Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1375

Search results for: artificial chromosomes

1375 Exploring Structure of Human Chromosomes Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Authors: A. Bhartiya, S. Botchway, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson

Abstract:

Chromatin condensation is maintained by DNA-based proteins and some divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, etc.). Condensation process during cell division maintains structural and functional organizations of chromosomes by transferring genetic information correctly to daughter cells. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technique measures the fluorescence decay of fixed human chromosomes by calculating the lifetime of fluorophores at a pixel x of the arrival of each photon as a function of time delay t, following excitation with a laser pulse. Fixed metaphase human chromosomes were labelled with DNA-binding dye, DAPI and later DAPI fluorescence lifetime measured using multiphoton microscopy. 5 out of 23 pairs of human chromosomes shown shorter lifetime at the centromere region, differentiating proportion of compaction along the length of chromosomes. Different lifetime was observed in a condensed and de-condensed chromosome. It clearly indicates the involvement of divalent cations in the process of condensation.

Keywords: divalent cations, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging), human chromosomes, multiphoton microscopy

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1374 Applying Sequential Pattern Mining to Generate Block for Scheduling Problems

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chen-Yu Kao, Chia-Yu Hsu, Pei-Chann Chang

Abstract:

The main idea in this paper is using sequential pattern mining to find the information which is helpful for finding high performance solutions. By combining this information, it is defined as blocks. Using the blocks to generate artificial chromosomes (ACs) could improve the structure of solutions. Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) is adapted to solve the combinatorial problems. Nevertheless many of these approaches are advantageous for this application, but only some of them are used to enhance the efficiency of application. Generating ACs uses patterns and EDAs could increase the diversity. According to the experimental result, the algorithm which we proposed has a better performance to solve the permutation flow-shop problems.

Keywords: combinatorial problems, sequential pattern mining, estimationof distribution algorithms, artificial chromosomes

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1373 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi

Abstract:

Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: chromosome injection, dynamic schema, genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity

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1372 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel

Abstract:

Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheat

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1371 Mathematical modeling of the calculation of the absorbed dose in uranium production workers with the genetic effects.

Authors: P. Kazymbet, G. Abildinova, K.Makhambetov, M. Bakhtin, D. Rybalkina, K. Zhumadilov

Abstract:

Conducted cytogenetic research in workers Stepnogorsk Mining-Chemical Combine (Akmola region) with the study of 26341 chromosomal metaphase. Using a regression analysis with program DataFit, version 5.0, dependence between exposure dose and the following cytogenetic exponents has been studied: frequency of aberrant cells, frequency of chromosomal aberrations, frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes, and centric rings. Experimental data on calibration curves "dose-effect" enabled the development of a mathematical model, allowing on data of the frequency of aberrant cells, chromosome aberrations, the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings calculate the absorbed dose at the time of the study. In the dose range of 0.1 Gy to 5.0 Gy dependence cytogenetic parameters on the dose had the following equation: Y = 0,0067е^0,3307х (R2 = 0,8206) – for frequency of chromosomal aberrations; Y = 0,0057е^0,3161х (R2 = 0,8832) –for frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations; Y =5 Е-0,5е^0,6383 (R2 = 0,6321) – or frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings on cells. On the basis of cytogenetic parameters and regression equations calculated absorbed dose in workers of uranium production at the time of the study did not exceed 0.3 Gy.

Keywords: Stepnogorsk, mathematical modeling, cytogenetic, dicentric chromosomes

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1370 Medical Neural Classifier Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fadzil Ahmad, Noor Ashidi Mat Isa

Abstract:

This study introduces an improved genetic algorithm procedure that focuses search around near optimal solution corresponded to a group of elite chromosome. This is achieved through a novel crossover technique known as Segmented Multi Chromosome Crossover. It preserves the highly important information contained in a gene segment of elite chromosome and allows an offspring to carry information from gene segment of multiple chromosomes. In this way the algorithm has better possibility to effectively explore the solution space. The improved GA is applied for the automatic and simultaneous parameter optimization and feature selection of artificial neural network in pattern recognition of medical problem, the cancer and diabetes disease. The experimental result shows that the average classification accuracy of the cancer and diabetes dataset has improved by 0.1% and 0.3% respectively using the new algorithm.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, pattern clasification, classification accuracy

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1369 Artificial Intelligence Created Inventions

Authors: John Goodhue, Xiaonan Wei

Abstract:

Current legal decisions and policies regarding the naming as artificial intelligence as inventor are reviewed with emphasis on the recent decisions by the European Patent Office regarding the DABUS inventions holding that an artificial intelligence machine cannot be an inventor. Next, a set of hypotheticals is introduced and examined to better understand how artificial intelligence might be used to create or assist in creating new inventions and how application of existing or proposed changes in the law would affect the ability to protect these inventions including due to restrictions on artificial intelligence for being named as inventors, ownership of inventions made by artificial intelligence, and the effects on legal standards for inventiveness or obviousness.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, innovation, invention, patent

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1368 A Novel Chicken W Chromosome Specific Tandem Repeat

Authors: Alsu F. Saifitdinova, Alexey S. Komissarov, Svetlana A. Galkina, Elena I. Koshel, Maria M. Kulak, Stephen J. O'Brien, Elena R. Gaginskaya

Abstract:

The mystery of sex determination is one of the most ancient and still not solved until the end so far. In many species, sex determination is genetic and often accompanied by the presence of dimorphic sex chromosomes in the karyotype. Genomic sequencing gave the information about the gene content of sex chromosomes which allowed to reveal their origin from ordinary autosomes and to trace their evolutionary history. Female-specific W chromosome in birds as well as mammalian male-specific Y chromosome is characterized by the degeneration of gene content and the accumulation of repetitive DNA. Tandem repeats complicate the analysis of genomic data. Despite the best efforts chicken W chromosome assembly includes only 1.2 Mb from expected 55 Mb. Supplementing the information on the sex chromosome composition not only helps to complete the assembly of genomes but also moves us in the direction of understanding of the sex-determination systems evolution. A whole-genome survey to the assembly Gallus_gallus WASHUC 2.60 was applied for repeats search in assembled genome and performed search and assembly of high copy number repeats in unassembled reads of SRR867748 short reads datasets. For cytogenetic analysis conventional methods of fluorescent in situ hybridization was used for previously cloned W specific satellites and specifically designed directly labeled synthetic oligonucleotide DNA probe was used for bioinformatically identified repetitive sequence. Hybridization was performed with mitotic chicken chromosomes and manually isolated giant meiotic lampbrush chromosomes from growing oocytes. A novel chicken W specific satellite (GGAAA)n which is not co-localizes with any previously described classes of W specific repeats was identified and mapped with high resolution. In the composition of autosomes this repeat units was found as a part of upstream regions of gonad specific protein coding sequences. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the role of tandem repeats in sex specific differentiation regulation in birds and sex chromosome evolution. This work was supported by the postdoctoral fellowships from St. Petersburg State University (#1.50.1623.2013 and #1.50.1043.2014), the grant for Leading Scientific Schools (#3553.2014.4) and the grant from Russian foundation for basic researches (#15-04-05684). The equipment and software of Research Resource Center “Chromas” and Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics of Saint Petersburg State University were used.

Keywords: birds, lampbrush chromosomes, sex chromosomes, tandem repeats

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1367 Genomic and Evolutionary Diversity of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

Authors: Faisal Nouroz, Mukaramin Mukaramin

Abstract:

Of the transposable elements (TEs), the retrotransposons are the most copious elements identified from many sequenced genomes. They have played a major role in genome evolution, rearrangement, and expansions based on their copy and paste mode of proliferation. They are further divided into LTR and Non-LTR retrotransposons. The purpose of the current study was to identify the LTR REs in sequenced Phoenix dactylifera genome and to study their structural diversity. A total of 150 P. dactylifera BAC sequences with > 60kb sizes were randomly retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and screened for the presence of LTR retrotransposons. Seven bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) sequences showed full-length LTR Retrotransposons with 4 Copia and 3 Gypsy families having variable copy numbers in respective families. Reverse transcriptase (RT) domain was found as the most conserved domain among Copia and Gypsy superfamilies and was used to deduce evolutionary analysis. The amino acid residues among various RT sequences showed variability in their percentages indicating post divergence evolution. Amino acid Leucine was found in highest proportions followed by Lysine, while Methionine and Tryptophan were in lowest percentages. The phylogenetic analysis based on RT domains confirmed that although having most conserved RT regions, several evolutionary events occurred causing nucleotide polymorphisms and hence clustering of Gypsy and Copia superfamilies into their respective lineages. The study will be helpful in identification and annotation of these elements in other species and genera and their distribution patterns on chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques.

Keywords: transposable elements, Phoenix dactylifera, retrotransposons, phylogenetic analysis

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1366 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati

Abstract:

Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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1365 A Second Order Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: T. Toathom, M. Munlin, P. Sugunnasil

Abstract:

The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the best-known problems in optimization problem. There are many research regarding the TSP. One of the most usage tool for this problem is the genetic algorithm (GA). The chromosome of the GA for TSP is normally encoded by the order of the visited city. However, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme has some limitations which are twofold: the large solution space and the inability to encapsulate some information. The number of solution for a certain problem is exponentially grow by the number of city. Moreover, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme fails to recognize the misplaced correct relation. It implies that the tradition method focuses only on exact solution. In this work, we relax some of the concept in the GA for TSP which is the exactness of the solution. The proposed work exploits the relation between cities in order to reduce the solution space in the chromosome encoding. In this paper, a second order GA is proposed to solve the TSP. The term second order refers to how the solution is encoded into chromosome. The chromosome is divided into 2 types: the high order chromosome and the low order chromosome. The high order chromosome is the chromosome that focus on the relation between cities such as the city A should be visited before city B. On the other hand, the low order chromosome is a type of chromosome that is derived from a high order chromosome. In other word, low order chromosome is encoded by the traditional chromosome encoding scheme. The genetic operation, mutation and crossover, will be performed on the high order chromosome. Then, the high order chromosome will be mapped to a group of low order chromosomes whose characteristics are satisfied with the high order chromosome. From the mapped set of chromosomes, the champion chromosome will be selected based on the fitness value which will be later used as a representative for the high order chromosome. The experiment is performed on the city data from TSPLIB.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, traveling salesman problem, initial population, chromosomes encoding

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1364 Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors: Zeeshan Khan, Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noureen

Abstract:

European or common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha of family Leporidae. They are distributed worldwide and are native to Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) and Africa (Morocco and Algeria). LTR retrotransposons are major Class I mobile genetic elements of eukaryotic genomes and play a crucial role in genome expansion, evolution and diversification. They were mostly annotated in various genomes by conventional approaches of homology searches, which restricted the annotation of novel elements. Present work involved de novo identification of LTR retrotransposons by LTR_FINDER in haploid genome of rabbit (2247.74 Mb) distributed in 22 chromosomes, of which 7,933 putative full-length or partial copies were identified containing 69.38 Mb of elements, accounting 3.08% of the genome. Highest copy numbers (731) were found on chromosome 7, followed by chromosome 12 (705), while the lowest copy numbers (27) were detected in chromosome 19 with no elements identified from chromosome 21 due to partially sequenced chromosome, unidentified nucleotides (N) and repeated simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The identified elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 - 25.8 Kb with average sizes between 2-10 Kb. Highest percentage (4.77%) of elements was found in chromosome 15, while lowest (0.55%) in chromosome 19. The most frequent tRNA type was Arginine present in majority of the elements. Based on gained results, it was estimated that rabbit exhibits 15,866 copies having 137.73 Mb of elements accounting 6.16% of diploid genome (44 chromosomes). Further molecular analyses will be helpful in chromosomal localization and distribution of these elements on chromosomes.

Keywords: rabbit, LTR retrotransposons, genome, chromosome

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1363 Description of the Non-Iterative Learning Algorithm of Artificial Neuron

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, S. T. Akhmetova, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin

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The problem of training of a network of artificial neurons in biometric appendices is that this process has to be completely automatic, i.e. the person operator should not participate in it. Therefore, this article discusses the issues of training the network of artificial neurons and the description of the non-iterative learning algorithm of artificial neuron.

Keywords: artificial neuron, biometrics, biometrical applications, learning of neuron, non-iterative algorithm

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1362 Cytogenetic Characterization of the VERO Cell Line Based on Comparisons with the Subline; Implication for Authorization and Quality Control of Animal Cell Lines

Authors: Fumio Kasai, Noriko Hirayama, Jorge Pereira, Azusa Ohtani, Masashi Iemura, Malcolm A. Ferguson Smith, Arihiro Kohara

Abstract:

The VERO cell line was established in 1962 from normal tissue of an African green monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops (2n=60), and has been commonly used worldwide for screening for toxins or as a cell substrate for the production of viral vaccines. The VERO genome was sequenced in 2014; however, its cytogenetic features have not been fully characterized as it contains several chromosome abnormalities and different karyotypes coexist in the cell line. In this study, the VERO cell line (JCRB0111) was compared with one of the sublines. In contrast to 59 chromosomes as the modal chromosome number in the VERO cell line, the subline had two peaks of 56 and 58 chromosomes. M-FISH analysis using human probes revealed that the VERO cell line was characterized by a translocation t(2;25) found in all metaphases, which was absent in the subline. Different abnormalities detected only in the subline show that the cell line is heterogeneous, indicating that the subline has the potential to change its genomic characteristics during cell culture. The various alterations in the two independent lineages suggest that genomic changes in both VERO cells can be accounted for by progressive rearrangements during their evolution in culture. Both t(5;X) and t(8;14) observed in all metaphases of the two cell lines might have a key role in VERO cells and could be used as genetic markers to identify VERO cells. The flow karyotype shows distinct differences from normal. Further analysis of sorted abnormal chromosomes may uncover other characteristics of VERO cells. Because of the absence of STR data, cytogenetic data are important in characterizing animal cell lines and can be an indicator of their quality control.

Keywords: VERO, cell culture passage, chromosome rearrangement, heterogeneous cells

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1361 A Retrievable Genetic Algorithm for Efficient Solving of Sudoku Puzzles

Authors: Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Bahare Fatemi

Abstract:

Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which is popular among people of different ages. Due to this popularity, computer softwares are being developed to generate and solve Sudoku puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Several methods and algorithms have been proposed and used in different softwares to efficiently solve Sudoku puzzles. Various search methods such as stochastic local search have been applied to this problem. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one of the algorithms which have been applied to this problem in different forms and in several works in the literature. In these works, chromosomes with little or no information were considered and obtained results were not promising. In this paper, we propose a new way of applying GA to this problem which uses more-informed chromosomes than other works in the literature. We optimize the parameters of our GA using puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Then we use the optimized values of the parameters to solve various puzzles and compare our results to another GA-based method for solving Sudoku puzzles.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimization, solving Sudoku puzzles, stochastic local search

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1360 Artificial Intelligence and Police

Authors: Mehrnoosh Abouzari

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence has covered all areas of human life and has helped or replaced many jobs. One of the areas of application of artificial intelligence in the police is to detect crime, identify the accused or victim and prove the crime. It will play an effective role in implementing preventive justice and creating security in the community, and improving judicial decisions. This will help improve the performance of the police, increase the accuracy of criminal investigations, and play an effective role in preventing crime and high-risk behaviors in society. This article presents and analyzes the capabilities and capacities of artificial intelligence in police and similar examples used worldwide to prove the necessity of using artificial intelligence in the police. The main topics discussed include the performance of artificial intelligence in crime detection and prediction, the risk capacity of criminals and the ability to apply arbitray institutions, and the introduction of artificial intelligence programs implemented worldwide in the field of criminal investigation for police.

Keywords: police, artificial intelligence, forecasting, prevention, software

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1359 Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in Civil Engineering

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks (ANN) is an electrical model based on the human brain nervous system and working principle. Artificial neural networks have been the subject of an active field of research that has matured greatly over the past 55 years. ANN now is used in many fields. But, it has been viewed that artificial neural networks give better results in particular optimization and control systems. There are requirements of optimization and control system in many of the area forming the subject of civil engineering applications. In this study, the first artificial intelligence systems are widely used in the solution of civil engineering systems were examined with the basic principles and technical aspects. Finally, the literature reviews for applications in the field of civil engineering were conducted and also artificial intelligence techniques were informed about the study and its results.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, civil engineering, Fuzzy logic, statistics

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1358 Microarrays: Wide Clinical Utilities and Advances in Healthcare

Authors: Salma M. Wakil

Abstract:

Advances in the field of genetics overwhelmed detecting large number of inherited disorders at the molecular level and directed to the development of innovative technologies. These innovations have led to gene sequencing, prenatal mutation detection, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; population based carrier screening and genome wide analyses using microarrays. Microarrays are widely used in establishing clinical and diagnostic setup for genetic anomalies at a massive level, with the advent of cytoscan molecular karyotyping as a clinical utility card for detecting chromosomal aberrations with high coverage across the entire human genome. Unlike a regular karyotype that relies on the microscopic inspection of chromosomes, molecular karyotyping with cytoscan constructs virtual chromosomes based on the copy number analysis of DNA which improves its resolution by 100-fold. We have been investigating a large number of patients with Developmental Delay and Intellectual disability with this platform for establishing micro syndrome deletions and have detected number of novel CNV’s in the Arabian population with the clinical relevance.

Keywords: microarrays, molecular karyotyping, developmental delay, genetics

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1357 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

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1356 Block Based Imperial Competitive Algorithm with Greedy Search for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chiao-Wei Yu, Pei-Chann Chang

Abstract:

Imperial competitive algorithm (ICA) simulates a multi-agent algorithm. Each agent is like a kingdom has its country, and the strongest country in each agent is called imperialist, others are colony. Countries are competitive with imperialist which in the same kingdom by evolving. So this country will move in the search space to find better solutions with higher fitness to be a new imperialist. The main idea in this paper is using the peculiarity of ICA to explore the search space to solve the kinds of combinational problems. Otherwise, we also study to use the greed search to increase the local search ability. To verify the proposed algorithm in this paper, the experimental results of traveling salesman problem (TSP) is according to the traveling salesman problem library (TSPLIB). The results show that the proposed algorithm has higher performance than the other known methods.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, artificial chromosomes, greedy search, imperial competitive algorithm

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1355 Predicting the Success of Bank Telemarketing Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Mokrane Selma

Abstract:

The shift towards decision making (DM) based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques will change the way in which consumer markets and our societies function. Through AI, predictive analytics is being used by businesses to identify these patterns and major trends with the objective to improve the DM and influence future business outcomes. This paper proposes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predict the success of telemarketing calls for selling bank long-term deposits. To validate the proposed model, we uses the bank marketing data of 41188 phone calls. The ANN attains 98.93% of accuracy which outperforms other conventional classifiers and confirms that it is credible and valuable approach for telemarketing campaign managers.

Keywords: bank telemarketing, prediction, decision making, artificial intelligence, artificial neural network

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1354 Brachypodium: A Model Genus to Study Grass Genome Organisation at the Cytomolecular Level

Authors: R. Hasterok, A. Betekhtin, N. Borowska, A. Braszewska-Zalewska, E. Breda, K. Chwialkowska, R. Gorkiewicz, D. Idziak, J. Kwasniewska, M. Kwasniewski, D. Siwinska, A. Wiszynska, E. Wolny

Abstract:

In contrast to animals, the organisation of plant genomes at the cytomolecular level is still relatively poorly studied and understood. However, the Brachypodium genus in general and B. distachyon in particular represent exceptionally good model systems for such study. This is due not only to their highly desirable ‘model’ biological features, such as small nuclear genome, low chromosome number and complex phylogenetic relations, but also to the rapidly and continuously growing repertoire of experimental tools, such as large collections of accessions, WGS information, large insert (BAC) libraries of genomic DNA, etc. Advanced cytomolecular techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with evermore sophisticated probes, empowered by cutting-edge microscope and digital image acquisition and processing systems, offer unprecedented insight into chromatin organisation at various phases of the cell cycle. A good example is chromosome painting which uses pools of chromosome-specific BAC clones, and enables the tracking of individual chromosomes not only during cell division but also during interphase. This presentation outlines the present status of molecular cytogenetic analyses of plant genome structure, dynamics and evolution using B. distachyon and some of its relatives. The current projects focus on important scientific questions, such as: What mechanisms shape the karyotypes? Is the distribution of individual chromosomes within an interphase nucleus determined? Are there hot spots of structural rearrangement in Brachypodium chromosomes? Which epigenetic processes play a crucial role in B. distachyon embryo development and selective silencing of rRNA genes in Brachypodium allopolyploids? The authors acknowledge financial support from the Polish National Science Centre (grants no. 2012/04/A/NZ3/00572 and 2011/01/B/NZ3/00177)

Keywords: Brachypodium, B. distachyon, chromosome, FISH, molecular cytogenetics, nucleus, plant genome organisation

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1353 Evaluation of Affecting Factors on Effectiveness of Animal Artificial Insemination Training Courses in Zanjan Province

Authors: Ali Ashraf Hamedi Oghul Beyk

Abstract:

This research is aimed in order to demonstrate the factors affecting on effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training courses in Zanjan province. The research method is descriptive and correlation. Research tools a questionnaire and research sample are 104 persons who participated in animal artificial insemination training courses. The data resulted from this procedure was analysed by using SPSS software under windows system.independent variables include :individual, sociological, technical, and organizational, dependent variable is: affecting factors on effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training courses the finding of this study indicates that there is a significant correlation(99/0) between individual variables such as motivation and interest and experiment and effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training courses. There is significant correlation (95/0) between sociological variables such as job and education and effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training course. There is significant correlation (99/0) between techn ical variables such as training quality media and instructional materials. Moreover, effectiveness of animal artificial insemination training course there is significant correlation(0/95) between organizational variables such as trainers combination,place conditions.

Keywords: animal artificial insemination, effect, effectiveness, training courses, Zanjan

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1352 Survey of Related Field for Artificial Intelligence Window Development

Authors: Young Kwon Yang, Bo Rang Park, Hyo Eun Lee, Tea Won Kim, Eun Ji Choi, Jin Chul Park

Abstract:

To develop an artificial intelligence based automatic ventilation system, recent research trends were analyzed and analyzed. This research method is as follows. In the field of architecture and window technology, the use of artificial intelligence, the existing study of machine learning model and the theoretical review of the literature were carried out. This paper collected journals such as Journal of Energy and Buildings, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, and articles published on Web-sites. The following keywords were searched for articles from 2000 to 2016. We searched for the above keywords mainly in the title, keyword, and abstract. As a result, the global artificial intelligence market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14.0% from USD127bn in 2015 to USD165bn in 2017. Start-up investments in artificial intelligence increased from the US $ 45 million in 2010 to the US $ 310 million in 2015, and the number of investments increased from 6 to 54. Although AI is making efforts to advance to advanced countries, the level of technology is still in its infant stage. Especially in the field of architecture, artificial intelligence (AI) is very rare. Based on the data of this study, it is expected that the application of artificial intelligence and the application of architectural field will be revitalized through the activation of artificial intelligence in the field of architecture and window.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, window, fine dust, thermal comfort, ventilation system

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1351 Clustering the Wheat Seeds Using SOM Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Salah Ghamari

Abstract:

In this study, the ability of self organizing map artificial (SOM) neural networks in clustering the wheat seeds varieties according to morphological properties of them was considered. The SOM is one type of unsupervised competitive learning. Experimentally, five morphological features of 300 seeds (including three varieties: gaskozhen, Md and sardari) were obtained using image processing technique. The results show that the artificial neural network has a good performance (90.33% accuracy) in classification of the wheat varieties despite of high similarity in them. The highest classification accuracy (100%) was achieved for sardari.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, clustering, self organizing map, wheat variety

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1350 Estimation of Chronic Kidney Disease Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ilker Ali Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, an artificial neural network model has been developed to estimate chronic kidney failure which is a common disease. The patients’ age, their blood and biochemical values, and 24 input data which consists of various chronic diseases are used for the estimation process. The input data have been subjected to preprocessing because they contain both missing values and nominal values. 147 patient data which was obtained from the preprocessing have been divided into as 70% training and 30% testing data. As a result of the study, artificial neural network model with 25 neurons in the hidden layer has been found as the model with the lowest error value. Chronic kidney failure disease has been able to be estimated accurately at the rate of 99.3% using this artificial neural network model. The developed artificial neural network has been found successful for the estimation of chronic kidney failure disease using clinical data.

Keywords: estimation, artificial neural network, chronic kidney failure disease, disease diagnosis

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1349 Using Genetic Algorithms to Outline Crop Rotations and a Cropping-System Model

Authors: Nicolae Bold, Daniel Nijloveanu

Abstract:

The idea of cropping-system is a method used by farmers. It is an environmentally-friendly method, protecting the natural resources (soil, water, air, nutritive substances) and increase the production at the same time, taking into account some crop particularities. The combination of this powerful method with the concepts of genetic algorithms results into a possibility of generating sequences of crops in order to form a rotation. The usage of this type of algorithms has been efficient in solving problems related to optimization and their polynomial complexity allows them to be used at solving more difficult and various problems. In our case, the optimization consists in finding the most profitable rotation of cultures. One of the expected results is to optimize the usage of the resources, in order to minimize the costs and maximize the profit. In order to achieve these goals, a genetic algorithm was designed. This algorithm ensures the finding of several optimized solutions of cropping-systems possibilities which have the highest profit and, thus, which minimize the costs. The algorithm uses genetic-based methods (mutation, crossover) and structures (genes, chromosomes). A cropping-system possibility will be considered a chromosome and a crop within the rotation is a gene within a chromosome. Results about the efficiency of this method will be presented in a special section. The implementation of this method would bring benefits into the activity of the farmers by giving them hints and helping them to use the resources efficiently.

Keywords: chromosomes, cropping, genetic algorithm, genes

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1348 Technological Advancement of Socratic Supported by Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Amad Nasseef, Layan Zugail, Joud Musalli, Layan Shaikan

Abstract:

Technology has become an essential part of our lives. We have also witnessed the significant emergence of artificial intelligence in so many areas. Throughout this research paper, the following will be discussed: an introduction on AI and Socratic application, we also did an overview on the application’s background and other similar applications, as for the methodology, we conducted a survey to collect results on users experience in using the Socratic application. The results of the survey strongly supported the usefulness and interest of users in the Socratic application. Finally, we concluded that Socratic is a meaningful tool for learning purposes due to it being supported by artificial intelligence, which made the application easy to use and familiar to users to deal with through a click of a button.

Keywords: Socratic, artificial intelligence, application, features

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1347 Artificial Intelligence Ethics: What Business Leaders Need to Consider for the Future

Authors: Kylie Leonard

Abstract:

Investment in artificial intelligence (AI) can be an attractive opportunity for business leaders as there are many easy-to-see benefits. These benefits include task completion rates, overall cost, and better forecasting. Business leaders are often unaware of the challenges that can accompany AI, such as data center costs, access to data, employee acceptance, and privacy concerns. In addition to the benefits and challenges of AI, it is important to practice AI ethics to ensure the safe creation of AI. AI ethics include aspects of algorithm bias, limits in transparency, and surveillance. To be a good business leader, it is critical to address all the considerations involving the challenges of AI and AI ethics.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence ethics, business leaders, business concerns

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1346 Transparent Photovoltaic Skin for Artificial Thermoreceptor and Nociceptor Memory

Authors: Priyanka Bhatnagar, Malkeshkumar Patel, Joondong Kim, Joonpyo Hong

Abstract:

Artificial skin and sensory memory platforms are produced using a flexible, transparent photovoltaic (TPV) device. The TPV device is composed of a metal oxide heterojunction (nZnO/p-NiO) and transmits visible light (> 50%) while producing substantial electric power (0.5 V and 200 μA cm-2 ). This TPV device is a transparent energy interface that can be used to detect signals and propagate information without an external energy supply. The TPV artificial skin offers a temperature detection range (0 C75 C) that is wider than that of natural skin (5 C48 °C) due to the temperature-sensitive pyrocurrent from the ZnO layer. Moreover, the TPV thermoreceptor offers sensory memory of extreme thermal stimuli. Much like natural skin, artificial skin uses the nociceptor mechanism to protect tissue from harmful damage via signal amplification (hyperalgesia) and early adaption (allodynia). This demonstrates the many features of TPV artificial skin, which can sense and transmit signals and memorize information under self-operation mode. This transparent photovoltaic skin can provide sustainable energy for use in human electronics.

Keywords: transparent, photovoltaics, thermal memory, artificial skin, thermoreceptor

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