Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5467

Search results for: estimationof distribution algorithms

5467 Applying Sequential Pattern Mining to Generate Block for Scheduling Problems

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chen-Yu Kao, Chia-Yu Hsu, Pei-Chann Chang


The main idea in this paper is using sequential pattern mining to find the information which is helpful for finding high performance solutions. By combining this information, it is defined as blocks. Using the blocks to generate artificial chromosomes (ACs) could improve the structure of solutions. Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) is adapted to solve the combinatorial problems. Nevertheless many of these approaches are advantageous for this application, but only some of them are used to enhance the efficiency of application. Generating ACs uses patterns and EDAs could increase the diversity. According to the experimental result, the algorithm which we proposed has a better performance to solve the permutation flow-shop problems.

Keywords: combinatorial problems, sequential pattern mining, estimationof distribution algorithms, artificial chromosomes

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5466 Pre-Shared Key Distribution Algorithms' Attacks for Body Area Networks: A Survey

Authors: Priti Kumari, Tricha Anjali


Body Area Networks (BANs) have emerged as the most promising technology for pervasive health care applications. Since they facilitate communication of very sensitive health data, information leakage in such networks can put human life at risk, and hence security inside BANs is a critical issue. Safe distribution and periodic refreshment of cryptographic keys are needed to ensure the highest level of security. In this paper, we focus on the key distribution techniques and how they are categorized for BAN. The state-of-art pre-shared key distribution algorithms are surveyed. Possible attacks on algorithms are demonstrated with examples.

Keywords: attacks, body area network, key distribution, key refreshment, pre-shared keys

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5465 Comparison between Continuous Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization for Distribution Network Reconfiguration

Authors: Linh Nguyen Tung, Anh Truong Viet, Nghien Nguyen Ba, Chuong Trinh Trong


This paper proposes a reconfiguration methodology based on a continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for minimizing active power loss and minimizing voltage deviation. Both algorithms are adapted using graph theory to generate feasible individuals, and the modified crossover is used for continuous variable of CGA. To demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed methods, a comparative analysis of CGA with PSO for network reconfiguration, on 33-node and 119-bus radial distribution system is presented. The simulation results have shown that both CGA and PSO can be used in the distribution network reconfiguration and CGA outperformed PSO with significant success rate in finding optimal distribution network configuration.

Keywords: distribution network reconfiguration, particle swarm optimization, continuous genetic algorithm, power loss reduction, voltage deviation

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5464 An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Control Algorithm on the Energy Consumption and Temperature Distribution of a Household Refrigerator

Authors: G. Peker, Tolga N. Aynur, E. Tinar


In order to determine the energy consumption level and cooling characteristics of a domestic refrigerator controlled with various cooling system algorithms, a side by side type (SBS) refrigerator was tested in temperature and humidity controlled chamber conditions. Two different control algorithms; so-called drop-in and frequency controlled variable capacity compressor algorithms, were tested on the same refrigerator. Refrigerator cooling characteristics were investigated for both cases and results were compared with each other. The most important comparison parameters between the two algorithms were taken as; temperature distribution, energy consumption, evaporation and condensation temperatures, and refrigerator run times. Standard energy consumption tests were carried out on the same appliance and resulted in almost the same energy consumption levels, with a difference of %1,5. By using these two different control algorithms, the power consumptions character/profile of the refrigerator was found to be similar. By following the associated energy measurement standard, the temperature values of the test packages were measured to be slightly higher for the frequency controlled algorithm compared to the drop-in algorithm. This paper contains the details of this experimental study conducted with different cooling control algorithms and compares the findings based on the same standard conditions.

Keywords: control algorithm, cooling, energy consumption, refrigerator

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5463 A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for multi-objective dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm is high level, in which several algorithms search the space on different machines simultaneously also it is a hybrid algorithm that takes advantages of the artificial intelligence, evolutionary and optimization methods. Distribution is done at different levels and new approaches are used for design of the algorithm. Apache spark and Hadoop frameworks have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The Pareto optimality approach is used for solving the multi-objective benchmarks. The suggested algorithm that is able to solve large-size problems in short times has been compared with the successful algorithms of the literature. The results prove high speed and efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, apache-spark, Hadoop, flexible dynamic job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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5462 A Speeded up Robust Scale-Invariant Feature Transform Currency Recognition Algorithm

Authors: Daliyah S. Aljutaili, Redna A. Almutlaq, Suha A. Alharbi, Dina M. Ibrahim


All currencies around the world look very different from each other. For instance, the size, color, and pattern of the paper are different. With the development of modern banking services, automatic methods for paper currency recognition become important in many applications like vending machines. One of the currency recognition architecture’s phases is Feature detection and description. There are many algorithms that are used for this phase, but they still have some disadvantages. This paper proposes a feature detection algorithm, which merges the advantages given in the current SIFT and SURF algorithms, which we call, Speeded up Robust Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SR-SIFT) algorithm. Our proposed SR-SIFT algorithm overcomes the problems of both the SIFT and SURF algorithms. The proposed algorithm aims to speed up the SIFT feature detection algorithm and keep it robust. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SR-SIFT algorithm decreases the average response time, especially in small and minimum number of best key points, increases the distribution of the number of best key points on the surface of the currency. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm increases the accuracy of the true best point distribution inside the currency edge than the other two algorithms.

Keywords: currency recognition, feature detection and description, SIFT algorithm, SURF algorithm, speeded up and robust features

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5461 Loss Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Loads of Composite Types

Authors: Sumit Banerjee, Chandan Kumar Chanda


The paper presents allocation of active power losses and energy losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment for loads of composite types. A detailed comparison among four algorithms, namely quadratic loss allocation, proportional loss allocation, pro rata loss allocation and exact loss allocation methods are presented. Quadratic and proportional loss allocations are based on identifying the active and reactive components of current in each branch and the losses are allocated to each consumer, pro rata loss allocation method is based on the load demand of each consumer and exact loss allocation method is based on the actual contribution of active power loss by each consumer. The effectiveness of the proposed comparison among four algorithms for composite load is demonstrated through an example.

Keywords: composite type, deregulation, loss allocation, radial distribution networks

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5460 Adaptive CFAR Analysis for Non-Gaussian Distribution

Authors: Bouchemha Amel, Chachoui Takieddine, H. Maalem


Automatic detection of targets in a modern communication system RADAR is based primarily on the concept of adaptive CFAR detector. To have an effective detection, we must minimize the influence of disturbances due to the clutter. The detection algorithm adapts the CFAR detection threshold which is proportional to the average power of the clutter, maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. In this article, we analyze the performance of two variants of adaptive algorithms CA-CFAR and OS-CFAR and we compare the thresholds of these detectors in the marine environment (no-Gaussian) with a Weibull distribution.

Keywords: CFAR, threshold, clutter, distribution, Weibull, detection

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5459 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

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5458 Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan


Clustering is a process of grouping objects and data into groups of clusters to ensure that data objects from the same cluster are identical to each other. Clustering algorithms in one of the areas in data mining and it can be classified into partition, hierarchical, density based, and grid-based. Therefore, in this paper, we do a survey and review for four major hierarchical clustering algorithms called CURE, ROCK, CHAMELEON, and BIRCH. The obtained state of the art of these algorithms will help in eliminating the current problems, as well as deriving more robust and scalable algorithms for clustering.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, algorithms, hierarchical

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5457 A Cognitive Approach to the Optimization of Power Distribution across an Educational Campus

Authors: Mrinmoy Majumder, Apu Kumar Saha


The ever-increasing human population and its demand for energy is placing stress upon conventional energy sources; and as demand for power continues to outstrip supply, the need to optimize energy distribution and utilization is emerging as an important focus for various stakeholders. The distribution of available energy must be achieved in such a way that the needs of the consumer are satisfied. However, if the availability of resources is not sufficient to satisfy consumer demand, it is necessary to find a method to select consumers based on factors such as their socio-economic or environmental impacts. Weighting consumer types in this way can help separate them based on their relative importance, and cognitive optimization of the allocation process can then be carried out so that, even on days of particularly scarce supply, the socio-economic impacts of not satisfying the needs of consumers can be minimized. In this context, the present study utilized fuzzy logic to assign weightage to different types of consumers based at an educational campus in India, and then established optimal allocation by applying the non-linear mapping capability of neuro-genetic algorithms. The outputs of the algorithms were compared with similar outputs from particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithms. The results of the study demonstrate an option for the optimal utilization of available energy based on the socio-economic importance of consumers.

Keywords: power allocation, optimization problem, neural networks, environmental and ecological engineering

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5456 A High-Level Co-Evolutionary Hybrid Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for the multi-objective job shop scheduling problem. Many new approaches are used at design steps of the distributed algorithm. Co-evolutionary structure of the algorithm and competition between different communicated hybrid algorithms, which are executed simultaneously, causes to efficient search. Using several machines for distributing the algorithms, at the iteration and solution levels, increases computational speed. The proposed algorithm is able to find the Pareto solutions of the big problems in shorter time than other algorithm in the literature. Apache Spark and Hadoop platforms have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The suggested algorithm and implementations have been compared with results of the successful algorithms in the literature. Results prove the efficiency and high speed of the algorithm.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, Apache Spark, Hadoop, job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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5455 Fault Diagnosis of Manufacturing Systems Using AntTreeStoch with Parameter Optimization by ACO

Authors: Ouahab Kadri, Leila Hayet Mouss


In this paper, we present three diagnostic modules for complex and dynamic systems. These modules are based on three ant colony algorithms, which are AntTreeStoch, Lumer & Faieta and Binary ant colony. We chose these algorithms for their simplicity and their wide application range. However, we cannot use these algorithms in their basement forms as they have several limitations. To use these algorithms in a diagnostic system, we have proposed three variants. We have tested these algorithms on datasets issued from two industrial systems, which are clinkering system and pasteurization system.

Keywords: ant colony algorithms, complex and dynamic systems, diagnosis, classification, optimization

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5454 Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols

Authors: I. Baddari, A. Riahla, M. Mezghich


Today in the literature, we discover a lot of routing algorithms which some have been the subject of normalization. Two great classes Routing algorithms are defined, the first is the class reactive algorithms and the second that of algorithms proactive. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study between some routing algorithms. Two comparisons are considered. The first will focus on the protocols of the same class and second class on algorithms of different classes (one reactive and the other proactive). Since they are not based on analytical models, the exact evaluation of some aspects of these protocols is challenging. Simulations have to be done in order to study their performances. Our simulation is performed in NS2 (Network Simulator 2). It identified a classification of the different routing algorithms studied in a metrics such as loss of message, the time transmission, mobility, etc.

Keywords: ad-hoc network routing protocol, simulation, NS2, delay, packet loss, wideband, mobility

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5453 A Flexible Pareto Distribution Using α-Power Transformation

Authors: Shumaila Ehtisham


In Statistical Distribution Theory, considering an additional parameter to classical distributions is a usual practice. In this study, a new distribution referred to as α-Power Pareto distribution is introduced by including an extra parameter. Several properties of the proposed distribution including explicit expressions for the moment generating function, mode, quantiles, entropies and order statistics are obtained. Unknown parameters have been estimated by using maximum likelihood estimation technique. Two real datasets have been considered to examine the usefulness of the proposed distribution. It has been observed that α-Power Pareto distribution outperforms while compared to different variants of Pareto distribution on the basis of model selection criteria.

Keywords: α-power transformation, maximum likelihood estimation, moment generating function, Pareto distribution

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5452 An Extension of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Abdous Saboor


A q-analogue of the generalized extreme value distribution which includes the Gumbel distribution is introduced. The additional parameter q allows for increased modeling flexibility. The resulting distribution can have a finite, semi-infinite or infinite support. It can also produce several types of hazard rate functions. The model parameters are determined by making use of the method of maximum likelihood. It will be shown that it compares favourably to three related distributions in connection with the modeling of a certain hydrological data set.

Keywords: extreme value theory, generalized extreme value distribution, goodness-of-fit statistics, Gumbel distribution

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5451 Radial Distribution Network Reliability Improvement by Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Azim Khodadadi, Sahar Sadaat Vakili, Ebrahim Babaei


This study presents a numerical method to optimize the failure rate and repair time of a typical radial distribution system. Failure rate and repair time are effective parameters in customer and energy based indices of reliability. Decrease of these parameters improves reliability indices. Thus, system stability will be boost. The penalty functions indirectly reflect the cost of investment which spent to improve these indices. Constraints on customer and energy based indices, i.e. SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS have been considered by using a new method which reduces optimization algorithm controlling parameters. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) used as main optimization technique and particle swarm optimization (PSO), simulated annealing (SA) and differential evolution (DE) has been applied for further investigation. These algorithms have been implemented on a test system by MATLAB. Obtained results have been compared with each other. The optimized values of repair time and failure rate are much lower than current values which this achievement reduced investment cost and also ICA gives better answer than the other used algorithms.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, failure rate, repair time, radial distribution network

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5450 A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production

Authors: Nkechi Neboh, Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola Enitan, Oludayo Olugbara


Evolutionary algorithms are techniques extensively used in the planning and management of water resources and systems. It is useful in finding optimal solutions to water resources problems considering the complexities involved in the analysis. River basin management is an essential area that involves the management of upstream, river inflow and outflow including downstream aspects of a reservoir. Water as a scarce resource is needed by human and the environment for survival and its management involve a lot of complexities. Management of this scarce resource is necessary for proper distribution to competing users in a river basin. This presents a lot of complexities involving many constraints and conflicting objectives. Evolutionary algorithms are very useful in solving this kind of complex problems with ease. Evolutionary algorithms are easy to use, fast and robust with many other advantages. Many applications of evolutionary algorithms, which are population based search algorithm, are discussed. Different methodologies involved in the modeling and simulation of water management problems in river basins are explained. It was found from this work that different evolutionary algorithms are suitable for different problems. Therefore, appropriate algorithms are suggested for different methodologies and applications based on results of previous studies reviewed. It is concluded that evolutionary algorithms, with wide applications in water resources management, are viable and easy algorithms for most of the applications. The results suggested that evolutionary algorithms, applied in the right application areas, can suggest superior solutions for river basin management especially in reservoir operations, irrigation planning and management, stream flow forecasting and real-time applications. The future directions in this work are suggested. This study will assist decision makers and stakeholders on the best evolutionary algorithm to use in varied optimization issues in water resources management.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, multi-objective, reservoir operation, river basin management

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5449 A Fuzzy Kernel K-Medoids Algorithm for Clustering Uncertain Data Objects

Authors: Behnam Tavakkol


Uncertain data mining algorithms use different ways to consider uncertainty in data such as by representing a data object as a sample of points or a probability distribution. Fuzzy methods have long been used for clustering traditional (certain) data objects. They are used to produce non-crisp cluster labels. For uncertain data, however, besides some uncertain fuzzy k-medoids algorithms, not many other fuzzy clustering methods have been developed. In this work, we develop a fuzzy kernel k-medoids algorithm for clustering uncertain data objects. The developed fuzzy kernel k-medoids algorithm is superior to existing fuzzy k-medoids algorithms in clustering data sets with non-linearly separable clusters.

Keywords: clustering algorithm, fuzzy methods, kernel k-medoids, uncertain data

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5448 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun


Efficient use of energy, with the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system were analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses

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5447 Examining the Performance of Three Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Based on Benchmarking Problems

Authors: Konstantinos Metaxiotis, Konstantinos Liagkouras


The objective of this study is to examine the performance of three well-known multiobjective evolutionary algorithms for solving optimization problems. The first algorithm is the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), the second one is the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA-2), and the third one is the Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms based on decomposition (MOEA/D). The examined multiobjective algorithms are analyzed and tested on the ZDT set of test functions by three performance metrics. The results indicate that the NSGA-II performs better than the other two algorithms based on three performance metrics.

Keywords: MOEAs, multiobjective optimization, ZDT test functions, evolutionary algorithms

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5446 Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution: A Generalization of the Weibull Probability Distribution

Authors: Abd El Hady N. Ebraheim


This paper introduces a new generalization of the two parameter Weibull distribution. To this end, the quadratic rank transmutation map has been used. This new distribution is named exponentiated transmuted Weibull (ETW) distribution. The ETW distribution has the advantage of being capable of modeling various shapes of aging and failure criteria. Furthermore, eleven lifetime distributions such as the Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Rayleigh and exponential distributions, among others follow as special cases. The properties of the new model are discussed and the maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters. Explicit expressions are derived for the quantiles. The moments of the distribution are derived, and the order statistics are examined.

Keywords: exponentiated, inversion method, maximum likelihood estimation, transmutation map

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5445 The Beta-Fisher Snedecor Distribution with Applications to Cancer Remission Data

Authors: K. A. Adepoju, O. I. Shittu, A. U. Chukwu


In this paper, a new four-parameter generalized version of the Fisher Snedecor distribution called Beta- F distribution is introduced. The comprehensive account of the statistical properties of the new distributions was considered. Formal expressions for the cumulative density function, moments, moment generating function and maximum likelihood estimation, as well as its Fisher information, were obtained. The flexibility of this distribution as well as its robustness using cancer remission time data was demonstrated. The new distribution can be used in most applications where the assumption underlying the use of other lifetime distributions is violated.

Keywords: fisher-snedecor distribution, beta-f distribution, outlier, maximum likelihood method

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5444 Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods on a Two-Parameter Rayleigh Distribution under Progressive Type-Ii Censoring

Authors: Daniel Fundi Murithi


Data from economic, social, clinical, and industrial studies are in some way incomplete or incorrect due to censoring. Such data may have adverse effects if used in the estimation problem. We propose the use of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) under a progressive type-II censoring scheme to remedy this problem. In particular, maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) for the location (µ) and scale (λ) parameters of two Parameter Rayleigh distribution are realized under a progressive type-II censoring scheme using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and the Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithms. These algorithms are used comparatively because they iteratively produce satisfactory results in the estimation problem. The progressively type-II censoring scheme is used because it allows the removal of test units before the termination of the experiment. Approximate asymptotic variances and confidence intervals for the location and scale parameters are derived/constructed. The efficiency of EM and the NR algorithms is compared given root mean squared error (RMSE), bias, and the coverage rate. The simulation study showed that in most sets of simulation cases, the estimates obtained using the Expectation-maximization algorithm had small biases, small variances, narrower/small confidence intervals width, and small root of mean squared error compared to those generated via the Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithm. Further, the analysis of a real-life data set (data from simple experimental trials) showed that the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm performs better compared to Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithm in all simulation cases under the progressive type-II censoring scheme.

Keywords: expectation-maximization algorithm, maximum likelihood estimation, Newton-Raphson method, two-parameter Rayleigh distribution, progressive type-II censoring

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5443 Comparison of ANFIS Update Methods Using Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Artificial Bee Colony

Authors: Michael R. Phangtriastu, Herriyandi Herriyandi, Diaz D. Santika


This paper presents a comparison of the implementation of metaheuristic algorithms to train the antecedent parameters and consequence parameters in the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The algorithms compared are genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial bee colony (ABC). The objective of this paper is to benchmark well-known metaheuristic algorithms. The algorithms are applied to several data set with different nature. The combinations of the algorithms' parameters are tested. In all algorithms, a different number of populations are tested. In PSO, combinations of velocity are tested. In ABC, a different number of limit abandonment are tested. Experiments find out that ABC is more reliable than other algorithms, ABC manages to get better mean square error (MSE) than other algorithms in all data set.

Keywords: ANFIS, artificial bee colony, genetic algorithm, metaheuristic algorithm, particle swarm optimization

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5442 Efficient Design of Distribution Logistics by Using a Model-Based Decision Support System

Authors: J. Becker, R. Arnold


The design of distribution logistics has a decisive impact on a company's logistics costs and performance. Hence, such solutions make an essential contribution to corporate success. This article describes a decision support system for analyzing the potential of distribution logistics in terms of logistics costs and performance. In contrast to previous procedures of business process re-engineering (BPR), this method maps distribution logistics holistically under variable distribution structures. Combined with qualitative measures the decision support system will contribute to a more efficient design of distribution logistics.

Keywords: decision support system, distribution logistics, potential analyses, supply chain management

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5441 Design of Distribution Network for Gas Cylinders in Jordan

Authors: Hazem J. Smadi


Performance of a supply chain is directly related to a distribution network that entails the location of storing materials or products and how products are delivered to the end customer through different stages in the supply chain. This study analyses the current distribution network used for delivering gas cylinders to end customer in Jordan. Evaluation of current distribution has been conducted across customer service components. A modification on the current distribution network in terms of central warehousing in each city in the country improves the response time and customer experience. 

Keywords: distribution network, gas cylinder, Jordan, supply chain

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5440 A New Distribution and Application on the Lifetime Data

Authors: Gamze Ozel, Selen Cakmakyapan


We introduce a new model called the Marshall-Olkin Rayleigh distribution which extends the Rayleigh distribution using Marshall-Olkin transformation and has increasing and decreasing shapes for the hazard rate function. Various structural properties of the new distribution are derived including explicit expressions for the moments, generating and quantile function, some entropy measures, and order statistics are presented. The model parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and the observed information matrix is determined. The potentiality of the new model is illustrated by means of real life data set.

Keywords: Marshall-Olkin distribution, Rayleigh distribution, estimation, maximum likelihood

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5439 Influence of Optical Fluence Distribution on Photoacoustic Imaging

Authors: Mohamed K. Metwally, Sherif H. El-Gohary, Kyung Min Byun, Seung Moo Han, Soo Yeol Lee, Min Hyoung Cho, Gon Khang, Jinsung Cho, Tae-Seong Kim


Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that combines the absorption contrast of light with ultrasound resolution. Laser is used to deposit optical energy into a target (i.e., optical fluence). Consequently, the target temperature rises, and then thermal expansion occurs that leads to generating a PA signal. In general, most image reconstruction algorithms for PAI assume uniform fluence within an imaging object. However, it is known that optical fluence distribution within the object is non-uniform. This could affect the reconstruction of PA images. In this study, we have investigated the influence of optical fluence distribution on PA back-propagation imaging using finite element method. The uniform fluence was simulated as a triangular waveform within the object of interest. The non-uniform fluence distribution was estimated by solving light propagation within a tissue model via Monte Carlo method. The results show that the PA signal in the case of non-uniform fluence is wider than the uniform case by 23%. The frequency spectrum of the PA signal due to the non-uniform fluence has missed some high frequency components in comparison to the uniform case. Consequently, the reconstructed image with the non-uniform fluence exhibits a strong smoothing effect.

Keywords: finite element method, fluence distribution, Monte Carlo method, photoacoustic imaging

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5438 The Current Situation of Ang Thong Province’s Court Doll Distribution

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom


This research is objected to study the pattern and channel of distribution of Ang Thong’s court doll OTOP product and try to develop the quality of distribution of the court doll product. The population of this research is 50 court doll manufacturers of Ang Thong’s court doll. The data and information was collected by using the questionnaire and use percentage, mean and standard deviation as an analysis tools. The distribution channel of Ang Thong’s court doll can be separated into 3 channels which are direct distribution from the manufacturer, via the middleman and via the co-operated manufacturing group. In the direct distribution from the manufacturer channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to how they keep the inventory. In the distribution via the middleman channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the distribution efficiency. But in the distribution via the co-operated manufacturing group, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the public relationship.

Keywords: distribution, court doll, Ang Thong province, business and social sciences

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