Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 887

Search results for: enzyme catalysis

887 Purification, Biochemical Characterization and Application of an Extracellular Alkaline Keratinase Produced by Aspergillus sp. DHE7

Authors: Dina Helmy El-Ghonemy, Thanaa Hamed Ali


The aim of this study was to purify and characterize a keratinolytic enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp. DHE7 cultured in basal medium containing chicken feather as substrate. The enzyme was purified through ammonium sulfate saturation of 60%, followed by gel filtration chromatography in Sephadex G-100, with a 16.4-purification fold and recovery yield of 52.2%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified enzyme is a monomeric enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa — the purified keratinase of Aspergillus sp. DHE7 exhibited activity in a broad range of pH (7- 9) and temperature (40℃-60℃) profiles with an optimal activity at pH eight and 50℃. The keratinolytic activity was inhibited by protease inhibitors such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, while no reduction of activity was detected by the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Bivalent cations, Ca²⁺ and Mn²⁺, were able to greatly enhance the activity of keratinase by 125.7% and 194.8%, respectively, when used at one mM final concentration. On the other hand, Cu²⁺ and Hg²⁺ inhibited the enzyme activity, which might be indicative of essential vicinal sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme for productive catalysis. Furthermore, the purified keratinase showed significant stability and compatibility against the tested commercial detergents at 37ºC. Therefore, these results suggested that the purified keratinase from Aspergillus sp. DHE7 may have potential use in the detergent industry and should be of interest in the processing of poultry feather waste.

Keywords: Aspergillus sp. DHE7, biochemical characterization, keratinase, purification, waste management

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886 The Enzyme Inhibitory Potentials of Different Extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek


The key enzyme inhibitory theory is one of the most accepted strategies in the treatment of global health problems including Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes mellitus. For this reason, the enzyme inhibitory potentials of different solvent extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia were investigated against cholinesterase, and tyrosinase. The in vitro enzyme inhibitory potentials were measured with a microplate reader. The acetone and methanol extracts exhibited the strongest enzyme inhibitory effects on cholinesterase. However, the water extract was only active on tyrosinase. The results suggested that Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia could be considered as a source of natural enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of major health problems.

Keywords: enzyme inhibitors, cholinesterase, tyrosinase, linaria, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
885 Cytotoxic Effect of Purified and Crude Hyaluronidase Enzyme on Hep G2 Cell Line

Authors: Furqan M. Kadhum, Asmaa A. Hussein, Maysaa Ch. Hatem


Hyaluronidase enzyme was purified from the clinical isolate Staphyloccus aureus in three purification steps, first by precipitation with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose, and gel filtration chromatography throughout Sephacryl S-300. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was reached 930 U/mg protein with 7.4 folds of purification and 46.5% recovery. The enzyme has an average molecular weight of about 69 kDa, with an optimum pH of enzyme activity and stability at pH 7, also the optimum temperature for activity was 37oC. The enzyme was stable with full activity at a temperature ranged between 30-40 oC. Metal ions showed variable inhibitory degree with the strongest effect for Fe+3, however, the chelating and reducing agents had no or little effects. Cytotoxic studies for purified and crude hyaluronidase against cancer cell Hep G2 type at different enzyme concentrations and exposure times showed that the inhibition effect of both crude and purified enzyme increased by increasing the enzyme concentration with no change was observed at 24hr, while at 48 and 72 hrs the same inhibition rate were observed for purified enzyme and differ for the crude filtrate.

Keywords: hyaluronidase, S. aureus, metal ions, cytotoxicity

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884 Polyphosphate Kinase 1 Active Site Characterization for the Identification of Novel Antimicrobial Targets

Authors: Sanaa Bardaweel


Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is present in all living forms tested to date, from each of the three kingdoms of life. Studied mainly in prokaryotes, poly P and its associated enzymes are vital in diverse basic metabolism, in at least some structural functions and, notably, in stress responses. These plentiful and unrelated roles for poly P are probably the consequence of its presence in life-forms early in evolution. The genomes of many bacterial species, including pathogens, encode a homologue of a major poly P synthetic enzyme, poly P kinase 1 (PPK1). Genetic deletion of ppk1 results in reduced poly P levels and loss of pathogens virulence towards protozoa and animals. Thus far, no PPK1 homologue has been identified in higher-order eukaryotes and, therefore, PPK1 represents a novel target for chemotherapy. The idea of the current study is to purify the PPK1 from Escherichia coli to homogeneity in order to study the effect of active site point mutations on PPK1 catalysis via the application of site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The knowledge obtained about the active site of PPK1 will be utilized to characterize the catalytic and kinetic mechanism of PPK1 with model substrates. Comprehensive understanding of the enzyme kinetic mechanism and catalysis will be used to design and screen a library of synthetic compounds for potential discovery of selective PPK1-inhibitors.

Keywords: antimicobial, Escherichia coli, inorganic polyphosphate, PPK1-inhibitors

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883 Polymerization of Epsilon-Caprolactone Using Lipase Enzyme for Medical Applications

Authors: Sukanya Devi Ramachandran, Vaishnavi Muralidharan, Kavya Chandrasekaran


Polycaprolactone is polymer belonging to the polyester family that has noticeable characteristics of biodegradability and biocompatibility which is essential for medical applications. Polycaprolactone is produced by the ring opening polymerization of the monomer epsilon-Caprolactone (ε-CL) which is a closed ester, comprising of seven-membered ring. This process is normally catalysed by metallic components such as stannous octoate. It is difficult to remove the catalysts after the reaction, and they are also toxic to the human body. An alternate route of using enzymes as catalysts is being employed to reduce the toxicity. Lipase enzyme is a subclass of esterase that can easily attack the ester bonds of ε-CL. This research paper throws light on the extraction of lipase from germinating sunflower seeds and the activity of the biocatalyst in the polymerization of ε-CL. Germinating Sunflower seeds were crushed with fine sand in phosphate buffer of pH 6.5 into a fine paste which was centrifuged at 5000rpm for 10 minutes. The clear solution of the enzyme was tested for activity at various pH ranging from 5 to 7 and temperature ranging from 40oC to 70oC. The enzyme was active at pH6.0 and at 600C temperature. Polymerization of ε-CL was done using toluene as solvent with the catalysis of lipase enzyme, after which chloroform was added to terminate the reaction and was washed in cold methanol to obtain the polymer. The polymerization was done by varying the time from 72 hours to 6 days and tested for the molecular weight and the conversion of the monomer. The molecular weight obtained at 6 days is comparably higher. This method will be very effective, economical and eco-friendly to produce as the enzyme used can be regenerated as such at the end of the reaction and can be reused. The obtained polymers can be used for drug delivery and other medical applications.

Keywords: lipase, monomer, polycaprolactone, polymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
882 Production of Linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B-763

Authors: Ogbonnaya Nwokoro, Florence O. Anya


Nutritional factors relating to the production of linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B–763 were investigated. The microorganism was cultivated in a medium containing 1% linamarin. Enzyme was produced using a variety of carbon substrates but the highest enzyme activity was detected in the presence of salicin (522 U/ml) after 48 h while the lowest yield was observed with CM cellulose (38 U/ml) after 72 h. Enzyme was not produced in the presence of cellobiose. Among a variety of nitrogen substrates tested, peptone supported maximum enzyme production (412 U/ml) after 48 h. Lowest enzyme production was observed with urea (40 U/ml). Organic nitrogen substrates generally supported higher enzyme productivity than inorganic nitrogen substrates. Enzyme activity was observed in the presence of Mn2+ (% relative activity = 216) while Hg2+ was inhibitory (% relative activity = 28). Locally-formulated media were comparable to MRS broth in supporting linamarase production by the bacterium. Higher enzyme activity was produced in media with surfactant than in media without surfactant. The enzyme may be useful in enhanced degradation of cassava cyanide.

Keywords: linamarase, locally formulated media, carbon substrates, nitrogen substrates, metal ions

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
881 Effect of Ethanol Concentration and Enzyme Pre-Treatment on Bioactive Compounds from Ginger Extract

Authors: S. Lekhavat, T. Kajsongkram, S. Sang-han


Dried ginger was extracted and investigated the effect of ethanol concentration and enzyme pre-treatment on its bioactive compounds in solvent extraction process. Sliced fresh gingers were dried by oven dryer at 70 °C for 24 hours and ground to powder using grinder which their size were controlled by passing through a 20-mesh sieve. In enzyme pre-treatment process, ginger powder was sprayed with 1 % (w/w) cellulase and then was incubated at 45 °C for 2 hours following by extraction process using ethanol at concentration of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % (v/v), respectively. The ratio of ginger powder and ethanol are 1:9 and extracting conditions were controlled at 80 °C for 2 hours. Bioactive compounds extracted from ginger, either enzyme-treated or non enzyme-treated samples, such as total phenolic content (TPC), 6-Gingerol (6 G), 6-Shogaols (6 S) and antioxidant activity (IC50 using DPPH assay), were examined. Regardless of enzyme treatment, the results showed that 60 % ethanol provided the highest TPC (20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger), 6G (0.77%), 6S (0.036 %) and the lowest IC50 (625 μg/ml) compared to other ratios of ethanol. Considering the effect of enzyme on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, it was found that enzyme-treated sample has more 6G (0.17-0.77 %) and 6S (0.020-0.036 %) than non enzyme-treated samples (0.13-0.77 % 6G, 0.015-0.036 % 6S). However, the results showed that non enzyme-treated extracts provided higher TPC (6.76-20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger) and Lowest IC50 (625-1494 μg/ml ) than enzyme-treated extracts (TPC 5.36-17.50 GAE mg /g. dried ginger, IC50 793-2146 μg/ml).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, enzyme, extraction, ginger

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880 The Modeling of Viscous Microenvironment for the Coupled Enzyme System of Bioluminescence Bacteria

Authors: Irina E. Sukovataya, Oleg S. Sutormin, Valentina A. Kratasyuk


Effect of viscosity of media on kinetic parameters of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase was investigated with addition of organic solvents (glycerol and sucrose), because bioluminescent enzyme systems based on bacterial luciferases offer a unique and general tool for analysis of the many analytes and enzymes in the environment, research, and clinical laboratories and other fields. The possibility of stabilization and increase of activity of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase activity in vicious aqueous-organic mixtures have been shown.

Keywords: coupled enzyme system of bioluminescence bacteria NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase, glycerol, stabilization of enzymes, sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
879 Quality of Low Fat Traditional Pork Sausage Containing Transglutaminase

Authors: Jiraporn Burakorn, Pran Pinthong, Supida Hutabaedya


Commercial traditional pork sausages (Moo Yaw) were produced by added more than 30% of pork fat for appetite customer. The pork sausages texture were softness, firmness, juiciness and smooth. If the pork sausages contained less fat, their textures were hardness, dryness and incoherence. This research investigated production of low fat traditional pork sausage containing transglutaminase for improved its sensory properties and nutritive values. The enzyme pork sausage composed of transglutaminase, soybean cake, rice bran oil and other ingredients. Consumer acceptance test was done by comparing the enzyme pork sausage with the 3 commercial pork sausage with 95 consumer. The enzyme pork sausage was accepted 92.6% and was preferred in all attributes over the 3 commercial pork sausages such as appearance, color, flavor, taste, firmness and overall liking. The enzyme pork sausage was high protein but low total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and carbohydrate. The enzyme pork sausage was lower calorie (90 kcal) than the commercial reference pork sausage (150 kcal) 64%. The morphological texture of the enzyme pork sausage was smooth and consistency when analyzed by SEM.

Keywords: low fat, Moo Yaw, pork sausage, transglutaminase

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878 Enzyme Immobilization on Functionalized Polystyrene Nanofibersfor Bioprocessing Applications

Authors: Mailin Misson, Bo Jin, Sheng Dai, Hu Zhang


Advances in biotechnology have witnessed a growing interest in enzyme applications for the development of green and sustainable bio processes. While known as powerful bio catalysts, enzymes are no longer of economic value when extended to large commercialization. Alternatively, immobilization technology allows enzyme recovery and continuous reuse which subsequently compensates high operating costs. Employment of enzymes on nano structured materials has been recognized as a promising approach to enhance enzyme catalytic performances. High porosity, inter connectivity and self-assembling behaviors endow nano fibers as exciting candidate for enzyme carrier in bio reactor systems. In this study, nano fibers were successfully fabricated via electro spinning system by optimizing the polymer concentration (10-30 %, w/v), applied voltage (10-30 kV) and discharge distance (11-26 cm). Microscopic images have confirmed the quality as homogeneous and good fiber alignment. The nano fibers surface was modified using strong oxidizing agent to facilitate bio molecule binding. Bovine serum albumin and β-galactosidase enzyme were employed as model bio catalysts and immobilized onto the oxidized surfaces through covalent binding. Maximum enzyme adsorption capacity of the modified nano fibers was 3000 mg/g, 3-fold higher than the unmodified counterpart (1000 mg/g). The highest immobilization yield was 80% and reached the saturation point at 2 mg/ml of enzyme concentration. The results indicate a significant increase of activity retention by the enzyme-bound modified nano fibers (80%) as compared to the nascent one (60%), signifying excellent enzyme-nano carrier bio compatibility. The immobilized enzyme was further used for the bio conversion of dairy wastes into value-added products. This study demonstrates great potential of acid-modified electrospun polystyrene nano fibers as enzyme carriers.

Keywords: immobilization, enzyme, nanocarrier, nanofibers

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877 Cell-free Bioconversion of n-Octane to n-Octanol via a Heterogeneous and Bio-Catalytic Approach

Authors: Shanna Swart, Caryn Fenner, Athanasios Kotsiopoulos, Susan Harrison


Linear alkanes are produced as by-products from the increasing use of gas-to-liquid fuel technologies for synthetic fuel production and offer great potential for value addition. Their current use as low-value fuels and solvents do not maximize this potential. Therefore, attention has been drawn towards direct activation of these aliphatic alkanes to more useful products such as alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and derivatives. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) can be used for activation of these aliphatic alkanes using whole-cells or cell-free systems. Some limitations of whole-cell systems include reduced mass transfer, stability and possible side reactions. Since the P450 systems are little studied as cell-free systems, they form the focus of this study. Challenges of a cell-free system include co-factor regeneration, substrate availability and enzyme stability. Enzyme immobilization offers a positive outlook on this dilemma, as it may enhance stability of the enzyme. In the present study, 2 different P450s (CYP153A6 and CYP102A1) as well as the relevant accessory enzymes required for electron transfer (ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase) and co-factor regeneration (glucose dehydrogenase) have been expressed in E. coli and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), was used as a model enzyme to assess the potential of various enzyme immobilization strategies including; surface attachment on MagReSyn® microspheres with various functionalities and on electrospun nanofibers, using self-assembly based methods forming Cross Linked Enzymes (CLE), Cross Linked Enzyme Aggregates (CLEAs) and spherezymes as well as in a sol gel. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning, which required the building of an electrospinning machine. The nanofiber morphology has been analyzed by SEM and binding will be further verified by FT-IR. Covalent attachment based methods showed limitations where only ferredoxin reductase and GDH retained activity after immobilization which were largely attributed to insufficient electron transfer and inactivation caused by the crosslinkers (60% and 90% relative activity loss for the free enzyme when using 0.5% glutaraldehyde and glutaraldehyde/ethylenediamine (1:1 v/v), respectively). So far, initial experiments with GDH have shown the most potential when immobilized via their His-tag onto the surface of MagReSyn® microspheres functionalized with Ni-NTA. It was found that Crude GDH could be simultaneously purified and immobilized with sufficient activity retention. Immobilized pure and crude GDH could be recycled 9 and 10 times, respectively, with approximately 10% activity remaining. The immobilized GDH was also more stable than the free enzyme after storage for 14 days at 4˚C. This immobilization strategy will also be applied to the P450s and optimized with regards to enzyme loading and immobilization time, as well as characterized and compared with the free enzymes. It is anticipated that the proposed immobilization set-up will offer enhanced enzyme stability (as well as reusability and easy recovery), minimal mass transfer limitation, with continuous co-factor regeneration and minimal enzyme leaching. All of which provide a positive outlook on this robust multi-enzyme system for efficient activation of linear alkanes as well as the potential for immobilization of various multiple enzymes, including multimeric enzymes for different bio-catalytic applications beyond alkane activation.

Keywords: alkane activation, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, enzyme catalysis, enzyme immobilization

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876 Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles as Viable Support for the Immobilization of Oxidative Enzymes

Authors: Y. Moldes-Diz, M. Gamallo, G. Eibes, C. Vazquez-Vazquez, G. Feijoo, J. M. Lema, M. T. Moreira


Laccases (benzenediol oxygen oxidoreductases, EC are excellent biocatalysts for biotechnological and environmental applications because of their high activity, selectivity, and specificity. Specifically, these characteristics allow them to perform the oxidation of recalcitrant compounds with simple requirements for the catalysis (presence of molecular oxygen). Nevertheless, the low stability under unfavorable conditions (pH, inactivating agents or temperature) and high production costs still limits their use for practical applications. Immobilization of enzymes has proven particularly valuable to avoid some of the aforementioned drawbacks. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have received increasing attention as carriers for enzyme immobilization since they can potentially provide an easy recovery of the biocatalyst from the reaction medium under an external magnetic field. In the present work, silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles ([email protected]) were prepared, characterized and used for laccase immobilization by covalent binding. The synthesis of [email protected] was performed in a two-step procedure: co-precipitation and reverse microemulsion. The influence of immobilization conditions: concentrations of the functionalization agent (3-aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane) and the cross-linker (glutaraldehyde) as well as the influence of pH, T or inactivating agents were evaluated. In general, immobilized laccase showed superior stability compared to that of free enzyme. The reusability of the biocatalyst was demonstrated in successive batch reactions, where enzyme activity was maintained above 65% after 8 cycles of oxidation of the substrate 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate).

Keywords: silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles, laccase, immobilization, regeneration

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875 Comparative Electrochemical Studies of Enzyme-Based and Enzyme-less Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposite as Glucose Biosensor

Authors: Chetna Tyagi. G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, Ambuj Tripathi, D. K. Avasthi


Graphene oxide provides a good host matrix for preparing nanocomposites due to the different functional groups attached to its edges and planes. Being biocompatible, it is used in therapeutic applications. As enzyme-based biosensor requires complicated enzyme purification procedure, high fabrication cost and special storage conditions, we need enzyme-less biosensors for use even in a harsh environment like high temperature, varying pH, etc. In this work, we have prepared both enzyme-based and enzyme-less graphene oxide-based biosensors for glucose detection using glucose-oxidase as enzyme and gold nanoparticles, respectively. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the successful synthesis of the working electrodes. Electrochemical measurements were performed for both the working electrodes using a 3-electrode electrochemical cell. Cyclic voltammetry curves showed the homogeneous transfer of electron on the electrodes in the scan range between -0.2V to 0.6V. The sensing measurements were performed using differential pulse voltammetry for the glucose concentration varying from 0.01 mM to 20 mM, and sensing was improved towards glucose in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles in graphene oxide nanocomposite played an important role in sensing glucose in the absence of enzyme, glucose oxidase, as evident from these measurements. The selectivity was tested by measuring the current response of the working electrode towards glucose in the presence of the other common interfering agents like cholesterol, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and urea. The enzyme-less working electrode also showed storage stability for up to 15 weeks, making it a suitable glucose biosensor.

Keywords: electrochemical, enzyme-less, glucose, gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
874 In-House Enzyme Blends from Polyporus ciliatus CBS 366.74 for Enzymatic Saccharification of Pretreated Corn Stover

Authors: Joseph A. Bentil, Anders Thygesen, Lene Langea, Moses Mensah, Anne Meyer


The study investigated the saccharification potential of in-house enzymes produced from a white-rot basidiomycete strain, Polyporus ciliatus CBS 366.74. The in-house enzymes were produced by growing the fungus on mono and composite substrates of cocoa pod husk (CPH) and green seaweed (GS) (Ulva lactuca sp.) with and without the addition of 25mM ammonium nitrate at 4%w/v substrate concentration in submerged condition for 144 hours. The crude enzyme extracts preparations (CEE 1-5 and CEE 1-5+AN) obtained from the fungal cultivation process were sterile-filtered and used as enzyme sources for enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated corn stover using a commercial cocktail enzyme, Cellic Ctec3, as benchmark. The hydrolysis was conducted at 50ᵒC with 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5 based on enzyme dosages of 5 and 10 CMCase Units/g biomass at 1%w/v dry weight substrate concentration at time points of 6, 24, and 72 hours. The enzyme activity profile of the in-house enzymes varied among the growth substrates with the composite substrates (50-75% GS and AN inclusion), yielding better enzyme activities, especially endoglucanases (0.4-0.5U/mL), β-glucosidases (0.1-0.2 U/mL), and xylanases (3-10 U/mL). However, nitrogen supplementation had no significant effect on enzyme activities of crude extracts from 100% GS substituted substrates. From the enzymatic hydrolysis, it was observed that the in-house enzymes were capable of hydrolysing the pretreated corn stover at varying degrees; however, the saccharification yield was less than 10%. Consequently, theoretical glucose yield was ten times lower than Cellic Ctec3 at both dosage levels. There was no linear correlation between glucose yield and enzyme dosage for the in-house enzymes, unlike the benchmark enzyme. It is therefore recommended that the in-house enzymes are used to complement the dosage of commercial enzymes to reduce the cost of biomass saccharification.

Keywords: enzyme production, hydrolysis yield, feedstock, enzyme blend, Polyporus ciliatus

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873 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh


The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcuslactis, recombinant, phytase, poultry

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872 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi


This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
871 Surface Display of Lipase on Yarrowia lipolytica Cells

Authors: Evgeniya Y. Yuzbasheva, Tigran V. Yuzbashev, Natalia I. Perkovskaya, Elizaveta B. Mostova


Cell-surface display of lipase is of great interest as it has many applications in the field of biotechnology owing to its unique advantages: simplified product purification, and cost-effective downstream processing. One promising area of application for whole-cell biocatalysts with surface displayed lipase is biodiesel synthesis. Biodiesel is biodegradable, renewable, and nontoxic alternative fuel for diesel engines. Although the alkaline catalysis method has been widely used for biodiesel production, it has a number of limitations, such as rigorous feedstock specifications, complicated downstream processes, including removal of inorganic salts from the product, recovery of the salt-containing by-product glycerol, and treatment of alkaline wastewater. Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel can overcome these drawbacks. In this study, Lip2p lipase was displayed on Yarrowia lipolytica cells via C- and N-terminal fusion variant. The active site of lipase is located near the C-terminus, therefore to prevent the activity loosing the insertion of glycine-serine linker between Lip2p and C-domains was performed. The hydrolytic activity of the displayed lipase reached 12,000–18,000 U/g of dry weight. However, leakage of enzyme from the cell wall was observed. In case of C-terminal fusion variant, the leakage was occurred due to the proteolytic cleavage within the linker peptide. In case of N-terminal fusion variant, the leaking enzyme was presented as three proteins, one of which corresponded to the whole hybrid protein. The calculated number of recombinant enzyme displayed on the cell surface is approximately 6–9 × 105 molecules per cell, which is close to the theoretical maximum (2 × 106 molecules/cell). Thus, we attribute the enzyme leakage to the limited space available on the cell surface. Nevertheless, cell-bound lipase exhibited greater stability to short-term and long-term temperature treatment than the native enzyme. It retained 74% of original activity at 60°C for 5 min of incubation, and 83% of original activity after incubation at 50°C during 5 h. Cell-bound lipase had also higher stability in organic solvents and detergents. The developed whole-cell biocatalyst was used for recycling biodiesel synthesis. Two repeated cycles of methanolysis yielded 84.1–% and 71.0–% methyl esters after 33–h and 45–h reactions, respectively.

Keywords: biodiesel, cell-surface display, lipase, whole-cell biocatalyst

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870 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi


Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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869 Characterization of the Catalytic and Structural Roles of the Human Hexokinase 2 in Cancer Progression

Authors: Mir Hussain Nawaz, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Haizhong Zhu, Wael M. Rabeh


In this study, we aim to biochemically and structurally characterize the interactions of human HK2 with the mitochondria in addition to the role of its N-terminal domain in catalysis and stability of the full-length enzyme. Here, we solved the crystal structure of human HK2 in complex with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (PDB code: 2NZT), where it is a homodimer with catalytically active N- and C-terminal domains linked by a seven-turn α-helix. Different from the inactive N-terminal domains of isozymes 1 and 3, the N- domain of HK2 not only capable to catalyze a reaction but it is responsible for the thermodynamic stabilizes of the full-length enzyme. Deletion of first α-helix of the N-domain that binds to the mitochondria altered the stability and catalytic activity of the full-length HK2. In addition, we found the linker helix between the N- and C-terminal domains to play an important role in controlling the catalytic activity of the N-terminal domain. HK2 is a major step in the regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer making it an ideal target for the development of new anticancer therapeutics. Characterizing the structural and molecular mechanisms of human HK2 and its role in cancer metabolism will accelerate the design and development of new cancer therapeutics that are safe and cancer specific.

Keywords: cancer metabolism, enzymology, drug discovery, protein stability

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868 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva


The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: specific enzyme, free fatty acids, Hydrolysis, lecitase ultra, ultrasound

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867 High Catalytic Activity and Stability of Ginger Peroxidase Immobilized on Amino Functionalized Silica Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite: A Promising Tool for Bioremediation

Authors: Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain, Nida Alam, Masood Ahmad


Improving the activity and stability of the enzyme is an important aspect in bioremediation processes. Immobilization of enzyme is an efficient approach to amend the properties of biocatalyst required during wastewater treatment. The present study was done to immobilize partially purified ginger peroxidase on amino functionalized silica coated titanium dioxide nanocomposite. Interestingly there was an enhancement in enzyme activity after immobilization on nanosupport which was evident from effectiveness factor (η) value of 1.76. Immobilized enzyme was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immobilized peroxidase exhibited higher activity in a broad range of pH and temperature as compared to free enzyme. Also, the thermostability of peroxidase was strikingly improved upon immobilization. After six repeated uses, the immobilized peroxidase retained around 62% of its dye decolorization activity. There was a 4 fold increase in Vmax of immobilized peroxidase as compared to free enzyme. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated conformational changes in the secondary structure of enzyme, a possible reason for the enhanced enzyme activity after immobilization. Immobilized peroxidase was highly efficient in the removal of acid yellow 42 dye in a stirred batch process. Our study shows that this bio-remediating system has remarkable potential for treatment of aromatic pollutants present in wastewater.

Keywords: acid yellow 42, decolorization, ginger peroxidase, immobilization

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866 Efficiency for Enzyme Production of Fungi Isolated from the Stomach of Buffalo

Authors: Suphalucksana, Wichai, Sangsoponjit Settasit, Soytong Kasem


A study on the efficiency for enzyme production of fungi isolated from stomach of buffalo was conducted. The fungi were collected from 4 parts of stomach as rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The objective to study the efficiency of fungi from stomach of buffalo had effected to produced enzyme and to selected fungi for their ability to produced enzyme cellulase, hemicellulase and ligninase. Results shown that the fungi isolated from rumen were: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Rhyzopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4) and Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2). From the reticulum, Aspergillus glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus orchraceus (B-RET-02-2) and Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4) were found. In the omasum Aspergillus fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4) and Rhizopus stolonifer (B-OMA-02-3) were isolated and in the abomasums Aspergillus flavas (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillus fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillus niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). Results of enzyme analysis revealed that cellulase was produced by isolated: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4). Hemicellulase was produced Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Rhizopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4), Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA -01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1) Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4), Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). For the enzyme ligninase, two isolates were found to produced this enzyme namely : Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G).

Keywords: enzyme production from fungi, enzyme production, fungi, agricultural technology

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865 Improved Production, Purification and Characterization of Invertase from Penicillium lilacinum by Shaken Flask Technique of Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Kashif Ahmed


Recent years researchers have been motivated towards extensive exploring of living organism, which could be utilized effectively in intense industrial conditions. The present study shows enhanced production, purification and characterization of industrial enzyme, invertase (Beta-D-fructofuranosidase) from Penicillium lilacinum. Various agricultural based by-products (cotton stalk, sunflower waste, rice husk, molasses and date syrup) were used as energy source. The highest amount of enzyme (13.05 Units/mL) was produced when the strain was cultured on growth medium containing date syrup as energy source. Yeast extract was used as nitrogen source after 96 h of incubation at incubation temperature of 40º C. Initial pH of medium was 8.0, inoculum size 6x10⁶ conidia and 200 rev/min agitation rate. The enzyme was also purified (7 folds than crude) and characterized. Molecular mass of purified enzyme (65 kDa) was determined by 10 % SDS-PAGE. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was used to determine Kinetic constants (Vmax 178.6 U/mL/min and Km 2.76 mM). Temperature and pH optima were 55º C and 5.5 respectively. MnCl₂ (52.9 %), MgSO₄ (48.9 %), BaCl₂ (24.6 %), MgCl₂ (9.6 %), CoCl₂ (5.7 %) and NaCl (4.2 %) enhanced the relative activity of enzyme and HgCl₂ (-92.8 %), CuSO₄ (-80.2 %) and CuCl₂ (-76.6 %) were proved inhibitors. The strain was showing enzyme activity even at extreme conditions of temperature (up to 60º C) and pH (up to 9), so it can be used in industries.

Keywords: invertase, Penicillium lilacinum, submerged fermentation, industrial enzyme

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864 Implication of Fractal Kinetics and Diffusion Limited Reaction on Biomass Hydrolysis

Authors: Sibashish Baksi, Ujjaini Sarkar, Sudeshna Saha


In the present study, hydrolysis of Pinus roxburghi wood powder was carried out with Viscozyme, and kinetics of the hydrolysis has been investigated. Finely ground sawdust is submerged into 2% aqueous peroxide solution (pH=11.5) and pretreated through autoclaving, probe sonication, and alkaline peroxide pretreatment. Afterward, the pretreated material is subjected to hydrolysis. A chain of experiments was executed with delignified biomass (50 g/l) and varying enzyme concentrations (24.2–60.5 g/l). In the present study, 14.32 g/l of glucose, along with 7.35 g/l of xylose, have been recovered with a viscozyme concentration of 48.8 g/l and the same condition was treated as optimum condition. Additionally, thermal deactivation of viscozyme has been investigated and found to be gradually decreasing with escalated enzyme loading from 48.4 g/l (dissociation constant= 0.05 h⁻¹) to 60.5 g/l (dissociation constant= 0.02 h⁻¹). The hydrolysis reaction is a pseudo first-order reaction, and therefore, the rate of the hydrolysis can be expressed as a fractal-like kinetic equation that communicates between the product concentration and hydrolytic time t. It is seen that the value of rate constant (K) increases from 0.008 to 0.017 with augmented enzyme concentration from 24.2 g/l to 60.5 g/l. Greater value of K is associated with stronger enzyme binding capacity of the substrate mass. However, escalated concentration of supplied enzyme ensures improved interaction with more substrate molecules resulting in an enhanced de-polymerization of the polymeric sugar chains per unit time which eventually modifies the physiochemical structure of biomass. All fractal dimensions are in between 0 and 1. Lower the value of fractal dimension, more easily the biomass get hydrolyzed. It can be seen that with increased enzyme concentration from 24.2 g/l to 48.4 g/l, the values of fractal dimension go down from 0.1 to 0.044. This indicates that the presence of more enzyme molecules can more easily hydrolyze the substrate. However, an increased value has been observed with a further increment of enzyme concentration to 60.5g/l because of diffusional limitation. It is evident that the hydrolysis reaction system is a heterogeneous organization, and the product formation rate depends strongly on the enzyme diffusion resistances caused by the rate-limiting structures of the substrate-enzyme complex. Value of the rate constant increases from 1.061 to 2.610 with escalated enzyme concentration from 24.2 to 48.4 g/l. As the rate constant is proportional to Fick’s diffusion coefficient, it can be assumed that with a higher concentration of enzyme, a larger amount of enzyme mass dM diffuses into the substrate through the surface dF per unit time dt. Therefore, a higher rate constant value is associated with a faster diffusion of enzyme into the substrate. Regression analysis of time curves with various enzyme concentrations shows that diffusion resistant constant increases from 0.3 to 0.51 for the first two enzyme concentrations and again decreases with enzyme concentration of 60.5 g/l. During diffusion in a differential scale, the enzyme also experiences a greater resistance during diffusion of larger dM through dF in dt.

Keywords: viscozyme, glucose, fractal kinetics, thermal deactivation

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863 Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrazol-3-yl Thiazole 4-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Targeting Enzyme in the Leukotriene Pathway

Authors: Shweta Sinha, Mukesh Doble, Manju S. L.


Pyrazole scaffold is an important group of compound in heterocyclic chemistry and is found to possess numerous uses in chemistry. Pyrazole derivatives are also known to possess important biological activities including antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is associated with pain, allergy and asthma. Leukotrienes are mediators of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and thus targeted for anti-inflammation. In vitro inhibitory activity of pyrazol-3-yl thiazole 4-carboxylic acid derivatives is tested against enzyme 5-LOX. Most of these compounds exhibit good inhibitory activity against this enzyme. Binding mode study of these compounds is determined by computational tool. Further experiments are being done to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds in inhibiting this enzyme. To conclude, these compounds appear to be a promising target in drug design against 5-LOX.

Keywords: inflammation, inhibition, 5-lipoxygenase, pyrazole

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862 Isolation and Screening of Fungal Strains for β-Galactosidase Production

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Rupinder Kaur, Ram S. Singh


Enzymes are the biocatalysts which catalyze the biochemical processes and thus have a wide variety of applications in the industrial sector. β-Galactosidase (E.C. also known as lactase, is one of the prime enzymes, which has significant potential in the dairy and food processing industries. It has the capability to catalyze both the hydrolytic reaction for the production of lactose hydrolyzed milk and transgalactosylation reaction for the synthesis of prebiotics such as lactulose and galactooligosaccharides. These prebiotics have various nutritional and technological benefits. Although, the enzyme is naturally present in almonds, peaches, apricots and other variety of fruits and animals, the extraction of enzyme from these sources increases the cost of enzyme. Therefore, focus has been shifted towards the production of low cost enzyme from the microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. As compared to yeast and bacteria, fungal β-galactosidase is generally preferred as being extracellular and thermostable in nature. Keeping the above in view, the present study was carried out for the isolation of the β-galactosidase producing fungal strain from the food as well as the agricultural wastes. A total of more than 100 fungal cultures were examined for their potential in enzyme production. All the fungal strains were screened using X-gal and IPTG as inducers in the modified Czapek Dox Agar medium. Among the various isolated fungal strains, the strain exhibiting the highest enzyme activity was chosen for further phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The strain was identified as Rhizomucor pusillus on the basis of 5.8s RNA gene sequencing data.

Keywords: beta-galactosidase, enzyme, fungal, isolation

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861 Magnetite Nanoparticles Immobilized Pectinase: Preparation, Characterization and Application for the Fruit Juices Clarification

Authors: Leila Mosafa, Majid Moghadam, Mohammad Shahedi


In this work, pectinase was immobilized on the surface of silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles via covalent attachment. The magnetite-immobilized enzyme was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Response surface methodology using Minitab Software was applied for statistical designing of operating conditions in order to immobilize pectinase on magnetic nanoparticles. The optimal conditions were obtained at 30°C and pH 5.5 with 42.97 µl pectinase for 2 h. The immobilization yield was 50.6% at optimized conditions. Compared to the free pectinase, the immobilized pectinase was found to exhibit enhanced enzyme activity, better tolerance to the variation of pH and temperature, and improved storage stability. Both free and immobilized samples reduced the viscosity of apple juice from 1.12 to 0.88 and 0.92 mm2s-1, respectively, after 30 min at their optimum temperature. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could be reused six consecutive cycles and the efficiency loss in viscosity reduction was found to be only 8.16%.

Keywords: magnetite nanoparticles, pectinase enzyme, immobilization, juice clarification, enzyme activity

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860 Evaluation of Esters Production by Oleic Acid Epoxidation Reaction

Authors: Flavio A. F. Da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, Monica C. G. Albuquerque


In recent years a worldwide interest in renewable resources from the biomass has spurred the industry. In this work the chemical structure of oleic acid chains was modified by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in order to produce esters. The homogeneous epoxidation was carried out at H2O2 to oleic acid unsaturation molar ratio of 20:1. The reaction temperature was 338 K and reaction time 16 h. Formic acid was used as catalyst. For heterogeneous catalysis reaction temperature was 343 K and reaction time 24 h. The esters production was carried out by heterogeneous catalysis of the epoxidized oleic acid and butanol using Mg/SBA-15 as catalyst. The resulting products were confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) and FTIR spectroscopy. The products were characterized before and after each reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and BET surface areas. The results were satisfactory for the bioproducts formed.

Keywords: acid oleic, bioproduct, esters, epoxidation

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859 Immobilization Strategy of Recombinant Xylanase from Trichoderma reesei by Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

Authors: S. Md. Shaarani, J. Md. Jahim, R. A. Rahman, R. Md. Illias


Modern developments in biotechnology have paved the way for extensive use of biocatalysis in industries. Although it offers immense potential, industrial application is usually hampered by lack of operational stability, difficulty in recovery as well as limited re-use of the enzyme. These drawbacks, however, can be overcome by immobilization. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), a versatile carrier-free immobilization technique is one that is currently capturing global interest. This approach involves precipitating soluble enzyme with an appropriate precipitant and subsequent crosslinking by a crosslinking reagent. Without ineffective carriers, CLEAs offer high enzymatic activity, stability and reduced production cost. This study demonstrated successful CLEA synthesis of recombinant xylanase from Trichoderma reesei using ethanol as aggregating agent and glutaraldehyde (2% (v/v); 100 mM) as crosslinker. Effects of additives including proteic feeder such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and poly-L-Lysine were investigated to reveal its significance in enhancing the performance of enzyme. Addition of 0.1 mg BSA/U xylanase showed considerable increment in CLEA development with approximately 50% retained activity.

Keywords: cross-linked, immobilization, recombinant, xylanase

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858 Eresa, Hospital General Universitario de Elche

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Mehak Gulati, Neelam Verma


Arginine majorly acts as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for the production of nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator. Current study demonstrated a novel amperometric approach for estimation of arginine using nitric oxide synthase. The enzyme was co-immobilized in carbon paste electrode with NADP+, FAD and BH4 as cofactors. The detection principle of the biosensor is enzyme NOS catalyzes the conversion of arginine into nitric oxide. The developed biosensor could able to detect up to 10-9M of arginine. The oxidation peak of NO was observed at 0.65V. The developed arginine biosensor was used to monitor arginine content in fruit juices.

Keywords: arginine, biosensor, carbon paste elctrode, nitric oxide

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