Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: MapReduce

22 Verification & Validation of Map Reduce Program Model for Parallel K-Mediod Algorithm on Hadoop Cluster

Authors: Trapti Sharma, Devesh Kumar Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper is basically a analysis study of above MapReduce implementation and also to verify and validate the MapReduce solution model for Parallel K-Mediod algorithm on Hadoop Cluster. MapReduce is a programming model which authorize the managing of huge amounts of data in parallel, on a large number of devices. It is specially well suited to constant or moderate changing set of data since the implementation point of a position is usually high. MapReduce has slowly become the framework of choice for “big data”. The MapReduce model authorizes for systematic and instant organizing of large scale data with a cluster of evaluate nodes. One of the primary affect in Hadoop is how to minimize the completion length (i.e. makespan) of a set of MapReduce duty. In this paper, we have verified and validated various MapReduce applications like wordcount, grep, terasort and parallel K-Mediod clustering algorithm. We have found that as the amount of nodes increases the completion time decreases.

Keywords: hadoop, mapreduce, k-mediod, validation, verification

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21 MapReduce Algorithm for Geometric and Topological Information Extraction from 3D CAD Models

Authors: Ahmed Fradi

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In a digital world in perpetual evolution and acceleration, data more and more voluminous, rich and varied, the new software solutions emerged with the Big Data phenomenon offer new opportunities to the company enabling it not only to optimize its business and to evolve its production model, but also to reorganize itself to increase competitiveness and to identify new strategic axes. Design and manufacturing industrial companies, like the others, face these challenges, data represent a major asset, provided that they know how to capture, refine, combine and analyze them. The objective of our paper is to propose a solution allowing geometric and topological information extraction from 3D CAD model (precisely STEP files) databases, with specific algorithm based on the programming paradigm MapReduce. Our proposal is the first step of our future approach to 3D CAD object retrieval.

Keywords: Big Data, MapReduce, 3D object retrieval, CAD, STEP format

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20 A Case Study for User Rating Prediction on Automobile Recommendation System Using Mapreduce

Authors: Jiao Sun, Li Pan, Shijun Liu

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Recommender systems have been widely used in contemporary industry, and plenty of work has been done in this field to help users to identify items of interest. Collaborative Filtering (CF, for short) algorithm is an important technology in recommender systems. However, less work has been done in automobile recommendation system with the sharp increase of the amount of automobiles. What’s more, the computational speed is a major weakness for collaborative filtering technology. Therefore, using MapReduce framework to optimize the CF algorithm is a vital solution to this performance problem. In this paper, we present a recommendation of the users’ comment on industrial automobiles with various properties based on real world industrial datasets of user-automobile comment data collection, and provide recommendation for automobile providers and help them predict users’ comment on automobiles with new-coming property. Firstly, we solve the sparseness of matrix using previous construction of score matrix. Secondly, we solve the data normalization problem by removing dimensional effects from the raw data of automobiles, where different dimensions of automobile properties bring great error to the calculation of CF. Finally, we use the MapReduce framework to optimize the CF algorithm, and the computational speed has been improved times. UV decomposition used in this paper is an often used matrix factorization technology in CF algorithm, without calculating the interpolation weight of neighbors, which will be more convenient in industry.

Keywords: collaborative filtering, recommendation, data normalization, mapreduce

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19 MapReduce Logistic Regression Algorithms with RHadoop

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Dong Hoon Lim

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Logistic regression is a statistical method for analyzing a dataset in which there are one or more independent variables that determine an outcome. Logistic regression is used extensively in numerous disciplines, including the medical and social science fields. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating parameters in the logistic regression based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop that integrates R and Hadoop environment applicable to large scale data. There exist three learning algorithms for logistic regression, namely Gradient descent method, Cost minimization method and Newton-Rhapson's method. The Newton-Rhapson's method does not require a learning rate, while gradient descent and cost minimization methods need to manually pick a learning rate. The experimental results demonstrated that our learning algorithms using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also compared the performance of our Newton-Rhapson's method with gradient descent and cost minimization methods. The results showed that our newton's method appeared to be the most robust to all data tested.

Keywords: big data, logistic regression, MapReduce, RHadoop

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18 Extracting Opinions from Big Data of Indonesian Customer Reviews Using Hadoop MapReduce

Authors: Veronica S. Moertini, Vinsensius Kevin, Gede Karya

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Customer reviews have been collected by many kinds of e-commerce websites selling products, services, hotel rooms, tickets and so on. Each website collects its own customer reviews. The reviews can be crawled, collected from those websites and stored as big data. Text analysis techniques can be used to analyze that data to produce summarized information, such as customer opinions. Then, these opinions can be published by independent service provider websites and used to help customers in choosing the most suitable products or services. As the opinions are analyzed from big data of reviews originated from many websites, it is expected that the results are more trusted and accurate. Indonesian customers write reviews in Indonesian language, which comes with its own structures and uniqueness. We found that most of the reviews are expressed with “daily language”, which is informal, do not follow the correct grammar, have many abbreviations and slangs or non-formal words. Hadoop is an emerging platform aimed for storing and analyzing big data in distributed systems. A Hadoop cluster consists of master and slave nodes/computers operated in a network. Hadoop comes with distributed file system (HDFS) and MapReduce framework for supporting parallel computation. However, MapReduce has weakness (i.e. inefficient) for iterative computations, specifically, the cost of reading/writing data (I/O cost) is high. Given this fact, we conclude that MapReduce function is best adapted for “one-pass” computation. In this research, we develop an efficient technique for extracting or mining opinions from big data of Indonesian reviews, which is based on MapReduce with one-pass computation. In designing the algorithm, we avoid iterative computation and instead adopt a “look up table” technique. The stages of the proposed technique are: (1) Crawling the data reviews from websites; (2) cleaning and finding root words from the raw reviews; (3) computing the frequency of the meaningful opinion words; (4) analyzing customers sentiments towards defined objects. The experiments for evaluating the performance of the technique were conducted on a Hadoop cluster with 14 slave nodes. The results show that the proposed technique (stage 2 to 4) discovers useful opinions, is capable of processing big data efficiently and scalable.

Keywords: big data analysis, Hadoop MapReduce, analyzing text data, mining Indonesian reviews

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17 RA-Apriori: An Efficient and Faster MapReduce-Based Algorithm for Frequent Itemset Mining on Apache Flink

Authors: Sanjay Rathee, Arti Kashyap

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Extraction of useful information from large datasets is one of the most important research problems. Association rule mining is one of the best methods for this purpose. Finding possible associations between items in large transaction based datasets (finding frequent patterns) is most important part of the association rule mining. There exist many algorithms to find frequent patterns but Apriori algorithm always remains a preferred choice due to its ease of implementation and natural tendency to be parallelized. Many single-machine based Apriori variants exist but massive amount of data available these days is above capacity of a single machine. Therefore, to meet the demands of this ever-growing huge data, there is a need of multiple machines based Apriori algorithm. For these types of distributed applications, MapReduce is a popular fault-tolerant framework. Hadoop is one of the best open-source software frameworks with MapReduce approach for distributed storage and distributed processing of huge datasets using clusters built from commodity hardware. However, heavy disk I/O operation at each iteration of a highly iterative algorithm like Apriori makes Hadoop inefficient. A number of MapReduce-based platforms are being developed for parallel computing in recent years. Among them, two platforms, namely, Spark and Flink have attracted a lot of attention because of their inbuilt support to distributed computations. Earlier we proposed a reduced- Apriori algorithm on Spark platform which outperforms parallel Apriori, one because of use of Spark and secondly because of the improvement we proposed in standard Apriori. Therefore, this work is a natural sequel of our work and targets on implementing, testing and benchmarking Apriori and Reduced-Apriori and our new algorithm ReducedAll-Apriori on Apache Flink and compares it with Spark implementation. Flink, a streaming dataflow engine, overcomes disk I/O bottlenecks in MapReduce, providing an ideal platform for distributed Apriori. Flink's pipelining based structure allows starting a next iteration as soon as partial results of earlier iteration are available. Therefore, there is no need to wait for all reducers result to start a next iteration. We conduct in-depth experiments to gain insight into the effectiveness, efficiency and scalability of the Apriori and RA-Apriori algorithm on Flink.

Keywords: apriori, apache flink, Mapreduce, spark, Hadoop, R-Apriori, frequent itemset mining

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16 Frequent Item Set Mining for Big Data Using MapReduce Framework

Authors: Tamanna Jethava, Rahul Joshi

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Frequent Item sets play an essential role in many data Mining tasks that try to find interesting patterns from the database. Typically it refers to a set of items that frequently appear together in transaction dataset. There are several mining algorithm being used for frequent item set mining, yet most do not scale to the type of data we presented with today, so called “BIG DATA”. Big Data is a collection of large data sets. Our approach is to work on the frequent item set mining over the large dataset with scalable and speedy way. Big Data basically works with Map Reduce along with HDFS is used to find out frequent item sets from Big Data on large cluster. This paper focuses on using pre-processing & mining algorithm as hybrid approach for big data over Hadoop platform.

Keywords: frequent item set mining, big data, Hadoop, MapReduce

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15 Scientific Linux Cluster for BIG-DATA Analysis (SLBD): A Case of Fayoum University

Authors: Hassan S. Hussein, Rania A. Abul Seoud, Amr M. Refaat

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Scientific researchers face in the analysis of very large data sets that is increasing noticeable rate in today’s and tomorrow’s technologies. Hadoop and Spark are types of software that developed frameworks. Hadoop framework is suitable for many Different hardware platforms. In this research, a scientific Linux cluster for Big Data analysis (SLBD) is presented. SLBD runs open source software with large computational capacity and high performance cluster infrastructure. SLBD composed of one cluster contains identical, commodity-grade computers interconnected via a small LAN. SLBD consists of a fast switch and Gigabit-Ethernet card which connect four (nodes). Cloudera Manager is used to configure and manage an Apache Hadoop stack. Hadoop is a framework allows storing and processing big data across the cluster by using MapReduce algorithm. MapReduce algorithm divides the task into smaller tasks which to be assigned to the network nodes. Algorithm then collects the results and form the final result dataset. SLBD clustering system allows fast and efficient processing of large amount of data resulting from different applications. SLBD also provides high performance, high throughput, high availability, expandability and cluster scalability.

Keywords: big data platforms, cloudera manager, Hadoop, MapReduce

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14 FCNN-MR: A Parallel Instance Selection Method Based on Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbor Rule

Authors: Lu Si, Jie Yu, Shasha Li, Jun Ma, Lei Luo, Qingbo Wu, Yongqi Ma, Zhengji Liu

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Instance selection (IS) technique is used to reduce the data size to improve the performance of data mining methods. Recently, to process very large data set, several proposed methods divide the training set into some disjoint subsets and apply IS algorithms independently to each subset. In this paper, we analyze the limitation of these methods and give our viewpoint about how to divide and conquer in IS procedure. Then, based on fast condensed nearest neighbor (FCNN) rule, we propose a large data sets instance selection method with MapReduce framework. Besides ensuring the prediction accuracy and reduction rate, it has two desirable properties: First, it reduces the work load in the aggregation node; Second and most important, it produces the same result with the sequential version, which other parallel methods cannot achieve. We evaluate the performance of FCNN-MR on one small data set and two large data sets. The experimental results show that it is effective and practical.

Keywords: instance selection, data reduction, MapReduce, kNN

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13 A Unique Multi-Class Support Vector Machine Algorithm Using MapReduce

Authors: Aditi Viswanathan, Shree Ranjani, Aruna Govada

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With data sizes constantly expanding, and with classical machine learning algorithms that analyze such data requiring larger and larger amounts of computation time and storage space, the need to distribute computation and memory requirements among several computers has become apparent. Although substantial work has been done in developing distributed binary SVM algorithms and multi-class SVM algorithms individually, the field of multi-class distributed SVMs remains largely unexplored. This research seeks to develop an algorithm that implements the Support Vector Machine over a multi-class data set and is efficient in a distributed environment. For this, we recursively choose the best binary split of a set of classes using a greedy technique. Much like the divide and conquer approach. Our algorithm has shown better computation time during the testing phase than the traditional sequential SVM methods (One vs. One, One vs. Rest) and out-performs them as the size of the data set grows. This approach also classifies the data with higher accuracy than the traditional multi-class algorithms.

Keywords: distributed algorithm, MapReduce, multi-class, support vector machine

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12 Cloud Data Security Using Map/Reduce Implementation of Secret Sharing Schemes

Authors: Sara Ibn El Ahrache, Tajje-eddine Rachidi, Hassan Badir, Abderrahmane Sbihi

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Recently, there has been increasing confidence for a favorable usage of big data drawn out from the huge amount of information deposited in a cloud computing system. Data kept on such systems can be retrieved through the network at the user’s convenience. However, the data that users send include private information, and therefore, information leakage from these data is now a major social problem. The usage of secret sharing schemes for cloud computing have lately been approved to be relevant in which users deal out their data to several servers. Notably, in a (k,n) threshold scheme, data security is assured if and only if all through the whole life of the secret the opponent cannot compromise more than k of the n servers. In fact, a number of secret sharing algorithms have been suggested to deal with these security issues. In this paper, we present a Mapreduce implementation of Shamir’s secret sharing scheme to increase its performance and to achieve optimal security for cloud data. Different tests were run and through it has been demonstrated the contributions of the proposed approach. These contributions are quite considerable in terms of both security and performance.

Keywords: cloud computing, data security, Mapreduce, Shamir's secret sharing

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11 Analysis of Genomics Big Data in Cloud Computing Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Mohammad Vahed, Ana Sadeghitohidi, Majid Vahed, Hiroki Takahashi

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In the genomics field, the huge amounts of data have produced by the next-generation sequencers (NGS). Data volumes are very rapidly growing, as it is postulated that more than one billion bases will be produced per year in 2020. The growth rate of produced data is much faster than Moore's law in computer technology. This makes it more difficult to deal with genomics data, such as storing data, searching information, and finding the hidden information. It is required to develop the analysis platform for genomics big data. Cloud computing newly developed enables us to deal with big data more efficiently. Hadoop is one of the frameworks distributed computing and relies upon the core of a Big Data as a Service (BDaaS). Although many services have adopted this technology, e.g. amazon, there are a few applications in the biology field. Here, we propose a new algorithm to more efficiently deal with the genomics big data, e.g. sequencing data. Our algorithm consists of two parts: First is that BDaaS is applied for handling the data more efficiently. Second is that the hybrid method of MapReduce and Fuzzy logic is applied for data processing. This step can be parallelized in implementation. Our algorithm has great potential in computational analysis of genomics big data, e.g. de novo genome assembly and sequence similarity search. We will discuss our algorithm and its feasibility.

Keywords: big data, fuzzy logic, MapReduce, Hadoop, cloud computing

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10 Healthcare Big Data Analytics Using Hadoop

Authors: Chellammal Surianarayanan

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Healthcare industry is generating large amounts of data driven by various needs such as record keeping, physician’s prescription, medical imaging, sensor data, Electronic Patient Record(EPR), laboratory, pharmacy, etc. Healthcare data is so big and complex that they cannot be managed by conventional hardware and software. The complexity of healthcare big data arises from large volume of data, the velocity with which the data is accumulated and different varieties such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured nature of data. Despite the complexity of big data, if the trends and patterns that exist within the big data are uncovered and analyzed, higher quality healthcare at lower cost can be provided. Hadoop is an open source software framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of commodity hardware using a simple programming model. The core components of Hadoop include Hadoop Distributed File System which offers way to store large amount of data across multiple machines and MapReduce which offers way to process large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. Hadoop ecosystem also includes various other tools such as Hive (a SQL-like query language), Pig (a higher level query language for MapReduce), Hbase(a columnar data store), etc. In this paper an analysis has been done as how healthcare big data can be processed and analyzed using Hadoop ecosystem.

Keywords: big data analytics, Hadoop, healthcare data, towards quality healthcare

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9 Parallel Fuzzy Rough Support Vector Machine for Data Classification in Cloud Environment

Authors: Arindam Chaudhuri

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Classification of data has been actively used for most effective and efficient means of conveying knowledge and information to users. The prima face has always been upon techniques for extracting useful knowledge from data such that returns are maximized. With emergence of huge datasets the existing classification techniques often fail to produce desirable results. The challenge lies in analyzing and understanding characteristics of massive data sets by retrieving useful geometric and statistical patterns. We propose a supervised parallel fuzzy rough support vector machine (PFRSVM) for data classification in cloud environment. The classification is performed by PFRSVM using hyperbolic tangent kernel. The fuzzy rough set model takes care of sensitiveness of noisy samples and handles impreciseness in training samples bringing robustness to results. The membership function is function of center and radius of each class in feature space and is represented with kernel. It plays an important role towards sampling the decision surface. The success of PFRSVM is governed by choosing appropriate parameter values. The training samples are either linear or nonlinear separable. The different input points make unique contributions to decision surface. The algorithm is parallelized with a view to reduce training times. The system is built on support vector machine library using Hadoop implementation of MapReduce. The algorithm is tested on large data sets to check its feasibility and convergence. The performance of classifier is also assessed in terms of number of support vectors. The challenges encountered towards implementing big data classification in machine learning frameworks are also discussed. The experiments are done on the cloud environment available at University of Technology and Management, India. The results are illustrated for Gaussian RBF and Bayesian kernels. The effect of variability in prediction and generalization of PFRSVM is examined with respect to values of parameter C. It effectively resolves outliers’ effects, imbalance and overlapping class problems, normalizes to unseen data and relaxes dependency between features and labels. The average classification accuracy for PFRSVM is better than other classifiers for both Gaussian RBF and Bayesian kernels. The experimental results on both synthetic and real data sets clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed technique.

Keywords: FRSVM, Hadoop, MapReduce, PFRSVM

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8 Association Rules Mining and NOSQL Oriented Document in Big Data

Authors: Sarra Senhadji, Imene Benzeguimi, Zohra Yagoub

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Big Data represents the recent technology of manipulating voluminous and unstructured data sets over multiple sources. Therefore, NOSQL appears to handle the problem of unstructured data. Association rules mining is one of the popular techniques of data mining to extract hidden relationship from transactional databases. The algorithm for finding association dependencies is well-solved with Map Reduce. The goal of our work is to reduce the time of generating of frequent itemsets by using Map Reduce and NOSQL database oriented document. A comparative study is given to evaluate the performances of our algorithm with the classical algorithm Apriori.

Keywords: Apriori, Association rules mining, Big Data, Data Mining, Hadoop, MapReduce, MongoDB, NoSQL

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7 From Two-Way to Multi-Way: A Comparative Study for Map-Reduce Join Algorithms

Authors: Marwa Hussien Mohamed, Mohamed Helmy Khafagy

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Map-Reduce is a programming model which is widely used to extract valuable information from enormous volumes of data. Map-reduce designed to support heterogeneous datasets. Apache Hadoop map-reduce used extensively to uncover hidden pattern like data mining, SQL, etc. The most important operation for data analysis is joining operation. But, map-reduce framework does not directly support join algorithm. This paper explains and compares two-way and multi-way map-reduce join algorithms for map reduce also we implement MR join Algorithms and show the performance of each phase in MR join algorithms. Our experimental results show that map side join and map merge join in two-way join algorithms has the longest time according to preprocessing step sorting data and reduce side cascade join has the longest time at Multi-Way join algorithms.

Keywords: Hadoop, MapReduce, multi-way join, two-way join, Ubuntu

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6 Improved K-Means Clustering Algorithm Using RHadoop with Combiner

Authors: Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim

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Data clustering is a common technique used in data analysis and is used in many applications, such as artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, economics, ecology, psychiatry and marketing. K-means clustering is a well-known clustering algorithm aiming to cluster a set of data points to a predefined number of clusters. In this paper, we implement K-means algorithm based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop to make the clustering method applicable to large scale data. RHadoop is a collection of R packages that allow users to manage and analyze data with Hadoop. The main idea is to introduce a combiner as a function of our map output to decrease the amount of data needed to be processed by reducers. The experimental results demonstrated that K-means algorithm using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also showed that our K-means algorithm using RHadoop with combiner was faster than regular algorithm without combiner as the size of data set increases.

Keywords: big data, combiner, K-means clustering, RHadoop

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5 Ontology-Based Backpropagation Neural Network Classification and Reasoning Strategy for NoSQL and SQL Databases

Authors: Hao-Hsiang Ku, Ching-Ho Chi

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Big data applications have become an imperative for many fields. Many researchers have been devoted into increasing correct rates and reducing time complexities. Hence, the study designs and proposes an Ontology-based backpropagation neural network classification and reasoning strategy for NoSQL big data applications, which is called ON4NoSQL. ON4NoSQL is responsible for enhancing the performances of classifications in NoSQL and SQL databases to build up mass behavior models. Mass behavior models are made by MapReduce techniques and Hadoop distributed file system based on Hadoop service platform. The reference engine of ON4NoSQL is the ontology-based backpropagation neural network classification and reasoning strategy. Simulation results indicate that ON4NoSQL can efficiently achieve to construct a high performance environment for data storing, searching, and retrieving.

Keywords: Hadoop, NoSQL, ontology, back propagation neural network, high distributed file system

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4 Cloud Computing in Data Mining: A Technical Survey

Authors: Ghaemi Reza, Abdollahi Hamid, Dashti Elham

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Cloud computing poses a diversity of challenges in data mining operation arising out of the dynamic structure of data distribution as against the use of typical database scenarios in conventional architecture. Due to immense number of users seeking data on daily basis, there is a serious security concerns to cloud providers as well as data providers who put their data on the cloud computing environment. Big data analytics use compute intensive data mining algorithms (Hidden markov, MapReduce parallel programming, Mahot Project, Hadoop distributed file system, K-Means and KMediod, Apriori) that require efficient high performance processors to produce timely results. Data mining algorithms to solve or optimize the model parameters. The challenges that operation has to encounter is the successful transactions to be established with the existing virtual machine environment and the databases to be kept under the control. Several factors have led to the distributed data mining from normal or centralized mining. The approach is as a SaaS which uses multi-agent systems for implementing the different tasks of system. There are still some problems of data mining based on cloud computing, including design and selection of data mining algorithms.

Keywords: cloud computing, data mining, computing models, cloud services

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3 Adopting Flocks of Birds Approach to Predator for Anomalies Detection on Industrial Control Systems

Authors: M. Okeke, A. Blyth

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Industrial Control Systems (ICS) such as Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) can be seen in many different critical infrastructures, from nuclear management to utility, medical equipment, power, waste and engine management on ships and planes. The role SCADA plays in critical infrastructure has resulted in a call to secure them. Many lives depend on it for daily activities and the attack vectors are becoming more sophisticated. Hence, the security of ICS is vital as malfunction of it might result in huge risk. This paper describes how the application of Prey Predator (PP) approach in flocks of birds could enhance the detection of malicious activities on ICS. The PP approach explains how these animals in groups or flocks detect predators by following some simple rules. They are not necessarily very intelligent animals but their approach in solving complex issues such as detection through corporation, coordination and communication worth emulating. This paper will emulate flocking behavior seen in birds in detecting predators. The PP approach will adopt six nearest bird approach in detecting any predator. Their local and global bests are based on the individual detection as well as group detection. The PP algorithm was designed following MapReduce methodology that follows a Split Detection Convergence (SDC) approach.

Keywords: artificial life, industrial control system (ICS), IDS, prey predator (PP), SCADA, SDC

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2 An Activity Based Trajectory Search Approach

Authors: Mohamed Mahmoud Hasan, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

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With the gigantic increment in portable applications use and the spread of positioning and location-aware technologies that we are seeing today, new procedures and methodologies for location-based strategies are required. Location recommendation is one of the highly demanded location-aware applications uniquely with the wide accessibility of social network applications that are location-aware including Facebook check-ins, Foursquare, and others. In this paper, we aim to present a new methodology for location recommendation. The proposed approach coordinates customary spatial traits alongside other essential components including shortest distance, and user interests. We also present another idea namely, "activity trajectory" that represents trajectory that fulfills the set of activities that the user is intrigued to do. The approach dispatched acquaints the related distance value to select trajectory(ies) with minimum cost value (distance) and spatial-area to prune unneeded directions. The proposed calculation utilizes the idea of movement direction to prescribe most comparable N-trajectory(ies) that matches the client's required action design with least voyaging separation. To upgrade the execution of the proposed approach, parallel handling is applied through the employment of a MapReduce based approach. Experiments taking into account genuine information sets were built up and tested for assessing the proposed approach. The exhibited tests indicate how the proposed approach beets different strategies giving better precision and run time.

Keywords: location based recommendation, map-reduce, recommendation system, trajectory search

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1 Video Analytics on Pedagogy Using Big Data

Authors: Jamuna Loganath

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Education is the key to the development of any individual’s personality. Today’s students will be tomorrow’s citizens of the global society. The education of the student is the edifice on which his/her future will be built. Schools therefore should provide an all-round development of students so as to foster a healthy society. The behaviors and the attitude of the students in school play an essential role for the success of the education process. Frequent reports of misbehaviors such as clowning, harassing classmates, verbal insults are becoming common in schools today. If this issue is left unattended, it may develop a negative attitude and increase the delinquent behavior. So, the need of the hour is to find a solution to this problem. To solve this issue, it is important to monitor the students’ behaviors in school and give necessary feedback and mentor them to develop a positive attitude and help them to become a successful grownup. Nevertheless, measuring students’ behavior and attitude is extremely challenging. None of the present technology has proven to be effective in this measurement process because actions, reactions, interactions, response of the students are rarely used in the course of the data due to complexity. The purpose of this proposal is to recommend an effective supervising system after carrying out a feasibility study by measuring the behavior of the Students. This can be achieved by equipping schools with CCTV cameras. These CCTV cameras installed in various schools of the world capture the facial expressions and interactions of the students inside and outside their classroom. The real time raw videos captured from the CCTV can be uploaded to the cloud with the help of a network. The video feeds get scooped into various nodes in the same rack or on the different racks in the same cluster in Hadoop HDFS. The video feeds are converted into small frames and analyzed using various Pattern recognition algorithms and MapReduce algorithm. Then, the video frames are compared with the bench marking database (good behavior). When misbehavior is detected, an alert message can be sent to the counseling department which helps them in mentoring the students. This will help in improving the effectiveness of the education process. As Video feeds come from multiple geographical areas (schools from different parts of the world), BIG DATA helps in real time analysis as it analyzes computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behavior and interactions. It also analyzes data that can’t be analyzed by traditional software applications such as RDBMS, OODBMS. It has also proven successful in handling human reactions with ease. Therefore, BIG DATA could certainly play a vital role in handling this issue. Thus, effectiveness of the education process can be enhanced with the help of video analytics using the latest BIG DATA technology.

Keywords: big data, cloud, CCTV, education process

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