Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 721

Search results for: symmetric distributions

721 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

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720 Some Classes of Lorentzian Alpha-Sasakian Manifolds with Respect to Quarter-Symmetric Metric Connection

Authors: Santu Dey, Arindam Bhattacharyya


The object of the present paper is to study a quarter-symmetric metric connection in a Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold. We study some curvature properties of Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We investigate quasi-projectively at, Φ-symmetric, Φ-projectively at Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifolds with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We also discuss Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold admitting quartersymmetric metric connection satisfying P.S = 0, where P denote the projective curvature tensor with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection.

Keywords: quarter-symmetric metric connection, Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, quasi-projectively flat Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, phi-symmetric manifold

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719 A Variant of a Double Structure-Preserving QR Algorithm for Symmetric and Hamiltonian Matrices

Authors: Ahmed Salam, Haithem Benkahla


Recently, an efficient backward-stable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and vectors of a symmetric and Hamiltonian matrix has been proposed. The method preserves the symmetric and Hamiltonian structures of the original matrix, during the whole process. In this paper, we revisit the method. We derive a way for implementing the reduction of the matrix to the appropriate condensed form. Then, we construct a novel version of the implicit QR-algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and vectors.

Keywords: block implicit QR algorithm, preservation of a double structure, QR algorithm, symmetric and Hamiltonian structures

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718 Finite Eigenstrains in Nonlinear Elastic Solid Wedges

Authors: Ashkan Golgoon, Souhayl Sadik, Arash Yavari


Eigenstrains in nonlinear solids are created due to anelastic effects such as non-uniform temperature distributions, growth, remodeling, and defects. Eigenstrains understanding is indispensable, as they can generate residual stresses and strongly affect the overall response of solids. Here, we study the residual stress and deformation fields of an incompressible isotropic infinite wedge with a circumferentially-symmetric distribution of finite eigenstrains. We construct a material manifold, whose Riemannian metric explicitly depends on the eigenstrain distribution, thereby we turn the problem into a classical nonlinear elasticity problem, where we find an embedding of the Riemannian material manifold into the ambient Euclidean space. In particular, we find exact solutions for the residual stress and deformation fields of a neo-Hookean wedge having a symmetric inclusion with finite radial and circumferential eigenstrains. Moreover, we numerically solve a similar problem when a symmetric Mooney-Rivlin inhomogeneity with finite eigenstrains is placed in a neo-Hookean wedge. Generalization of the eigenstrain problem to other geometries are also discussed.

Keywords: finite eigenstrains, geometric mechanics, inclusion, inhomogeneity, nonlinear elasticity

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717 The Permutation of Symmetric Triangular Equilateral Group in the Cryptography of Private and Public Key

Authors: Fola John Adeyeye


In this paper, we propose a cryptosystem private and public key base on symmetric group Pn and validates its theoretical formulation. This proposed system benefits from the algebraic properties of Pn such as noncommutative high logical, computational speed and high flexibility in selecting key which makes the discrete permutation multiplier logic (DPML) resist to attack by any algorithm such as Pohlig-Hellman. One of the advantages of this scheme is that it explore all the possible triangular symmetries. Against these properties, the only disadvantage is that the law of permutation multiplicity only allow an operation from left to right. Many other cryptosystems can be transformed into their symmetric group.

Keywords: cryptosystem, private and public key, DPML, symmetric group Pn

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716 On Projective Invariants of Spherically Symmetric Finsler Spaces in Rn

Authors: Nasrin Sadeghzadeh


In this paper we study projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler metrics in Rn. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the metrics to be Douglas and Generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) types. Also we show that two classes of GDW and Douglas spherically symmetric Finsler metrics coincide.

Keywords: spherically symmetric finsler metrics in Rn, finsler metrics, douglas metric, generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) metric

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715 Nonlinear Defects and Discombinations in Anisotropic Solids

Authors: Ashkan Golgoon, Arash Yavari


In this paper, we present some analytical solutions for the stress fields of nonlinear anisotropic solids with line and point defects distributions. In particular, we determine the induced stress fields of a parallel cylindrically-symmetric distribution of screw dislocations in infinite orthotropic and monoclinic media as well as a cylindrically-symmetric distribution of parallel wedge disclinations in an infinite orthotropic medium. For a given distribution of edge dislocations, the material manifold is constructed using Cartan's moving frames and the stress field is obtained assuming that the medium is orthotropic. Also, we consider a spherically-symmetric distribution of point defects in a transversely isotropic spherical ball. We show that for an arbitrary incompressible transversely isotropic ball with the radial material preferred direction, a uniform point defect distribution results in a uniform hydrostatic stress field inside the spherical region the distribution is supported in. Finally, we find the stresses induced by a discombination in an orthotropic medium.

Keywords: defects, disclinations, dislocations, monoclinic solids, nonlinear elasticity, orthotropic solids, transversely isotropic solids

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714 Analytical Slope Stability Analysis Based on the Statistical Characterization of Soil Shear Strength

Authors: Bernardo C. P. Albuquerque, Darym J. F. Campos


Increasing our ability to solve complex engineering problems is directly related to the processing capacity of computers. By means of such equipments, one is able to fast and accurately run numerical algorithms. Besides the increasing interest in numerical simulations, probabilistic approaches are also of great importance. This way, statistical tools have shown their relevance to the modelling of practical engineering problems. In general, statistical approaches to such problems consider that the random variables involved follow a normal distribution. This assumption tends to provide incorrect results when skew data is present since normal distributions are symmetric about their means. Thus, in order to visualize and quantify this aspect, 9 statistical distributions (symmetric and skew) have been considered to model a hypothetical slope stability problem. The data modeled is the friction angle of a superficial soil in Brasilia, Brazil. Despite the apparent universality, the normal distribution did not qualify as the best fit. In the present effort, data obtained in consolidated-drained triaxial tests and saturated direct shear tests have been modeled and used to analytically derive the probability density function (PDF) of the safety factor of a hypothetical slope based on Mohr-Coulomb rupture criterion. Therefore, based on this analysis, it is possible to explicitly derive the failure probability considering the friction angle as a random variable. Furthermore, it is possible to compare the stability analysis when the friction angle is modelled as a Dagum distribution (distribution that presented the best fit to the histogram) and as a Normal distribution. This comparison leads to relevant differences when analyzed in light of the risk management.

Keywords: statistical slope stability analysis, skew distributions, probability of failure, functions of random variables

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713 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco


This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

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712 A Study on Ideals and Prime Ideals of Sub-Distributive Semirings and Its Applications to Symmetric Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Rosy Joseph


From an algebraic point of view, Semirings provide the most natural generalization of group theory and ring theory. In the absence of additive inverse in a semiring, one had to impose a weaker condition on the semiring, i.e., the additive cancellative law to study interesting structural properties. In many practical situations, fuzzy numbers are used to model imprecise observations derived from uncertain measurements or linguistic assessments. In this connection, a special class of fuzzy numbers whose shape is symmetric with respect to a vertical line called the symmetric fuzzy numbers i.e., for α ∈ (0, 1] the α − cuts will have a constant mid-point and the upper end of the interval will be a non-increasing function of α, the lower end will be the image of this function, is suitable. Based on this description, arithmetic operations and a ranking technique to order the symmetric fuzzy numbers were dealt with in detail. Wherein it was observed that the structure of the class of symmetric fuzzy numbers forms a commutative semigroup with cancellative property. Also, it forms a multiplicative monoid satisfying sub-distributive property.In this paper, we introduce the algebraic structure, sub-distributive semiring and discuss its various properties viz., ideals and prime ideals of sub-distributive semiring, sub-distributive ring of difference etc. in detail. Symmetric fuzzy numbers are visualized as an illustration.

Keywords: semirings, subdistributive ring of difference, subdistributive semiring, symmetric fuzzy numbers

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711 Limiting Fracture Stress of Composite Ceramics with Symmetric Triangle Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Jinfeng Yu, Xinhua Ni


The limiting fracture stress predicting model of composite ceramics with symmetric triangle eutectic was established based on its special microscopic structure. The symmetric triangle eutectic is consisted of matrix, the strong constraint inter-phase and reinforced fiber inclusions which are 120 degrees uniform symmetrical distribution. Considering the conditions of the rupture of the cohesive bond between matrix and fibers in eutectic and the stress concentration effect at the fiber end, the intrinsic fracture stress of eutectic was obtained. Based on the biggest micro-damage strain in eutectic, defining the load function, the macro-damage fracture stress of symmetric triangle eutectic was determined by boundary conditions. Introducing the conception of critical zone, the theoretical limiting fracture stress forecasting model of composite ceramics was got, and the stress was related to the fiber size and fiber volume fraction in eutectic. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: symmetric triangle eutectic, composite ceramics, limiting stress, intrinsic fracture stress

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710 Non-Differentiable Mond-Weir Type Symmetric Duality under Generalized Invexity

Authors: Jai Prakash Verma, Khushboo Verma


In the present paper, a pair of Mond-Weir type non-differentiable multiobjective second-order programming problems, involving two kernel functions, where each of the objective functions contains support function, is formulated. We prove weak, strong and converse duality theorem for the second-order symmetric dual programs under η-pseudoinvexity conditions.

Keywords: non-differentiable multiobjective programming, second-order symmetric duality, efficiency, support function, eta-pseudoinvexity

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709 Flexural Analysis of Symmetric Laminated Composite Timoshenko Beams under Harmonic Forces: An Analytical Solution

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hjaji, A.K. El-Senussi, Said H. Eshtewi


The flexural dynamic response of symmetric laminated composite beams subjected to general transverse harmonic forces is investigated. The dynamic equations of motion and associated boundary conditions based on the first order shear deformation are derived through the use of Hamilton’s principle. The influences of shear deformation, rotary inertia, Poisson’s ratio and fibre orientation are incorporated in the present formulation. The resulting governing flexural equations for symmetric composite Timoshenko beams are exactly solved and the closed form solutions for steady state flexural response are then obtained for cantilever and simply supported boundary conditions. The applicability of the analytical closed-form solution is demonstrated via several examples with various transverse harmonic loads and symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Results based on the present solution are assessed and validated against other well established finite element solutions and exact solutions available in the literature.

Keywords: analytical solution, flexural response, harmonic forces, symmetric laminated beams, steady state response

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708 Copula Markov Switching Multifractal Models for Forecasting Value-at-Risk

Authors: Giriraj Achari, Malay Bhattacharyya


In this paper, the effectiveness of Copula Markov Switching Multifractal (MSM) models at forecasting Value-at-Risk of a two-stock portfolio is studied. The innovations are allowed to be drawn from distributions that can capture skewness and leptokurtosis, which are well documented empirical characteristics observed in financial returns. The candidate distributions considered for this purpose are Johnson-SU, Pearson Type-IV and α-Stable distributions. The two univariate marginal distributions are combined using the Student-t copula. The estimation of all parameters is performed by Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Finally, the models are compared in terms of accurate Value-at-Risk (VaR) forecasts using tests of unconditional coverage and independence. It is found that Copula-MSM-models with leptokurtic innovation distributions perform slightly better than Copula-MSM model with Normal innovations. Copula-MSM models, in general, produce better VaR forecasts as compared to traditional methods like Historical Simulation method, Variance-Covariance approach and Copula-Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (Copula-GARCH) models.

Keywords: Copula, Markov Switching, multifractal, value-at-risk

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707 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz


A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

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706 Characterization of Probability Distributions through Conditional Expectation of Pair of Generalized Order Statistics

Authors: Zubdahe Noor, Haseeb Athar


In this article, first a relation for conditional expectation is developed and then is used to characterize a general class of distributions F(x) = 1-e^(-ah(x)) through conditional expectation of difference of pair of generalized order statistics. Some results are reduced for particular cases. In the end, a list of distributions is presented in the form of table that are compatible with the given general class.

Keywords: generalized order statistics, order statistics, record values, conditional expectation, characterization

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705 A Watermarking Signature Scheme with Hidden Watermarks and Constraint Functions in the Symmetric Key Setting

Authors: Yanmin Zhao, Siu Ming Yiu


To claim the ownership for an executable program is a non-trivial task. An emerging direction is to add a watermark to the program such that the watermarked program preserves the original program’s functionality and removing the watermark would heavily destroy the functionality of the watermarked program. In this paper, the first watermarking signature scheme with the watermark and the constraint function hidden in the symmetric key setting is constructed. The scheme uses well-known techniques of lattice trapdoors and a lattice evaluation. The watermarking signature scheme is unforgeable under the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption and satisfies other security requirements such as the unremovability security property.

Keywords: short integer solution (SIS) problem, symmetric-key setting, watermarking schemes, watermarked signatures

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704 A Review Of Blended Wing Body And Slender Delta Wing Performance Utilizing Experimental Techniques And Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Abhiyan Paudel, Maheshwaran M Pillai


This paper deals with the optimization and comparison of slender delta wing and blended wing body. The objective is to study the difference between the two wing types and analyze the various aerodynamic characteristics of both of these types.The blended-wing body is an aircraft configuration that has the potential to be more efficient than conventional large transport aircraft configurations with the same capability. The purported advantages of the BWB approach are efficient high-lift wings and a wide airfoil-shaped body. Similarly, symmetric separation vortices over slender delta wing may become asymmetric as the angle of attack is increased beyond a certain value, causing asymmetric forces even at symmetric flight conditions. The transition of the vortex pattern from being symmetric to asymmetric over symmetric bodies under symmetric flow conditions is a fascinating fluid dynamics problem and of major importance for the performance and control of high-maneuverability flight vehicles that favor the use of slender bodies. With the use of Star CCM, we analyze both the fluid properties. The CL, CD and CM were investigated in steady state CFD of BWB at Mach 0.3 and through wind tunnel experiments on 1/6th model of BWB at Mach 0.1. From CFD analysis pressure variation, Mach number contours and turbulence area was observed.

Keywords: Coefficient of Lift, Coefficient of Drag, CFD=Computational Fluid Dynamics, BWB=Blended Wing Body, slender delta wing

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703 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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702 Classification on Statistical Distributions of a Complex N-Body System

Authors: David C. Ni


Contemporary models for N-body systems are based on temporal, two-body, and mass point representation of Newtonian mechanics. Other mainstream models include 2D and 3D Ising models based on local neighborhood the lattice structures. In Quantum mechanics, the theories of collective modes are for superconductivity and for the long-range quantum entanglement. However, these models are still mainly for the specific phenomena with a set of designated parameters. We are therefore motivated to develop a new construction directly from the complex-variable N-body systems based on the extended Blaschke functions (EBF), which represent a non-temporal and nonlinear extension of Lorentz transformation on the complex plane – the normalized momentum spaces. A point on the complex plane represents a normalized state of particle momentums observed from a reference frame in the theory of special relativity. There are only two key parameters, normalized momentum and nonlinearity for modelling. An algorithm similar to Jenkins-Traub method is adopted for solving EBF iteratively. Through iteration, the solution sets show a form of σ + i [-t, t], where σ and t are the real numbers, and the [-t, t] shows various distributions, such as 1-peak, 2-peak, and 3-peak etc. distributions and some of them are analog to the canonical distributions. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate continuum-to-discreteness transitions, evolutional invariance of distributions, phase transitions with conjugate symmetry, etc., which manifest the construction as a potential candidate for the unification of statistics. We hereby classify the observed distributions on the finite convergent domains. Continuous and discrete distributions both exist and are predictable for given partitions in different regions of parameter-pair. We further compare these distributions with canonical distributions and address the impacts on the existing applications.

Keywords: blaschke, lorentz transformation, complex variables, continuous, discrete, canonical, classification

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701 Forecasting for Financial Stock Returns Using a Quantile Function Model

Authors: Yuzhi Cai


In this paper, we introduce a newly developed quantile function model that can be used for estimating conditional distributions of financial returns and for obtaining multi-step ahead out-of-sample predictive distributions of financial returns. Since we forecast the whole conditional distributions, any predictive quantity of interest about the future financial returns can be obtained simply as a by-product of the method. We also show an application of the model to the daily closing prices of Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) series over the period from 2 January 2004 - 8 October 2010. We obtained the predictive distributions up to 15 days ahead for the DJIA returns, which were further compared with the actually observed returns and those predicted from an AR-GARCH model. The results show that the new model can capture the main features of financial returns and provide a better fitted model together with improved mean forecasts compared with conventional methods. We hope this talk will help audience to see that this new model has the potential to be very useful in practice.

Keywords: DJIA, financial returns, predictive distribution, quantile function model

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700 Study of Anti-Symmetric Flexural Mode Propagation along Wedge Tip with a Crack

Authors: Manikanta Prasad Banda, Che Hua Yang


Anti-symmetric wave propagation along the particle motion of the wedge waves is known as anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) modes which travel along the wedge tips of the mid-plane apex with a small truncation. This paper investigates the characteristics of the ASF modes propagation with the wedge tip crack. The simulation and experimental results obtained by a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model explained the contact acoustic non-linear (CAN) behavior in explicit dynamics in ABAQUS and the ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method is used for defect detection. The effect of various parameters on its high and low-level conversion modes are known for complex reflections and transmissions involved with direct reflections and transmissions. The results are used to predict the location of crack through complex transmission and reflection coefficients.

Keywords: ASF mode, crack detection, finite elements method, laser ultrasound technique, wedge waves

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699 First Order Moment Bounds on DMRL and IMRL Classes of Life Distributions

Authors: Debasis Sengupta, Sudipta Das


The class of life distributions with decreasing mean residual life (DMRL) is well known in the field of reliability modeling. It contains the IFR class of distributions and is contained in the NBUE class of distributions. While upper and lower bounds of the reliability distribution function of aging classes such as IFR, IFRA, NBU, NBUE, and HNBUE have discussed in the literature for a long time, there is no analogous result available for the DMRL class. We obtain the upper and lower bounds for the reliability function of the DMRL class in terms of first order finite moment. The lower bound is obtained by showing that for any fixed time, the minimization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean is equivalent to its minimization over a smaller class of distribution with a special form. Optimization over this restricted set can be made algebraically. Likewise, the maximization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean turns out to be a parametric optimization problem over the class of DMRL distributions of a special form. The constructive proofs also establish that both the upper and lower bounds are sharp. Further, the DMRL upper bound coincides with the HNBUE upper bound and the lower bound coincides with the IFR lower bound. We also prove that a pair of sharp upper and lower bounds for the reliability function when the distribution is increasing mean residual life (IMRL) with a fixed mean. This result is proved in a similar way. These inequalities fill a long-standing void in the literature of the life distribution modeling.

Keywords: DMRL, IMRL, reliability bounds, hazard functions

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698 Hybrid Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Based on Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Divergence for Signal Dependent Noise: A Case Study

Authors: Ana Serafimovic, Karthik Devarajan


Non-negative matrix factorization approximates a high dimensional non-negative matrix V as the product of two non-negative matrices, W and H, and allows only additive linear combinations of data, enabling it to learn parts with representations in reality. It has been successfully applied in the analysis and interpretation of high dimensional data arising in neuroscience, computational biology, and natural language processing, to name a few. The objective of this paper is to assess a hybrid algorithm for non-negative matrix factorization with multiplicative updates. The method aims to minimize the symmetric version of Kullback-Leibler divergence known as intrinsic information and assumes that the noise is signal-dependent and that it originates from an arbitrary distribution from the exponential family. It is a generalization of currently available algorithms for Gaussian, Poisson, gamma and inverse Gaussian noise. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of the new generalized algorithm by comparing its performance to the baseline methods which also aim to minimize symmetric divergence measures.

Keywords: non-negative matrix factorization, dimension reduction, clustering, intrinsic information, symmetric information divergence, signal-dependent noise, exponential family, generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence, dual divergence

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697 Determining Best Fitting Distributions for Minimum Flows of Streams in Gediz Basin

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan


Today, the need for water sources is swiftly increasing due to population growth. At the same time, it is known that some regions will face with shortage of water and drought because of the global warming and climate change. In this context, evaluation and analysis of hydrological data such as the observed trends, drought and flood prediction of short term flow has great deal of importance. The most accurate selection probability distribution is important to describe the low flow statistics for the studies related to drought analysis. As in many basins In Turkey, Gediz River basin will be affected enough by the drought and will decrease the amount of used water. The aim of this study is to derive appropriate probability distributions for frequency analysis of annual minimum flows at 6 gauging stations of the Gediz Basin. After applying 10 different probability distributions, six different parameter estimation methods and 3 fitness test, the Pearson 3 distribution and general extreme values distributions were found to give optimal results.

Keywords: Gediz Basin, goodness-of-fit tests, minimum flows, probability distribution

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696 Nonlinear Pollution Modelling for Polymeric Outdoor Insulator

Authors: Rahisham Abd Rahman


In this paper, a nonlinear pollution model has been proposed to compute electric field distribution over the polymeric insulator surface under wet contaminated conditions. A 2D axial-symmetric insulator geometry, energized with 11kV was developed and analysed using Finite Element Method (FEM). A field-dependent conductivity with simplified assumptions was established to characterize the electrical properties of the pollution layer. Comparative field studies showed that simulation of dynamic pollution model results in a more realistic field profile, offering better understanding on how the electric field behaves under wet polluted conditions.

Keywords: electric field distributions, pollution layer, dynamic model, polymeric outdoor insulators, finite element method (FEM)

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695 Seismic Behaviour of Bi-Symmetric Buildings

Authors: Yogendra Singh, Mayur Pisode


Many times it is observed that in multi-storeyed buildings the dynamic properties in the two directions are similar due to which there may be a coupling between the two orthogonal modes of the building. This is particularly observed in bi-symmetric buildings (buildings with structural properties and periods approximately equal in the two directions). There is a swapping of vibrational energy between the modes in the two orthogonal directions. To avoid this coupling the draft revision of IS:1893 proposes a minimum separation of more than 15% between the frequencies of the fundamental modes in the two directions. This study explores the seismic behaviour of bi-symmetrical buildings under uniaxial and bi-axial ground motions. For this purpose, three different types of 8 storey buildings symmetric in plan are modelled. The first building has square columns, resulting in identical periods in the two directions. The second building, with rectangular columns, has a difference of 20% in periods in orthogonal directions, and the third building has half of the rectangular columns aligned in one direction and other half aligned in the other direction. The numerical analysis of the seismic response of these three buildings is performed by using a set of 22 ground motions from PEER NGA database and scaled as per FEMA P695 guidelines to represent the same level of intensity corresponding to the Design Basis Earthquake. The results are analyzed in terms of the displacement-time response of the buildings at roof level and corresponding maximum inter-storey drift ratios.

Keywords: bi-symmetric buildings, design code, dynamic coupling, multi-storey buildings, seismic response

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694 Magnetoviscous Effects on Axi-Symmetric Ferrofluid Flow over a Porous Rotating Disk with Suction/Injection

Authors: Vikas Kumar


The present study is carried out to investigate the magneto-viscous effects on incompressible ferrofluid flow over a porous rotating disc with suction or injection on the surface of the disc subjected to a magnetic field. The flow under consideration is axi-symmetric steady ferrofluid flow of electrically non-conducting fluid. Karman’s transformation is used to convert the governing boundary layer equations involved in the problem to a system of non linear coupled differential equations. The solution of this system is obtained by using power series approximation. The flow characteristics i.e. radial, tangential, axial velocities and boundary layer displacement thickness are calculated for various values of MFD (magnetic field dependent) viscosity and for different values of suction injection parameter. Besides this, skin friction coefficients are also calculated on the surface of the disk. Thus, the obtained results are presented numerically and graphically in the paper.

Keywords: axi-symmetric, ferrofluid, magnetic field, porous rotating disk

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693 Schrödinger Equation with Position-Dependent Mass: Staggered Mass Distributions

Authors: J. J. Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo, L. Arcos-Díaz


The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.

Keywords: free particle, point canonical transformation method, position-dependent mass, staggered mass distribution

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692 Exploring Solutions in Extended Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

Authors: Aziza Altaibayeva, Ertan Güdekli, Ratbay Myrzakulov


In this letter, we explore exact solutions for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We use of an extension of this theory with first order dynamical lapse function. The equations of motion have been derived in a fully consistent scenario. We assume that there are some spherically symmetric families of exact solutions of this extended theory of gravity. We obtain exact solutions and investigate the singularity structures of these solutions. Specially, an exact solution with the regular horizon is found.

Keywords: quantum gravity, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, black hole, spherically symmetric space times

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