniform spectrum availability imposes special design challenges for broadcasting in CR ad hoc networks. Cognitive radio automatically detects available channels in wireless spectrum. This is a form of dynamic spectrum management. Cross-layer optimization is proposed, using this can allow far away secondary users can also involve into channel work. So it can increase the throughput and it will overcome the collision and time delay.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cross layer optimization, CR mesh network, heterogeneous spectrum, mesh topology, random routing optimization technique

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1093 Physicochemical Characterization of Mercerized Cellulose-Supported Nickel-Oxide

Authors: Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Hisham S. M. Abd-Rabboh, Mohamed S. Hamdy, Ibrahim H. A. Badr


Microwave radiation was applied to synthesize nanoparticles of nickel oxide supported on pretreated cellulose with metal acetate in the presence of NaOH. Optimization, in terms of irradiation time and metal concentration, was investigated. FT-IR spectrum of cellulose/NiO spectrum shows a band at 445 cm^-1 that is related to the Ni–O stretching vibration of NiO6 octahedral in the cubic NiO structure. cellulose/NiO showed similar XRD pattern of cellulose I and exhibited sharpened reflection peak at 2q = 29.8°, corresponding to (111) plane of NiO, with two weak broad peaks at 48.5°, and 49.2°, representing (222) planes of NiO. XPS spectrum of mercerized cellulose/NiO composite showed did not show any peaks corresponding to Na ion.

Keywords: cellulose, mercerized cellulose, cellulose/zinc and nickeloxides composite, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, Raman spectrum

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1092 A Sparse Representation Speech Denoising Method Based on Adapted Stopping Residue Error

Authors: Qianhua He, Weili Zhou, Aiwu Chen


A sparse representation speech denoising method based on adapted stopping residue error was presented in this paper. Firstly, the cross-correlation between the clean speech spectrum and the noise spectrum was analyzed, and an estimation method was proposed. In the denoising method, an over-complete dictionary of the clean speech power spectrum was learned with the K-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. In the sparse representation stage, the stopping residue error was adaptively achieved according to the estimated cross-correlation and the adjusted noise spectrum, and the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) approach was applied to reconstruct the clean speech spectrum from the noisy speech. Finally, the clean speech was re-synthesised via the inverse Fourier transform with the reconstructed speech spectrum and the noisy speech phase. The experiment results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional methods in terms of subjective and objective measure.

Keywords: speech denoising, sparse representation, k-singular value decomposition, orthogonal matching pursuit

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1091 Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Hybrid IWO/PSO Algorithm in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Deepa Das, Susmita Das


Cognitive Radio (CR) is an emerging technology to combat the spectrum scarcity issues. This is achieved by consistently sensing the spectrum, and detecting the under-utilized frequency bands without causing undue interference to the primary user (PU). In soft decision fusion (SDF) based cooperative spectrum sensing, various evolutionary algorithms have been discussed, which optimize the weight coefficient vector for maximizing the detection performance. In this paper, we propose the hybrid invasive weed optimization and particle swarm optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm as a fast and global optimization method, which improves the detection probability with a lesser sensing time. Then, the efficiency of this algorithm is compared with the standard invasive weed optimization (IWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and other conventional SDF based methods on the basis of convergence and detection probability.

Keywords: cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, soft decision fusion, GA, PSO, IWO, hybrid IWO/PSO

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1090 Nine Foundational Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Jennie Long, Marjorie Bock


Although the professional literature related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has focused on successful interventions and strategies, there is a lack of documentation regarding which of these methods and supports are most foundational and essential for classroom use. Specifically, literature does not define the core foundational interventions and strategies that would be elemental for educators to use with students with an ASD diagnosis. From the increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, to the challenge students with ASD pose in classrooms, to the requirement to implement evidence-based practice, rises an enormous challenge in the field of education. Foundational interventions should be in place the first day the student enters the classroom. The nine interventions are foundational in nature and because of the dramatic increase in prevalence there is currently a need for classroom programs to provide the foundation of basic educational skills as well as the specialty skills specific to the area of ASD utilizing the most current research. This article presents nine evidence-based intervention categories for implementation with students on the spectrum.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, classroom, evidence-based, foundational

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1089 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

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1088 An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel

Authors: H. Bakhshi, E. Khayyamian


Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing, energy detection, SNR estimation, spectrum sensing, rayleigh fading channel

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1087 Behaviours of Energy Spectrum at Low Reynolds Numbers in Grid Turbulence

Authors: Md Kamruzzaman, Lyazid Djenidi, R. A. Antonia


This paper reports an experimental investigation of the energy spectrum of turbulent velocity fields at low Reynolds numbers ( Rλ ) in grid turbulence. Hot wire measurements are carried out in grid turbulence with subjected to a 1.36:1 contraction of the wind tunnel. Three different grids are used: (i) large square perforated grid (mesh size 43.75 mm), (ii) small square perforated grid (mesh size 14 and (iii) woven mesh grid (mesh size 5mm). The results indicate that the energy spectrum at small Rλ does not follow Kolmogorov’s universal scaling. It is further found that the critical Reynolds number,Rλ,ϲ below which the scaling breaks down is around 25.

Keywords: energy spectrum, Taylor microscale, Reynolds number, turbulent kinetic energy, decay exponent

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1086 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony


Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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1085 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony


Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, nano, IR, XRD, SEM

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1084 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar


The main aim of the communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In cognitive radio, any user or transceiver have the ability to sense best suitable channel, while the channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of licensed user without any interference. Though the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper, we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision-making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cognitive radio, cognitive radio networks, back propagation, spectrum sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 421