Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: A. Bozkurt

15 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun


Efficient use of energy, with the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system were analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses

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14 Spermiogram Values of Fertile Men in Malatya Region

Authors: Aliseydi Bozkurt, Ugur Yılmaz


Objective: It was aimed to evaluate the current status of semen parameters in fertile males with one or more children and whose wife having a pregnancy for the last 1-12 months in Malatya region. Methods: Sperm samples were obtained from 131 voluntary fertile men. In each analysis, sperm volume (ml), number of sperm (sperm/ml), sperm motility and sperm viscosity were examined with Makler device. Classification was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results: Mean ejaculate volume ranged from 1.5 ml to 5.5 ml, sperm count ranged from 27 to 180 million/ml and motility ranged from 35 to 90%. Sperm motility was found to be on average; 69.9% in A, 7.6% in B, 8.7% in C, 13.3% in D category. Conclusion: The mean spermiogram values of fertile males in Malatya region were found to be similar to those in fertile males determined by the WHO. This study has a regional classification value in terms of spermiogram values.

Keywords: fertile men, infertility, spermiogram, sperm motility

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13 An Investigation of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Perceived the Results of Buoyancy Force

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt, Şükran Erdoğan


The purpose of the study is to explore how pre-service teachers perceive buoyancy force effecting an object in a liquid and identify their misconceptions. Pre-service teachers were interviewed to reveal their understandings of an object's floating, suspending and sinking in a liquid. In addition, they were asked about how an object -given its features- moved when it is provided with an external force and when it is released. The so-called circumstances were questioned in a different planet contexts. For this aim, focused group interview method was used. Six focused groups were formed and video recorded during the interval. Each focused group comprised of five pre-service teachers. It was found out pre-service teachers have common misunderstanding and misconceptions. In order to eliminate this conceptual misunderstandings, conceptual change texts were developed and further suggestions were made.

Keywords: computer simulations, conceptual change texts, physics education, students’ misconceptions in physics

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12 Numerical Simulation of Structural Behavior of NSM CFRP Strengthened RC Beams Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Baris Sayin, Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Cemil Akcay


The technique using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has proved to be an reliable strengthening technique. However, the effects of different parameters for the use of NSM CFRP are not fully developed yet. This study focuses on the development of a numerical modeling that can predict the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods exposed to bending loading and the efficiency of various parameters such as CFRP rod size and filling material type are evaluated by using prepared models. For this purpose, three different models are developed and implemented in the ANSYS® software using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that CFRP rod size and filling material type are significant factors in the behavior of the analyzed RC beams.

Keywords: numerical model, FEA, RC beam, NSM technique, CFRP rod, filling material

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11 An Assessment of Electrical Activities of Students' Brains toward Teacher’s Specific Emotions

Authors: Hakan Aydogan, Fatih Bozkurt, Huseyin Coskun


In this study, the signal of brain electrical activities of the sixteen students selected from the Department of Electrical and Energy at Usak University have been recorded during a lecturer performed happiness emotions for the first group and anger emotions for the second group in different time while the groups were in the classroom separately. The attention and meditation data extracted from the recorded signals have been analyzed and evaluated toward the teacher’s specific emotion states simultaneously. Attention levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer have a positive trend and attention levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer have a negative trend. The meditation or mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer are 34.3% higher comparing with the mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer.

Keywords: brainwave, attention, meditation, education

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10 Identification of How Pre-Service Physics Teachers Understand Image Formations through Virtual Objects in the Field of Geometric Optics and Development of a New Material to Exploit Virtual Objects

Authors: Ersin Bozkurt


The aim of the study is to develop materials for understanding image formations through virtual objects in geometric optics. The images in physics course books are formed by using real objects. This results in mistakes in the features of images because of generalizations which leads to conceptual misunderstandings in learning. In this study it was intended to identify pre-service physics teachers misunderstandings arising from false generalizations. Focused group interview was used as a qualitative method. The findings of the study show that students have several misconceptions such as "the image in a plain mirror is always virtual". However a real image can be formed in a plain mirror. To explain a virtual object's image formation in a more understandable way an overhead projector and episcope and their design was illustrated. The illustrations are original and several computer simulations will be suggested.

Keywords: computer simulations, geometric optics, physics education, students' misconceptions in physics

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9 Natural Radioactivity in Foods Consumed in Turkey

Authors: E. Kam, G. Karahan, H. Aslıyuksek, A. Bozkurt


This study aims to determine the natural radioactivity levels in some foodstuffs produced in Turkey. For this purpose, 48 different foods samples were collected from different land parcels throughout the country. All samples were analyzed to designate both gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities and the radionuclides’ concentrations. The gross alpha radioactivities were measured as below 1 Bq kg-1 in most of the samples, some of them being due to the detection limit of the counting system. The gross beta radioactivity levels ranged from 1.8 Bq kg-1 to 453 Bq kg-1, larger levels being observed in leguminous seeds while the highest level being in haricot bean. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the foodstuffs were investigated by the method of gamma spectroscopy. High levels of 40K were measured in all the samples, the highest activities being again in leguminous seeds. Low concentrations of 238U and 226Ra were found in some of the samples, which are comparable to the reported results in the literature. Based on the activity concentrations obtained in this study, average annual effective dose equivalents for the radionuclides 226Ra, 238U, and 40K were calculated as 77.416 µSv y-1, 0.978 µSv y-1, and 140.55 µSv y-1, respectively.

Keywords: foods, radioactivity, gross alpha, gross beta, annual equivalent dose, Turkey

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8 Prediction of Bodyweight of Cattle by Artificial Neural Networks Using Digital Images

Authors: Yalçın Bozkurt


Prediction models were developed for accurate prediction of bodyweight (BW) by using Digital Images of beef cattle body dimensions by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). For this purpose, the animal data were collected at a private slaughter house and the digital images and the weights of each live animal were taken just before they were slaughtered and the body dimensions such as digital wither height (DJWH), digital body length (DJBL), digital body depth (DJBD), digital hip width (DJHW), digital hip height (DJHH) and digital pin bone length (DJPL) were determined from the images, using the data with 1069 observations for each traits. Then, prediction models were developed by ANN. Digital body measurements were analysed by ANN for body prediction and R2 values of DJBL, DJWH, DJHW, DJBD, DJHH and DJPL were approximately 94.32, 91.31, 80.70, 83.61, 89.45 and 70.56 % respectively. It can be concluded that in management situations where BW cannot be measured it can be predicted accurately by measuring DJBL and DJWH alone or both DJBD and even DJHH and different models may be needed to predict BW in different feeding and environmental conditions and breeds

Keywords: artificial neural networks, bodyweight, cattle, digital body measurements

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7 Electrolyte Loaded Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Lithium Ion Battery Application

Authors: Umran Kurtan, Hamide Aydin, Sevim Unugur Celik, Ayhan Bozkurt


In the present work, novel hBN/polyacrylonitrile composite nanofibers were produced via electrospinning approach and loaded with the electrolyte for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. The electrospun nanofibers comprising various hBN contents were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The influence of hBN/PAN ratios onto the properties of the porous composite system, such as fiber diameter, porosity, and the liquid electrolyte uptake capability were systematically studied. Ionic conductivities and electrochemical characterizations were evaluated after loading electrospun hBN/PAN composite nanofiber with liquid electrolyte, i.e., 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:1 vol). The electrolyte loaded nanofiber has a highest ionic conductivity of 10−3 S cm⁻¹ at room temperature. According to cyclic voltammetry (CV) results it exhibited a high electrochemical stability window up to 4.7 V versus Li+/Li. Li//10 wt% hBN/PAN//LiCO₂ cell was produced which delivered high discharge capacity of 144 mAhg⁻¹ and capacity retention of 92.4%. Considering high safety and low cost properties of the resulting hBN/PAN fiber electrolytes, these materials can be suggested as potential separator materials for lithium-ion batteries.

Keywords: hexagonal boron nitride, polyacrylonitrile, electrospinning, lithium ion battery

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6 Protective Effects of Sinapic Acid on Organophosphate Poisoning

Authors: Turker Yardan, Bahattin Avci, S. Sirri Bilge, Ayhan Bozkurt


Sinapic acid (SA) is a phenylpropanoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the possible protective effect of sinapic acid on chlorpyrifos (CPF), a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide, induced toxicity in rats. Forty male and female rats (240-270 g) were used in this study. Each group was composed of 5 male and 5 female rats. Sinapic acid (20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle (olive oil, 1 ml ⁄ rat) were given orally for 5 days. CPF (279 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml ⁄ kg, s.c.) was administered on the sixth day, immediately after the recording of the body weight of the animals. Twenty four hours following CPF administration body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity values were recorded before decapitation of the animals. Trunk blood, brain, and liver samples were collected for biochemical examinations. Chlorpyrifos administration decreased butyrylcholinesterase activity in blood, brain, and liver, while it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) (p < 0.01 - 0.001). Additionally, CPF administration reduced the body weight, body temperature, and locomotor activity values of the animals (p < 0.01 - 0.001). All these physiological and biochemical changes induced by CPF were reduced with the 40 mg/kg dose of SA (p < 0.05 - 0.001). Our results suggest that SA administration ameliorates CPF induced toxicity in rats, possibly by supporting the antioxidant mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, Chlorpyrifos, poisoning, sinapic acid

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5 Single Ion Conductors for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Seyda Tugba Gunday Anil, Ayhan Bozkurt


Next generation lithium batteries are taking more attention and single-ion polymer electrolytes are expected to play a significant role in the development of these kinds of energy storage systems. In the present work we used a different strategy to design of novel solid single-ion conducting inorganic polymer electrolytes based on lithium polyvinyl alcohol oxalate borate (Li(PVAOB), lithium polyacrylic acid oxalate borate (LiPAAOB) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). Free radical polymerization was used to convert PEGMA into PPEGMA and LiPAAOB is prepared from poly (acrylic acid), oxalic acid and boric acid. Blend polymer electrolytes were produced by mixing of LiPAAOB or Li (PVAOB with PPEGMA at different stoichiometric ratios to enhance the single ion conductivity of the systems. To exploit the flexible chemistry and increase the segmental mobility of the blend electrolyte, the composition was changed up to 80% with respect to the guest polymer, PPEGMA. FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter techniques confirmed the interaction between the host and guest polymers. TGA verified that the thermal stability of the blends increased up to approximately 200 C. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the homogeneity of the blend electrolytes. CV studies showed that electrochemical stability electrochemical stability window is approximately 5 V versus Li/Li⁺. The effect of PPEGMA on to the Lithium-ion conductivity was investigated using dielectric impedance analyzer. The maximum single ion conductivity was measured as 1.3 × 10⁻⁴ S/cm at 100 C for the sample LiPAAOB-80PPEGMA. Clearly, the results confirmed the positive effect to the increment in ionic conductivity of the blend electrolytes with the addition of PPEGMA.

Keywords: single-ion conductor, inorganic polymer, blends, polymer electrolyte

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4 Importance of Prostate Volume, Prostate Specific Antigen Density and Free/Total Prostate Specific Antigen Ratio for Prediction of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Aliseydi Bozkurt


Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign disease, and prostate cancer (PC) is malign disease of the prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) is one of the most important diagnostic tools in PC diagnosis. Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Method: We retrospectively studied 269 patients who had a prostate specific antigen (PSA) score of 4 or who had suspected rectal examination at any PSA level and received TRUS-bx between January 2015 and June 2018 in our clinic. TRUS-bx was received by 12 experienced urologists with 12 quadrants. Prostate volume was calculated prior to biopsy together with TRUS. Patients were classified as malignant and benign at the end of pathology. Age, PSA value, prostate volume in transrectal ultrasonography, corpuscle biopsy, biopsy pathology result, the number of cancer core and Gleason score were evaluated in the study. The success rates of PV, PSAD, and f/tPSA were compared in all patients and those with PSA 2.5-10 ng/mL and 10.1-30 ng/mL tp foresee prostate cancer. Result: In the present study, in patients with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PV cut-off value was 43,5 mL (n=42 < 43,5 mL and n=102 > 43,5 mL) while in those with PSA 10.1-30 ng/mL prostate volüme (PV) cut-off value was found 61,5 mL (n=31 < 61,5 mL and n=36 > 61,5 mL). Total PSA values in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml were found lower (6.0 ± 1.3 vs 6.7 ± 1.7) than that with PV < 43,5 mL, this value was nearly significant (p=0,043). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, no significant difference was found (p=0,117) in terms of total PSA values between the group with PV < 61,5 mL and that with PV > 61,5 mL. In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in patients with PV < 43,5 mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower compared to the group with PV > 43,5 mL (0.21 ± 0.09 vs 0.26 ± 0.09 p < 0.001 ). Similarly, in the group with PSA value of 10.1-30 ng/mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.16 ± 0.08 vs 0.23 ± 0.10 p=0,003). In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PSAD value in patients with PV < 43,5 mL was found significantly higher compared to those with PV > 43,5 mL (0.17 ± 0.06 vs 0.10 ± 0.03 p < 0.001). Similarly, in the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL PSAD value was found significantly higher in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.47 ± 0.23 vs 0.17 ± 0.08 p < 0.001 ). The biopsy results suggest that in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in 29 of the patients with PV < 43,5 mL (69%) cancer was detected while in 13 patients (31%) no cancer was detected. While in 19 patients with PV > 43,5 mL (18,6%) cancer was found, in 83 patients (81,4%) no cancer was detected (p < 0.001). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, in 21 patients with PV < 61,5 mL (67.7%) cancer was observed while only in10 patients (32.3%) no cancer was seen. In 5 patients with PV > 61,5 mL (13.9%) cancer was found while in 31 patients (86.1%) no cancer was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider PSA, f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Prostate volume in PC was found lower.

Keywords: prostate cancer, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen, free/total PSA ratio

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3 Profiling of Apoptotic Protein Expressions after Trabectedin Treatment in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3 by Protein Array Technology

Authors: Harika Atmaca, Emir Bozkurt, Latife Merve Oktay, Selim Uzunoglu, Ruchan Uslu, Burçak Karaca


Microarrays have been developed for highly parallel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) applications. The most common protein arrays are produced by using multiple monoclonal antibodies, since they are robust molecules which can be easily handled and immobilized by standard procedures without loss of activity. Protein expression profiling with protein array technology allows simultaneous analysis of the protein expression pattern of a large number of proteins. Trabectedin, a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid derived from a Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata, has been shown to have antitumor effects. Here, we used a novel proteomic approach to explore the mechanism of action of trabectedin in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 by apoptosis antibody microarray. XTT cell proliferation kit and Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) was used for measuring cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Human Apoptosis Protein Array (R&D Systems) which consists of 35 apoptosis related proteins was used to assess the omic protein expression pattern. Trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the death receptor pathway molecules, TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF R1/TNFRSF1A, FADD were significantly increased by 4.0-, 21.0-, 4.20- and 11.5-fold by trabectedin treatment in PC-3 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial pathway related pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, and Cleaved Caspase-3 expressions were induced by 2.68-, 2.07-, 2.8-, and 4.5-fold and the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were reduced by 3.5- and 5.2-fold in PC-3 cells. Proteomic (antibody microarray) analysis suggests that the mechanism of action of trabectedin may be exerted via the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The antibody microarray platform can be utilised to explore the molecular mechanism of action of novel anticancer agents.

Keywords: trabectedin, prostate cancer, omic protein expression profile, apoptosis

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2 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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1 Symmetric Corticobasal Degeneration: Case Report

Authors: Sultan Çağırıcı, Arsida Bajrami, Beyza Aslan, Hacı Ali Erdoğan, Nejla Sözer Topçular, Dilek Bozkurt, Vildan Yayla


Objective: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is phenotypically characterized by asymmetric rigidity, apraxia, alien-limb phenomenon, cortical sensory loss, dystonia and myoclonus. The underlying pathologies consists of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supra nuclear palsy, Alzheimer's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob and frontotemporal degeneration. CBD is a degenerative disease with clinical symptoms related to the prominent involvement of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. CBD is a pathological diagnosis and antemortem clinical diagnosis may change many times. In this paper, we described the clinical features and discussed a cases diagnosed with symmetric CBS because of its rarity. Case: Seventy-five-year-old woman presented with a three years history of difficulty in speaking and reading. Involuntary hand jerks and slowness of movement also had began in the last six months. In the neurological examination the patient was alert but not fully oriented. The speech was non-fluent, word finding difficulties were present. Bilateral limited upgaze, bradimimia, bilateral positive cogwheel' rigidity but prominent in the right side, postural tremor and negative myoclonus during action on the left side were detected. Receptive language was normal but expressive language and repetition were impaired. Acalculia, alexia, agraphia and apraxia were also present. CSF findings were unremarkable except for elevated protein level (75 mg/dL). MRI revealed bilateral symmetric cortical atrophy prominent in the frontoparietal region. PET showed hypometabolism in the left caudate nucleus. Conclusion: The increase of data related to neurodegenerative disorders associated with dementia, movement disorders and other findings results in an expanded range of diagnosis and transitions between clinical diagnosis. When considered the age of onset, clinical symptoms, imaging findings and prognosis of this patient, clinical diagnosis was CBS and pathologic diagnosis as probable CBD. Imaging of CBD usually consist of typical asymmetry between hemispheres. Still few cases with clinical appearance of CBD may show symmetrical cortical cerebral atrophy. It is presented this case who was diagnosed with CBD although we found symmetrical cortical cerebral atrophy in MRI.

Keywords: symmetric cortical atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, corticobasal syndrome

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