Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14088

Search results for: repair time

14088 Optimal Replacement Period for a One-Unit System with Double Repair Cost Limits

Authors: Min-Tsai Lai, Taqwa Hariguna

Abstract:

This paper presents a periodical replacement model for a system, considering the concept of single and cumulative repair cost limits simultaneously. The failures are divided into two types. Minor failure can be corrected by minimal repair and serious failure makes the system breakdown completely. When a minor failure occurs, if the repair cost is less than a single repair cost limit L1 and the accumulated repair cost is less than a cumulative repair cost limit L2, then minimal repair is executed, otherwise, the system is preventively replaced. The system is also replaced at time T or at serious failure. The optimal period T minimizing the long-run expected cost per unit time is verified to be finite and unique under some specific conditions.

Keywords: repair-cost limit, cumulative repair-cost limit, minimal repair, periodical replacement policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
14087 Evaluation of Reliability Indices Using Monte Carlo Simulation Accounting Time to Switch

Authors: Sajjad Asefi, Hossein Afrakhte

Abstract:

This paper presents the evaluation of reliability indices of an electrical distribution system using Monte Carlo simulation technique accounting Time To Switch (TTS) for each section. In this paper, the distribution system has been assumed by accounting random repair time omission. For simplicity, we have assumed the reliability analysis to be based on exponential law. Each segment has a specified rate of failure (λ) and repair time (r) which will give us the mean up time and mean down time of each section in distribution system. After calculating the modified mean up time (MUT) in years, mean down time (MDT) in hours and unavailability (U) in h/year, TTS have been added to the time which the system is not available, i.e. MDT. In this paper, we have assumed the TTS to be a random variable with Log-Normal distribution.

Keywords: distribution system, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability, repair time, time to switch (TTS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
14086 Replacement Time and Number of Preventive Maintenance Actions for Second-Hand Device

Authors: Wen Liang Chang

Abstract:

In this study, the optimal replacement time and number of preventive maintenance (PM) actions were investigated for a second-hand device. Suppose that a user intends to use a second-hand device for manufacturing products, and that the device is replaced with a new one. Any device failure is rectified through minimal repair, thereby incurring a fixed repair cost to the user. If the new device fails within the FRW period, minimal repair is performed at no cost to the user. After the FRW expires, a failed device is repaired and the cost of repair is incurred by the user. In this study, two profit models were developed, and the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were determined to maximize profits. Finally, the influence of the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were elaborated on, using numerical examples.

Keywords: second-hand device, preventive maintenance, replacement time, device failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
14085 A Case Study on the Field Surveys and Repair of a Marine Approach-Bridge

Authors: S. H. Park, D. W. You

Abstract:

This study is about to the field survey and repair works in a marine approach-bride. In order to evaluate the stability of the ground and the structure, field surveys such as exterior inspection, non-destructive inspection, measurement, and geophysical exploration are carried out. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the cause of the abutment displacement at the same time. In addition, repair works are practiced to the region damaged with intent to sustain long-term safety.

Keywords: field survey, expansion joint, repair, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
14084 Comparative Study of Outcomes of Nonfixation of Mesh versus Fixation in Laparoscopic Total Extra Peritoneal (TEP) Repair of Inguinal Hernia: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Raman Sharma, S. K. Jain

Abstract:

Aims and Objectives: Fixation of the mesh during laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair of inguinal hernia is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase surgical complications and postoperative pain. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of nonfixation with fixation of polypropylene mesh by metal tacks during TEP repair of inguinal hernia. Methods: Forty patients aged 18 to72 years with inguinal hernia were included who underwent laparoscopic TEP repair of inguinal hernia with (n=20) or without (n=20) fixation of the mesh. The outcomes were operative duration, postoperative pain score, cost, in-hospital stay, time to return to normal activity, and complications. Results: Patients in whom the mesh was not fixed had shorter mean operating time (p < 0.05). We found no difference between groups in the postoperative pain score, incidence of recurrence, in-hospital stay, time to return to normal activity and complications (P > 0.05). Moreover, a net cost savings was realized for each hernia repair performed without stapled mesh. Conclusions: TEP repair without mesh fixation resulted in the shorter operating time and lower operative cost with no difference between groups in the postoperative pain score, incidence of recurrence, in-hospital stay, time to return to normal activity and complications. All this contribute to make TEP repair without mesh fixation a better choice for repair of uncomplicated inguinal hernia, especially in developing nations with scarce resources.

Keywords: postoperative pain score, inguinal hernia, nonfixation of mesh, total extra peritoneal (TEP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
14083 The Effect of Improvement Programs in the Mean Time to Repair and in the Mean Time between Failures on Overall Lead Time: A Simulation Using the System Dynamics-Factory Physics Model

Authors: Marcel Heimar Ribeiro Utiyama, Fernanda Caveiro Correia, Dario Henrique Alliprandini

Abstract:

The importance of the correct allocation of improvement programs is of growing interest in recent years. Due to their limited resources, companies must ensure that their financial resources are directed to the correct workstations in order to be the most effective and survive facing the strong competition. However, to our best knowledge, the literature about allocation of improvement programs does not analyze in depth this problem when the flow shop process has two capacity constrained resources. This is a research gap which is deeply studied in this work. The purpose of this work is to identify the best strategy to allocate improvement programs in a flow shop with two capacity constrained resources. Data were collected from a flow shop process with seven workstations in an industrial control and automation company, which process 13.690 units on average per month. The data were used to conduct a simulation with the System Dynamics-Factory Physics model. The main variables considered, due to their importance on lead time reduction, were the mean time between failures and the mean time to repair. The lead time reduction was the output measure of the simulations. Ten different strategies were created: (i) focused time to repair improvement, (ii) focused time between failures improvement, (iii) distributed time to repair improvement, (iv) distributed time between failures improvement, (v) focused time to repair and time between failures improvement, (vi) distributed time to repair and between failures improvement, (vii) hybrid time to repair improvement, (viii) hybrid time between failures improvements, (ix) time to repair improvement strategy towards the two capacity constrained resources, (x) time between failures improvement strategy towards the two capacity constrained resources. The ten strategies tested are variations of the three main strategies for improvement programs named focused, distributed and hybrid. Several comparisons among the effect of the ten strategies in lead time reduction were performed. The results indicated that for the flow shop analyzed, the focused strategies delivered the best results. When it is not possible to perform a large investment on the capacity constrained resources, companies should use hybrid approaches. An important contribution to the academy is the hybrid approach, which proposes a new way to direct the efforts of improvements. In addition, the study in a flow shop with two strong capacity constrained resources (more than 95% of utilization) is an important contribution to the literature. Another important contribution is the problem of allocation with two CCRs and the possibility of having floating capacity constrained resources. The results provided the best improvement strategies considering the different strategies of allocation of improvement programs and different positions of the capacity constrained resources. Finally, it is possible to state that both strategies, hybrid time to repair improvement and hybrid time between failures improvement, delivered best results compared to the respective distributed strategies. The main limitations of this study are mainly regarding the flow shop analyzed. Future work can further investigate different flow shop configurations like a varying number of workstations, different number of products or even different positions of the two capacity constrained resources.

Keywords: allocation of improvement programs, capacity constrained resource, hybrid strategy, lead time, mean time to repair, mean time between failures

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14082 Comparative Study of Non-Identical Firearms with Priority to Repair Subject to Inspection

Authors: A. S. Grewal, R. S. Sangwan, Dharambir, Vikas Dhanda

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop and analyze two reliability models for a system of non-identical firearms – one is standard firearm (called as original unit) and the other is a country-made firearm (called as duplicate /substandard unit). There is a single server who comes immediately to do inspection and repair whenever needed. On the failure of standard firearm, the server inspects the operative country-made firearm to see whether the unit is capable of performing the desired function well or not. If country-made firearm is not capable to do so, the operation of the system is stopped and server starts repair of the standard firearms immediately. However, no inspection is done at the failure of the country-made firearm as the country-made firearm alone is capable of performing the given task well. In model I, priority to repair the standard firearm is given in case system fails completely and country-made firearm is already under repair, whereas in model II there is no such priority. The failure and repair times of each unit are assumed to be independent and uncorrelated random variables. The distributions of failure time of the units are taken as negative exponential while that of repair and inspection times are general. By using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique some econo-reliability measures are obtained. Graphs are plotted to compare the MTSF (mean time to system failure), availability and profit of the models for a particular case.

Keywords: non-identical firearms, inspection, priority to repair, semi-Markov process, regenerative point

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
14081 Radial Distribution Network Reliability Improvement by Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Azim Khodadadi, Sahar Sadaat Vakili, Ebrahim Babaei

Abstract:

This study presents a numerical method to optimize the failure rate and repair time of a typical radial distribution system. Failure rate and repair time are effective parameters in customer and energy based indices of reliability. Decrease of these parameters improves reliability indices. Thus, system stability will be boost. The penalty functions indirectly reflect the cost of investment which spent to improve these indices. Constraints on customer and energy based indices, i.e. SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS have been considered by using a new method which reduces optimization algorithm controlling parameters. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) used as main optimization technique and particle swarm optimization (PSO), simulated annealing (SA) and differential evolution (DE) has been applied for further investigation. These algorithms have been implemented on a test system by MATLAB. Obtained results have been compared with each other. The optimized values of repair time and failure rate are much lower than current values which this achievement reduced investment cost and also ICA gives better answer than the other used algorithms.

Keywords: imperialist competitive algorithm, failure rate, repair time, radial distribution network

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
14080 Availability Analysis of Process Management in the Equipment Maintenance and Repair Implementation

Authors: Onur Ozveri, Korkut Karabag, Cagri Keles

Abstract:

It is an important issue that the occurring of production downtime and repair costs when machines fail in the machine intensive production industries. In the case of failure of more than one machine at the same time, which machines will have the priority to repair, how to determine the optimal repair time should be allotted for this machines and how to plan the resources needed to repair are the key issues. In recent years, Business Process Management (BPM) technique, bring effective solutions to different problems in business. The main feature of this technique is that it can improve the way the job done by examining in detail the works of interest. In the industries, maintenance and repair works are operating as a process and when a breakdown occurs, it is known that the repair work is carried out in a series of process. Maintenance main-process and repair sub-process are evaluated with process management technique, so it is thought that structure could bring a solution. For this reason, in an international manufacturing company, this issue discussed and has tried to develop a proposal for a solution. The purpose of this study is the implementation of maintenance and repair works which is integrated with process management technique and at the end of implementation, analyzing the maintenance related parameters like quality, cost, time, safety and spare part. The international firm that carried out the application operates in a free region in Turkey and its core business area is producing original equipment technologies, vehicle electrical construction, electronics, safety and thermal systems for the world's leading light and heavy vehicle manufacturers. In the firm primarily, a project team has been established. The team dealt with the current maintenance process again, and it has been revised again by the process management techniques. Repair process which is sub-process of maintenance process has been discussed again. In the improved processes, the ABC equipment classification technique was used to decide which machine or machines will be given priority in case of failure. This technique is a prioritization method of malfunctioned machine based on the effect of the production, product quality, maintenance costs and job security. Improved maintenance and repair processes have been implemented in the company for three months, and the obtained data were compared with the previous year data. In conclusion, breakdown maintenance was found to occur in a shorter time, with lower cost and lower spare parts inventory.

Keywords: ABC equipment classification, business process management (BPM), maintenance, repair performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
14079 A Current Problem for Steel Bridges: Fatigue Assessment of Seams´ Repair

Authors: H. Pasternak, A. Chwastek

Abstract:

The paper describes the results from a research project about repair of welds. The repair was carried out by grinding the flawed seams and re-welding them. The main task was to determine the FAT classes of original state and after repair of seams according to the assessment procedures, such as nominal, structural and effective notch stress approach. The first part shows the results of the tests, the second part encloses numerical analysis and evaluation of results to determine the fatigue strength classes according to three assessment procedures.

Keywords: cyclic loading, fatigue crack, post-weld treatment, seams’ repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
14078 Resilience-Based Emergency Bridge Inspection Routing and Repair Scheduling under Uncertainty

Authors: Zhenyu Zhang, Hsi-Hsien Wei

Abstract:

Highway network systems play a vital role in disaster response for disaster-damaged areas. Damaged bridges in such network systems can impede disaster response by disrupting transportation of rescue teams or humanitarian supplies. Therefore, emergency inspection and repair of bridges to quickly collect damage information of bridges and recover the functionality of highway networks is of paramount importance to disaster response. A widely used measure of a network’s capability to recover from disasters is resilience. To enhance highway network resilience, plenty of studies have developed various repair scheduling methods for the prioritization of bridge-repair tasks. These methods assume that repair activities are performed after the damage to a highway network is fully understood via inspection, although inspecting all bridges in a regional highway network may take days, leading to the significant delay in repairing bridges. In reality, emergency repair activities can be commenced as soon as the damage data of some bridges that are crucial to emergency response are obtained. Given that emergency bridge inspection and repair (EBIR) activities are executed simultaneously in the response phase, the real-time interactions between these activities can occur – the blockage of highways due to repair activities can affect inspection routes which in turn have an impact on emergency repair scheduling by providing real-time information on bridge damages. However, the impact of such interactions on the optimal emergency inspection routes (EIR) and emergency repair schedules (ERS) has not been discussed in prior studies. To overcome the aforementioned deficiencies, this study develops a routing and scheduling model for EBIR while accounting for real-time inspection-repair interactions to maximize highway network resilience. A stochastic, time-dependent integer program is proposed for the complex and real-time interacting EBIR problem given multiple inspection and repair teams at locations as set post-disaster. A hybrid genetic algorithm that integrates a heuristic approach into a traditional genetic algorithm to accelerate the evolution process is developed. Computational tests are performed using data from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, based on a regional highway network in Sichuan, China, consisting of 168 highway bridges on 36 highways connecting 25 cities/towns. The results show that the simultaneous implementation of bridge inspection and repair activities can significantly improve the highway network resilience. Moreover, the deployment of inspection and repair teams should match each other, and the network resilience will not be improved once the unilateral increase in inspection teams or repair teams exceeds a certain level. This study contributes to both knowledge and practice. First, the developed mathematical model makes it possible for capturing the impact of real-time inspection-repair interactions on inspection routing and repair scheduling and efficiently deriving optimal EIR and ERS on a large and complex highway network. Moreover, this study contributes to the organizational dimension of highway network resilience by providing optimal strategies for highway bridge management. With the decision support tool, disaster managers are able to identify the most critical bridges for disaster management and make decisions on proper inspection and repair strategies to improve highway network resilience.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency bridge inspection and repair, highway network, resilience, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
14077 Seismic Behavior and Loss Assessment of High–Rise Buildings with Light Gauge Steel–Concrete Hybrid Structure

Authors: Bing Lu, Shuang Li, Hongyuan Zhou

Abstract:

The steel–concrete hybrid structure has been extensively employed in high–rise buildings and super high–rise buildings. The light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, including light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure, is a new–type steel–concrete hybrid structure, which possesses some advantages of light gauge steel structure and concrete hybrid structure. The seismic behavior and loss assessment of three high–rise buildings with three different concrete hybrid structures were investigated through finite element software, respectively. The three concrete hybrid structures are reinforced concrete column–steel beam (RC‒S) hybrid structure, concrete–filled steel tube column–steel beam (CFST‒S) hybrid structure, and tubed concrete column–steel beam (TC‒S) hybrid structure. The nonlinear time-history analysis of three high–rise buildings under 80 earthquakes was carried out. After simulation, it indicated that the seismic performances of three high–rise buildings were superior. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the maximum inter–storey drifts of three high–rise buildings are significantly lower than 1/50. The inter–storey drift and floor acceleration of high–rise building with CFST‒S hybrid structure were bigger than those of high–rise buildings with RC‒S hybrid structure, and smaller than those of high–rise building with TC‒S hybrid structure. Then, based on the time–history analysis results, the post-earthquake repair cost ratio and repair time of three high–rise buildings were predicted through an economic performance analysis method proposed in FEMA‒P58 report. Under frequent earthquakes, basic earthquakes and rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of three high-rise buildings were less than 5% and 15 days, respectively. Under extremely rare earthquakes, the repair cost ratio and repair time of high-rise buildings with TC‒S hybrid structure were the most among three high rise buildings. Due to the advantages of CFST-S hybrid structure, it could be extensively employed in high-rise buildings subjected to earthquake excitations.

Keywords: seismic behavior, loss assessment, light gauge steel–concrete hybrid structure, high–rise building, time–history analysis

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14076 Retrofitting of Historical Structures in Van City

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Historical structures are the most important symbols of a country that link the past with the future. In order to transfer them in their present conditions to the next generations, maintaining these historical structures are one of our main tasks. Seismic performance of historical structures damaged by the earthquake effects can be enhanced by repair and retrofitting applications. However, repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are more complicated compared with the traditional structures. For this reason, they need much more attention in repair and retrofitting applications to preserve the spirit of historical structures. In this study, the present condition of selected historical structures built up in Van city that has a very rich historical heritage is given and the necessity of repair and retrofitting applications of historical structures are debated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, repair, retrofitting, Van city

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
14075 Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Manish Kumar

Abstract:

Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used for construction of different type of structures for the last one century. During this period, we have constructed many structures like buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc. using this construction material. These structures have been created with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair. Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care for quality repair.

Keywords: deterioration, functional condition, reinforced cement concrete, resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
14074 Presentation of the Model of Reliability of the Signaling System with Emphasis on Determining Best Time Schedule for Repairments and Preventive Maintenance in the Iranian Railway

Authors: Maziar Yazdani, Ahmad Khodaee, Fatemeh Hajizadeh

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was analysis of the reliability of the signaling system in the railway and planning repair and maintenance of its subsystems. For this purpose, it will be endeavored to introduce practical strategies for activities control and appropriate planning for repair and preventive maintenance by statistical modeling of reliability. Therefore, modeling, evaluation, and promotion of reliability of the signaling system appear very critical. Among the key goals of the railway is provision of quality service for passengers and this purpose is gained by increasing reliability, availability, maintainability and safety of (RAMS). In this research, data were analyzed, and the reliability of the subsystems and entire system was calculated and with emphasis on preservation of performance of each of the subsystems with a reliability of 80%, a plan for repair and preventive maintenance of the subsystems of the signaling system was introduced.

Keywords: reliability, modeling reliability, plan for repair and preventive maintenance, signaling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
14073 Repair Workshop Queue System Modification Using Priority Scheme

Authors: C. Okonkwo Ugochukwu, E. Sinebe Jude, N. Odoh Blessing, E. Okafor Christian

Abstract:

In this paper, a modification on repair workshop queuing system using multi priority scheme was carried out. Chi square goodness of fit test was used to determine the random distribution of the inter arrival time and service time of crankshafts that come for maintenance in the workshop. The chi square values obtained for all the prioritized classes show that the distribution conforms to Poisson distribution. The mean waiting time in queue results of non-preemptive priority for 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes show 0.066, 0.09, and 0.224 day respectively, while preemptive priority show 0.007, 0.036 and 0.258 day. However, when non priority is used, which obviously has no class distinction it amounts to 0.17 days. From the results, one can observe that the preemptive priority system provides a very dramatic improvement over the non preemptive priority as it concerns arrivals that are of higher priority. However, the improvement has a detrimental effect on the low priority class. The trend of the results is similar to the mean waiting time in the system as a result of addition of the actual service time. Even though the mean waiting time for the queue and that of the system for no priority takes the least time when compared with the least priority, urgent and semi-urgent jobs will terribly suffer which will most likely result in reneging or balking of many urgent jobs. Hence, the adoption of priority scheme in this type of scenario will result in huge profit to the Company and more customer satisfaction.

Keywords: queue, priority class, preemptive, non-preemptive, mean waiting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
14072 Unreliable Production Lines with Simultaneously Unbalanced Operation Time Means, Breakdown, and Repair Rates

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson

Abstract:

This paper investigates the benefits of deliberately unbalancing both operation time means (MTs) and unreliability (failure and repair rates) for non-automated production lines.The lines were simulated with various line lengths, buffer capacities, degrees of imbalance and patterns of MT and unreliability imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput (TR) and average buffer level (ABL) were gathered, analyzed and compared to a balanced line counterpart. A number of conclusions were made with respect to the ranking of configurations, as well as to the relationships among the independent design parameters and the dependent variables. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing MT order, coupled with either a decreasing or a bowl unreliability configuration, with the first generally resulting in a reduced TR and the second leading to a lower ABL than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: unreliable production lines, unequal mean operation times, unbalanced failure and repair rates, throughput, average buffer level

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
14071 Examination of State of Repair of Buildings in Private Housing Estates in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Umeora Chukwunonso Obiefuna

Abstract:

The private sector in housing provision continually take steps towards addressing part of the problem of cushioning the effect of the housing shortage in Nigeria by establishing housing estates since the government alone cannot provide housing for everyone. This research examined and reported findings from research conducted on the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in Enugu metropolis, Enugu state Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to examine the physical conditions of the building fabrics and appraise the performance of infrastructural services provided in the buildings. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument to elicit data from respondents. Stratified sampling of the estates based on building type was adopted as a sampling method for this study. Findings from the research show that the state of repair of most buildings require minor repairs to make them fit for habitation and sound to ensure the well-being of the residents. In addition, four independent variables from the nine independent variables investigated significantly explained residual variation in the dependent variable - state of repair of the buildings in the study area. These variables are: Average Monthly Income of Residents (AMIR), Length of Stay of the Residents in the estates (LSY), Type of Wall Finishes on the buildings (TWF), and Time Taken to Respond to Resident’s complaints by the estate managers (TTRC). With this, the linear model was established for predicting the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in the study area. This would assist in identifying variables that are lucid in predicting the state of repair of the buildings.

Keywords: building, housing estate, private, repair

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14070 An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

Authors: Lim Kar Sing, Siti Nur Afifah Azraai, Norhazilan Md Noor, Nordin Yahaya

Abstract:

Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.

Keywords: composite materials, pipeline, repair technique, polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
14069 Results of Twenty Years of Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Surgeries

Authors: Arun Prasad

Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery of hernia started in early 1990 and has had a mixed acceptance across the world, unlike laparoscopic cholecystectomy that has become a gold standard. Laparoscopic hernia repair claims to have less pain, less recurrence, and less wound infection compared to open hernia repair leading to early recovery and return to work. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic hernia repair has been done in 2100 patients from 1995 till now with a follow-up data of 1350 patients. Data was analysed for results and satisfaction. Results: There is a recurrence rate of 0.1%. Early complications include bleeding, trocar injury and nerve pain. Late complications were rare. Conclusion: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has a steep learning curve but after that the results and patient satisfaction are very good. It should be the procedure of choice in all bilateral and recurrent hernias.

Keywords: laparoscopy, hernia, mesh, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
14068 Transperineal Repair Is Ideal for the Management of Rectocele with Faecal Incontinence

Authors: Tia Morosin, Marie Shella De Robles

Abstract:

Rectocele may be associated with symptoms of both obstructed defecation and faecal incontinence. Currently, numerous operative techniques exist to treat patients with rectocele; however, no single technique has emerged as the optimal approach in patients with post-partum faecal incontinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome in a consecutive series of patients who underwent transperineal repair of rectocele for patients presenting with faecal incontinence as the predominant symptom. Twenty-three consecutive patients from April 2000 to July 2015 with symptomatic rectocele underwent transperineal repair by a single surgeon. All patients had a history of vaginal delivery, with or without evidence of associated anal sphincter injury at the time. The median age of the cohort was 53 years (range 21 to 90 years). The median operating time and length of hospital stay were 2 hours and 7 days, respectively. Two patients developed urinary retention post-operatively, which required temporary bladder catheterization. One patient had wound dehiscence, which was managed by absorbent dressing applied by the patient and her carer. There was no operative mortality. In all patients with rectocele, there was a concomitant anal sphincter disruption. All patients had satisfactory improvement with regard to faecal incontinence on follow-up. This study suggests this method provides excellent anatomic and physiologic results with minimal morbidity. However, because none of the patients gained full continence postoperatively, pelvic floor rehabilitation might be also needed to achieve better sphincter function in patients with incontinence.

Keywords: anal sphincter defect, faecal incontinence, rectocele, transperineal repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
14067 A Method to Identify the Critical Delay Factors for Building Maintenance Projects of Institutional Buildings: Case Study of Eastern India

Authors: Shankha Pratim Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In general building repair and renovation projects are minor in nature. It requires less attention as the primary cost involvement is relatively small. Although the building repair and maintenance projects look simple, it involves much complexity during execution. Many of the present research indicate that few uncertain situations are usually linked with maintenance projects. Those may not be read properly in the planning stage of the projects, and finally, lead to time overrun. Building repair and maintenance become essential and periodical after commissioning of the building. In Institutional buildings, the regular maintenance projects also include addition –alteration, modification activities. Increase in the student admission, new departments, and sections, new laboratories and workshops, up gradation of existing laboratories are very common in the institutional buildings in the developing nations like India. The project becomes very critical because it undergoes space problem, architectural design issues, structural modification, etc. One of the prime factors in the institutional building maintenance and modification project is the time constraint. Mostly it required being executed a specific non-work time period. The present research considered only the institutional buildings of the Eastern part of India to analyse the repair and maintenance project delay. A general survey was conducted among the technical institutes to find the causes and corresponding nature of construction delay factors. Five technical institutes are considered in the present study with repair, renovation, modification and extension type of projects. Construction delay factors are categorically subdivided into four groups namely, material, manpower (works), Contract and Site. The survey data are collected for the nature of delay responsible for a specific project and the absolute amount of delay through proposed and actual duration of work. In the first stage of the paper, a relative importance index (RII) is proposed for the delay factors. The occurrence of the delay factors is also judged by its frequency-severity nature. Finally, the delay factors are then rated and linked with the type of work. In the second stage, a regression analysis is executed to establish an empirical relationship between the actual time of a project and the percentage of delay. It also indicates the impact of the factors for delay responsibility. Ultimately, the present paper makes an effort to identify the critical delay factors for the repair and renovation type project in the Eastern Indian Institutional building.

Keywords: delay factor, institutional building, maintenance, relative importance index, regression analysis, repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
14066 Repair of Cracked Aluminum Plate by Composite Patch

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this work, repaired crack in 6061-T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain, and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its size vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly, we repair various cracks with the composite patch (carbon/epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally, the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress

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14065 A Radiographic Survey of Eggshell Powder Effect on Tibial Bone Defect Repair Tested in Dog

Authors: M. Yadegari, M. Nourbakhsh, N. Arbabzadeh

Abstract:

The skeletal system injuries are of major importance. In addition, it is recommended to use materials for hard tissue repair in open or closed fractures. It is important to use complex minerals with a beneficial effect on hard tissue repair, stimulating cell growth in the bone. Materials that could help avoid bone fracture inflammatory reaction and speed up bone fracture repair are of utmost importance in the treatment of bone fractures. Similar to minerals, the inner eggshell membrane consists of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins with the high pH, high calcium absorptive capacity and with faster bone fracture repair ability. In the present radiographic survey, eggshell-derived bone graft substitutes were used for bone defect repair in 8 dog tibia, measuring bone density on the day of implant placement and 30 and 60 days after placement. In fact, the result of this study shows the difference in bone growth and misshapen bones between treatment and control sites. Cell growth was adequate in treatment sites and misshapen bones were less frequent here than in control sites.

Keywords: bone repair, eggshell powder, implant, radiography

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14064 Balancing the Need for Closure: A Requirement for Effective Mood Development in Flow

Authors: Cristian Andrei Nica

Abstract:

The state of flow relies on cognitive elements that sustain openness for information processing in order to promote goal attainment. However, the need for closure may create mental constraints, which can impact affectivity levels. This study aims to observe the extent in which need for closure moderates the interaction between flow and affectivity, taking into account the mediating role of the mood repair motivation in the interaction process between need for closure and affectivity. Using a non-experimental, correlational design, n=73 participants n=18 men and n=55 women, ages between 19-64 years (m= 28.02) (SD=9.22), completed the Positive Affectivity-Negative Affectivity Schedule, the need for closure scale-revised, the mood repair items and an adapted version of the flow state scale 2, in order to assess the trait aspects of flow. Results show that need for closure significantly moderates the flow-affectivity process, while the tolerance of ambiguity sub-scale is positively associated with negative affectivity and negatively to positive affectivity. At the same time, mood repair motivation significantly mediates the interaction between need for closure and positive affectivity, whereas the mediation process for negative affectivity is insignificant. Need for closure needs to be considered when promoting the development of positive emotions. It has been found that the motivation to repair one’s mood mediates the interaction between need for closure and positive affectivity. According to this study, flow can trigger positive emotions when the person is willing to engage in mood regulation strategies and approach meaningful experiences with an open mind.

Keywords: flow, mood regulation, mood repair motivation, need for closure, negative affectivity, positive affectivity

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14063 Behavioral Study Circumferential and Longitudinal Cracks in a Steel Pipeline X65 and Repair Patch

Authors: Sadok Aboubakr

Abstract:

The mechanical behavior of cracks from several manufacturing defect in an oil pipeline, is characterized by the fact that defects'm taking several forms: circumferential, longitudinal and inclined crack that evolve over time. Increased lifetime of the constructions and in particular cylindrical tubes under internal pressure requires knowledge improving these defects during loading. From this study we simulated various forms of cracking and also their pipeline repair patch.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, pressure, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Shear modulus, Longueur du pipeline, the angle of crack, crack length

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14062 Studying Second Language Learners' Language Behavior from Conversation Analysis Perspective

Authors: Yanyan Wang

Abstract:

This paper on second language teaching and learning uses conversation analysis (CA) approach and focuses on how second language learners of Chinese do repair when making clarification requests. In order to demonstrate their behavior in interaction, a comparison was made to study the differences between native speakers of Chinese with non-native speakers of Chinese. The significance of the research is to make second language teachers and learners aware of repair and how to seek clarification. Utilizing the methodology of CA, the research involved two sets of naturally occurring recordings, one of native speaker students and the other of non-native speaker students. Both sets of recording were telephone talks between students and teachers. There were 50 native speaker students and 50 non-native speaker students. From multiple listening to the recordings, the parts with repairs for clarification were selected for analysis which included the moments in the talk when students had problems in understanding or hearing the speaker and had to seek clarification. For example, ‘Sorry, I do not understand ‘and ‘Can you repeat the question? ‘were the parts as repair to make clarification requests. In the data, there were 43 such cases from native speaker students and 88 cases from non-native speaker students. The non-native speaker students were more likely to use repair to seek clarification. Analysis on how the students make clarification requests during their conversation was carried out by investigating how the students initiated problems and how the teachers repaired the problems. In CA term, it is called other-initiated self-repair (OISR), which refers to student-initiated teacher-repair in this research. The findings show that, in initiating repair, native speaker students pay more attention to mutual understanding (inter-subjectivity) while non-native speaker students, due to their lack of language proficiency, pay more attention to their status of knowledge (epistemic) switch. There are three major differences: 1, native Chinese students more often initiate closed-class OISR (seeking specific information in the request) such as repeating a word or phrases from the previous turn while non-native students more frequently initiate open-class OISR (not specifying clarification) such as ‘sorry, I don’t understand ‘. 2, native speakers’ clarification requests are treated by the teacher as understanding of the content while non-native learners’ clarification requests are treated by teacher as language proficiency problem. 3, native speakers don’t see repair as knowledge issue and there is no third position in the repair sequences to close repair while non-native learners take repair sequence as a time to adjust their knowledge. There is clear closing third position token such as ‘oh ‘ to close repair sequence so that the topic can go back. In conclusion, this paper uses conversation analysis approach to compare differences between native Chinese speakers and non-native Chinese learners in their ways of conducting repair when making clarification requests. The findings are useful in future Chinese language teaching and learning, especially in teaching pragmatics such as requests.

Keywords: conversation analysis (CA), clarification request, second language (L2), teaching implication

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14061 Visual and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Corneal Lacerations

Authors: Avantika Verma

Abstract:

In industrialized nations, corneal lacerations are one of the most common reason for hospitalization. This study was designed to study visual and clinical outcome in patients presenting with full thickness corneal lacerations in Indian population and to ascertain the impact of various preoperative and operative factors influencing prognosis after repair of corneal lacerations. Males in third decade with injuries at work with metallic objects were common. Lens damage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis were seen. All the patients underwent primary repair within first 24 hours of presentation. At 3 months, 74.3% had a good visual outcome. About 5.7% of patients had no perception of light.In conclusion, various demographic and preoperative factors like age, time of presentation, vision at presentation, length of corneal wound, involvement of visual axis, associated ocular features like hyphaema, lenticular changes, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment are significant prognostic indicators for final visual outcome.

Keywords: corneal laceration, corneal wound repair, injury, visual outcome

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14060 Analysis of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

Authors: Prakash Karrun, M. Manoj Deepak, Mathivanan, K. Venkatachalam

Abstract:

Our study aims to evaluate the rates of healing and the efficacy of the arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff tears. 40 patients who had rotator cuff tears were taken up for the study and arthroscopic repair was done with double row technique.They were evaluated and followed up for a minimum of 2 years minimum.The functional status,range of motion and healing rates were compared post operatively. All the patients were followed up with serial questionnaires and MRI at the end of 2 years. There was significant improvement in the functional status of the patient. The MRI showed better rates of healing in these patients.Thus our study effectively proves the efficacy of our operating technique.

Keywords: rotator cuff tear, arthroscopic repair, double stich, healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
14059 Outcome Analysis of Various Management Strategies for Ileal Perforation

Authors: Ashvamedh, Chandra Bhushan Singh, Anil Kumar Sarda

Abstract:

Introduction: Ileal perforation is a common cause for peritonitis in developing countries. Surgery is the ideal treatment as it eliminates soilage of peritoneal cavity in an effort to lessen the toxaemia and enhance the recovery of the patient. However, there is no uniformity of standardized operative procedure that is most effective for management. Material and method: The study was conducted on 66 patients of perforation peritonitis from November 2013 to February 2015 in Lok Nayak Hospital. Data of each patient were recorded on a pre-determined proforma. The methods used for repair were Primary repair, Resection anastomosis (RA) and Ileostomy. Result: Male preponderance was noticed among the patients with majority in their third decade. Of all perforations 40.9% were tubercular and 34.8% were typhoid. Amongst operated cases 27.3% underwent primary repair, RA was performed in 45.5%, Ileostomy in 27.3%patients. The average time taken for RA and ileostomy was more than primary repair. The type of repair bear no significance to size or no of perforation but was significant statistically for distance from I/C valve(P=.005) and edema of bowel wall(p=.002) when analysed for post op complications. Wound infection, dehiscence, intra-abdominal collections were complications observed bearing no significance to type of repair. Ileostomy per se has its own complications peristomal skin excoriation seen in 83.3%, electrolyte imbalance in 33.3%, duration for closure averaged 188 days (median 150 days, range 85-400 days). Conclusion: Primary closure is preferable in patients with single, small perforations. RA is advocated in patients with multiple or large perforation, perforation proximal to stricture. Ileostomy should not be considered as primary definitive procedure and reserved only for moribund patients as a lifesaving procedure. It has more morbidity and requires a second surgery for closure increasing the cost of treatment as well.

Keywords: ileal perforation, ileostomy, perforation peritonitis, typhoid perforation management

Procedia PDF Downloads 150