Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Ubuntu

12 An Attempt to Measure Afro-Polychronism Empirically

Authors: Aïda C. Terblanché-Greeff


Afro-polychronism is a unique amalgamated cultural value of social self-construal and time orientation. As such, the construct Afro-polychronism is conceptually analysed by focusing on the aspects of Ubuntu as collectivism and African time as polychronism. It is argued that these cultural values have a reciprocal and thus inseparable relationship. As it is general practice to measure cultural values empirically, the author conducted empirically engaged philosophy and aimed to develop a scale to measure Afro-polychronism based on its two dimensions of Ubuntu as social self-construal and African time as time orientation. From the scale’s psychometric properties, it was determined that the scale was, in fact, not reliable and valid. It was found that the correlation between the Ubuntu dimension and the African time is moderate (albeit statistically significant). In conclusion, the author abduced why this cultural value cannot be empirically measured based on its theoretical definition and indicated which different path would be more promising.

Keywords: African time, Afro-polychronism, empirically engaged African philosophy, Ubuntu

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11 Striking a Balance between Certainty and Flexibility: The Role of Ubuntu in South African Contract Law

Authors: Yeukai Mupangavanhu


The paper examines the concept of ubuntu and the extent to which it can play a role in ensuring fairness and justice in contractual relationships. Courts are expected to balance sanctity of contract and fairness. Public policy is currently a mechanism which is used by courts when balancing the above two competing interests. It, however, generally favours the freedom and sanctity of contract. The question which is addressed in this paper is whether the concept of ubuntu is an alternative mechanism that may be used to mitigate the sometimes harsh and unfair consequences of the doctrine of freedom and sanctity of contract. A comparative study and case analysis is the methodology that is used in this article. Unfairness in contracts is generally related to the problem of inequality in bargaining power underscored by deeply entrenched social and economic inequalities that are a consequence of apartheid and patriarchy. The transformative nature of the constitution demands the inclusion of African legal ideas and values in the legal order. There is a need for the harmonisation of western ideals which are based on the classical model of law of contract with relevant African principles. In order to attain a transformative legal order that promotes a societal transformation and enhances the lives of everyone courts cannot continue to frown upon African values. Ubuntu has the potential of steering the law of contract in a more equitable direction. The substantive rules of contract law undoubtedly need to be infused with the notion of ubuntu. The reconciliation of Western and African values is at the heart of legal transformation.

Keywords: fairness, sanctity of contract, contractual justice, transformative constitutionalism

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10 Consumer Value and Purchase Behaviour: The Mediating Role of Consumers' Expectations of Corporate Social Responsibility in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Abosede Ijabadeniyi, Jeevarathnam P. Govender


Prevailing strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) research is predominantly centred around the predictive implications of the construct on behavioural outcomes. This phenomenon limits the depth of our understanding of the trajectory of strategic CSR. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effects of CSR expectations on the relationship between consumer value and purchase behaviour by identifying the implications of the multidimensionality of CSR (economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic) on the latter. Drawing from the stakeholder theory and its interplay with the prevalence of Ubuntu values; the underlying force which governs the values of South African camaraderie, we hypothesise that the multidimensionality of CSR expectations has positive mediating effects in the relationship between consumer value and purchase behaviour. Partial Least Square (PLS) path modelling was employed, using six measures of the average path coefficient (APC) to test the relationship between the constructs. Results from a sample of mall shoppers of (n=411), based on a survey conducted across five major malls in Durban, South Africa, indicate that only the legal dimension of CSR serves as a mediating factor in the relationship among the constructs. South Africa’s unique history of segregation, leading to the proliferation of spontaneous organisational approach to CSR and higher expectations of organisational legitimacy are identified as antecedents of consumers’ reliance on the law (legal CSR) to redress the ills of the past, sustainable development, and socially responsible behaviour. The paper also highlights theoretical and managerial implications for future research.

Keywords: consumer value, corporate marketing, corporate social responsibility, purchase behaviour, Ubuntu

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9 From Two-Way to Multi-Way: A Comparative Study for Map-Reduce Join Algorithms

Authors: Marwa Hussien Mohamed, Mohamed Helmy Khafagy


Map-Reduce is a programming model which is widely used to extract valuable information from enormous volumes of data. Map-reduce designed to support heterogeneous datasets. Apache Hadoop map-reduce used extensively to uncover hidden pattern like data mining, SQL, etc. The most important operation for data analysis is joining operation. But, map-reduce framework does not directly support join algorithm. This paper explains and compares two-way and multi-way map-reduce join algorithms for map reduce also we implement MR join Algorithms and show the performance of each phase in MR join algorithms. Our experimental results show that map side join and map merge join in two-way join algorithms has the longest time according to preprocessing step sorting data and reduce side cascade join has the longest time at Multi-Way join algorithms.

Keywords: Hadoop, MapReduce, multi-way join, two-way join, Ubuntu

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8 Linking Oath-taking and Sustainable Development of Igbo Indigenous Economic Enterprise from Pre-Colonial Era

Authors: Ucheawaji Godfrey Josiah


Modernity has had a toll on the Igbo principle of egbe bere, ugo bere (that is, live and let’s live, similar to the ubuntu ubuntu philosophy) which serves as the bedrock for the igba boi enterprise (apprenticeship system) of the indigenous Igbo people thus breeding disaffection within family ties and leading to the decline of the Igbo traditional business heritage. This decline is subtly linked to dishonesty in fulfilling the terms of the agreement from both ends - the boi and some masters alike. Moreover, the vitality of oaths (Inu Iyi, a phenomenon in Igbo indigenous religion) in the sustainability of the Igbo economic enterprise during the pre-colonial era, with implications for the post-civil war periods, appears to be relegated in extant literature. This research, therefore, interrogates the seeming relationship between Igbo traditional oath-taking and economic successes in the pre-colonial era, particularly within the purview of values enforcement at home and in the community, with implications for economic sustainability in the post-civil war period in south-eastern Nigeria. The study adopts the qualitative research design. It utilises the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). A semi-structured interview guide is employed alongside narrative inquiry to allow purposively selected 30 knowledgeable interview participants from Arochukwu and Nnewi communities in Southeast Nigeria, provide layered narrative accounts of experiences regarding the process of agreement during recruitments of the boi, as well as the role of oath-taking, a Religious phenomenon, in the bargain especially within the pre-civil war and post-civil war eras in Nigeria. Data gathered for this study were subjected to Hermeneutic Content and Narrative Analysis (HCNA) which involves Qualitative Content Analysis. The study revealed that the religious and socio-economic lives of the Igbo were intertwined, as the spiritual impacted the physical. Also, evidenced in the pre-colonial Igbo indigenous religion was the phenomenon of oath-taking with various methods of application. Some of the methods included: igba ndu (done by drinking a mixture of blood), ido agbata (done by liking a mixture of nnu na nmanu, that is, salt and palm oil or chewing a cola nut with palm oil), igba oliko (eating from a container or pot of a covenant mixture) and ibe nne (a mother beating her suckled breast). The various forms of oath-taking especially during the pre-colonial era among the Igbo, enforced commitment to the family’s ethical values and facilitated compliance to whatever agreements with implications on the economy of that period. However, there was a decline in the effectiveness of such oaths during the post-civil war in Nigeria. This is a result of discontentment and dishonesty in both priests and clients.

Keywords: economic sustainability, igba boi enterprise, oath-taking, Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria, values enforcement

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7 Dysphemism vs Euphemism in a South African Soap Opera: The Case of the Queen

Authors: Maropeng Maponya, Mawethu Nhlabathi


Euphemistic expressions, as part of showing respect and ubuntu, are naturally embedded in the African Languages. These expressions are solely used to soothe the impact which dysphemistic words may have on an individual or the society at large. Conversely, the script producers of one of the well-known soap operas in South Africa, The Queen–Mzansi, seem to have turned a blind eye on that, mostly when they use dysphemistic reference to human genitals. As a result, such practice tends to deteriorate the ethicality of the African languages and the beliefs held by African society in general. They also give less meaning to the promotion of African language concepts. This paper is aimed at explaining and analyzing the impact of dysphemism on language growth, basing the argument on the fact that subtitled texts in the soap opera never reflect the actual dysphemistic sourced text uttered by the character/s. This is a clear indication that the production crew of this soap opera is aware of the impact that these utterances may have on society, yet they do not mind the characters saying them as is in African Languages whilst euphemizing them through English subtitles. The paper adopted a descriptive qualitative method with an embedded case study in it, whereby dysphemistic clips from three characters of the soap opera were selected and analyzed.

Keywords: euphemism, dysphemism, soap opera, The Queen

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6 Challenging Human Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa and Beyond: A Foresight Approach to Contextualizing and Understanding the Consequences of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Demographic Emergence

Authors: Ricardo Schnug


This paper puts the transnational crime of human trafficking in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa and its quickly growing youth bulge. By mapping recent and concurrent trends and emerging issues, it explores the implications that it has not only for the region itself but also for the greater global dynamics of the issue. Through the application of Causal Layered Analysis to various alternative future scenarios as well as the identification of the core narrative surrounding the international discourse, it is possible to understand more deeply the forces that underlie future trafficking and what change becomes possible. With the provision of a reconstructed narrative that avoids the current blind spots, this research points out the need for a new and organic leadership paradigm that allows for a more holistic and future-oriented inquiry about socio-economic and political change and what it entails for a transnational crime such as human trafficking. 'Ubuntu' as a social and leadership philosophy then, provides the principles needed for creating this path towards a truly preferred future. Furthermore, this paper inspires follow-up research and the continuous monitoring and transdisciplinary research of this region’s demographic emergence as well as its possible consequences that have been explored in this inquiry.

Keywords: causal layered analysis, emerging issues, human trafficking, scenarios, sub-Saharan Africa

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5 The Significance of Community Life in Promoting Unity in the Light of Acts 2:42

Authors: Takesure Mahohoma


Community life is an epitome of the African axiom 'I am because we are, since we are therefore I am.' This culminates in the Ubuntu philosophy which is summarized in the Zulu words, 'umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu' (A person is a person through other people). This relationship gives honour to all people. This is the gist of the paper. This paper seeks to demonstrate the impact of community life in promoting unity from an African perspective. Using the proto-community in Acts 2:42, it is argued that community life is a solution to many social problems that divide African society today. The aim is to encourage all Africans and other people to cultivate a sense of belonging and valuing community life in the light of Acts 2:42. Hence we shall trace this theme from Old Testament, New Testament, and Christian history. The other section touches on the essence of community life and obstacles that hinder it. We shall offer spiritual suggestions and an integrative reflection. The nature of the paper is theology in general but spiritual in particular. As a spiritual paper, it is guided by the foundational approach. Thus, it employs the dialogical and integrative reflection method. The expected result is that freedom from all the miseries experienced is brought by living a community life. This is a life that gives greater assurance of enough food, education, health, peace, employment, and increased responsibility that values human dignity. Thus people are neighbours to each other. There is no stranger among them. The basic presumption is that there can be no development in any society without community life.

Keywords: community, seged, koinonia, neighbor

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4 Agile Smartphone Porting and App Integration of Signal Processing Algorithms Obtained through Rapid Development

Authors: Marvin Chibuzo Offiah, Susanne Rosenthal, Markus Borschbach


Certain research projects in Computer Science often involve research on existing signal processing algorithms and developing improvements on them. Research budgets are usually limited, hence there is limited time for implementing the algorithms from scratch. It is therefore common practice, to use implementations provided by other researchers as a template. These are most commonly provided in a rapid development, i.e. 4th generation, programming language, usually Matlab. Rapid development is a common method in Computer Science research for quickly implementing and testing new developed algorithms, which is also a common task within agile project organization. The growing relevance of mobile devices in the computer market also gives rise to the need to demonstrate the successful executability and performance measurement of these algorithms on a mobile device operating system and processor, particularly on a smartphone. Open mobile systems such as Android, are most suitable for this task, which is to be performed most efficiently. Furthermore, efficiently implementing an interaction between the algorithm and a graphical user interface (GUI) that runs exclusively on the mobile device is necessary in cases where the project’s goal statement also includes such a task. This paper examines different proposed solutions for porting computer algorithms obtained through rapid development into a GUI-based smartphone Android app and evaluates their feasibilities. Accordingly, the feasible methods are tested and a short success report is given for each tested method.

Keywords: SMARTNAVI, Smartphone, App, Programming languages, Rapid Development, MATLAB, Octave, C/C++, Java, Android, NDK, SDK, Linux, Ubuntu, Emulation, GUI

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3 Potential Contribution of Blue Oceans for Growth of Universities: Case of Faculties of Agriculture in Public Universities in Zimbabwe

Authors: Wonder Ngezimana, Benjamin Alex Madzivire


As new public universities are being applauded for being promulgated in Zimbabwe, there is need for comprehensive plan for ensuring sustainable competitive advantages in their niche mandated areas. Unhealthy competition between university faculties for enrolment hinders growth of the newly established universities faculties, especially in the agricultural sciences related disciplines. Blue ocean metaphor is based on creation of competitor-free market unlike 'red oceans', which are well explored and crowded with competitors. This study seeks to explore the potential contribution of blue oceans strategy (BOS) for growth of universities with bias towards faculties of agriculture in public universities in Zimbabwe. Case studies with agricultural sciences related disciplines were selected across three universities for interviewing. Data was collected through 10 open ended questions on academics in different management positions within university faculties of agriculture. Summative analysis was thereafter used during coding and interpretation of the data. Study findings show that there are several important elements for making offerings more comprehendible towards fostering faculty growth and performance with bias towards student enrolment. The results points towards BOS form of value innovations with various elements to consider in faculty offerings. To create valued innovation beyond the red oceans, the cases in this study have to be modelled to foster changes in enrolment, modes of delivery, certification, being research oriented with excellence in teaching, ethics, service to the community and entrepreneurship. There is, therefore, need to rethink strategy towards reshaping inclusive enrolment, industry relevance, affiliations, lifelong learning, sustainable student welfare, ubuntu, exchange programmes, research excellence, alumni support and entrepreneurship. Innovative strategic collaborations and partnerships, anchored on technology boost the strategic offerings henceforth leveraging on various offerings in this study. Areas of further study include the amplitude of blue oceans shown in the university faculty offerings and implementation strategies of BOS.

Keywords: blue oceans strategy, collaborations, faculty offerings, value innovations

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2 ‘Obuntu Bulamu’: Parental Peer to Peer Support for Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Central Uganda

Authors: Ruth Nalugya, Claire Nimusiima, Elizabeth Kawesa, Harriet Nambejja, Geert van Hove, Janet Seeley, Femke Bannink Mbazzi


Background: ‘Obuntu bulamu’, an intervention for children, parents, and teachers to improve the participation and inclusion of children with disabilities (CwD) through peer-to-peer support, was developed and tested in central Uganda between 2017 and 2019. The intervention consisted of children, parents, and teachers' training sessions and peer to peer support activities directed at disability inclusion using an African disability framework. In this paper, we discuss parent participation in and parent evaluation of the ‘Obuntu bulamu’ intervention. Methods: This qualitative Afrocentric intervention study was implemented in 10 communities in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. We purposely selected children aged 8 to 14 years with different impairments, their peers, and parents, with different levels of household income and familial support, who were enrolled in primary schools in the ten communities with on average three children with disabilities per community. Sixty four parents (33 parents of CwDs and 31 peers) participating in the ‘Obuntu bulamu’ study were interviewed at baseline and endline. Two focus group discussions were held with parents at the midline. Parents also participated in a consultative meeting about the intervention design at baseline, and two evaluation workshops held at midline and endline. Thematic data analysis of the interview and focus group data was conducted. Results: Findings showed parents found the group-based activities inspiring and said they built hope and confidence. Parents felt the intervention was acceptable, culturally appropriate, and supportive as it built on values and practices from their own traditions. Parents reported the intervention enhanced a sense of togetherness and belonging through the group meetings and follow-up activities. Parents also mentioned that the training helped them develop more positive attitudes towards CwD and disability inclusion. Parents felt that the invention increased a child’s participation and inclusion at home, school, and in communities. Conclusion: The Obuntu bulamu peer to peer support intervention is an acceptable, culturally appropriate intervention that has the potential to improve the inclusion of CwD. A larger randomized control trial is needed to evaluate the impact of the intervention model.

Keywords: inclusion, participation, inclusive education, peer support, belonging, Ubuntu, ‘Obuntu bulamu’

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1 Combating Corruption to Enhance Learner Academic Achievement: A Qualitative Study of Zimbabwean Public Secondary Schools

Authors: Onesmus Nyaude


The aim of the study was to investigate participants’ views on how corruption can be combated to enhance learner academic achievement. The study was undertaken on three select public secondary institutions in Zimbabwe. This study also focuses on exploring the various views of educators; parents and the learners on the role played by corruption in perpetuating the seemingly existing learner academic achievement disparities in various educational institutions. The study further interrogates and examines the nexus between the prevalence of corruption in schools and the subsequent influence on the academic achievement of learners. Corruption is considered a form of social injustice; hence in Zimbabwe, the general consensus is that it is perceived rife to the extent that it is overtaking the traditional factors that contributed to the poor academic achievement of learners. Coupled to this, have been the issue of gross abuse of power and some malpractices emanating from concealment of essential and official transactions in the conduct of business. Through proposing robust anti-corruption mechanisms, teaching and learning resources poured in schools would be put into good use. This would prevent the unlawful diversion and misappropriation of the resources in question which has always been the culture. This study is of paramount significance to curriculum planners, teachers, parents, and learners. The study was informed by the interpretive paradigm; thus qualitative research approaches were used. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were adopted in ‘site and participants’ selection. A representative sample of (150) participants was used. The study found that the majority of the participants perceived corruption as a social problem and a human right threat affecting the quality of teaching and learning processes in the education sector. It was established that corruption prevalence within institutions is as a result of the perpetual weakening of ethical values and other variables linked to upholding of ‘Ubuntu’ among general citizenry. It was further established that greediness and weak systems are major causes of rampant corruption within institutions of higher learning and are manifesting through abuse of power, bribery, misappropriation and embezzlement of material and financial resources. Therefore, there is great need to collectively address the problem of corruption in educational institutions and society at large. The study additionally concludes that successful combating of corruption will promote successful moral development of students as well as safeguarding their human rights entitlements. The study recommends the adoption of principles of good corporate governance within educational institutions in order to successfully curb corruption. The study further recommends the intensification of interventionist strategies and strengthening of systems in educational institutions as well as regular audits to overcome the problem associated with rampant corruption cases.

Keywords: academic achievement, combating, corruption, good corporate governance, qualitative study

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