Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 456

Search results for: lecitase ultra

456 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva


The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: specific enzyme, free fatty acids, Hydrolysis, lecitase ultra, ultrasound

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455 Determining Coordinates of Ultra-Light Drones Based on the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) Method

Authors: Nguyen Huy Hoang, Do Thanh Quan, Tran Vu Kien


The use of the active radar to measure the coordinates of ultra-light drones is frequently difficult due to long-distance, absolutely small radar cross-section (RCS) and obstacles. Since ultra-light drones are usually controlled by the Time Difference of Arrival (RF), the paper proposed a method to measure the coordinates of ultra-light drones in the space based on the arrival time of the signal at receiving antennas and the time difference of arrival (TDOA). The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is really potential and highly accurate.

Keywords: ultra-light drone, TDOA, radar cross-section (RCS), RF

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
454 Ultra-Poor Revisited: A Case of Southern Thailand

Authors: Sirirat Taneerananon


This paper presents the results of a study of the ultra-poor in the south of Thailand, revisited after 10 years since the original study in 2000. The original study was conducted in four provinces. The first two namely Phatthalung and Nakorn were chosen to represent the Thai Buddhists and the others, Satun and Pattani were chosen to represent the Thai Muslims. For this study, only the results from the three provinces except Pattani are reported as it was difficult and dangerous to conduct fieldwork in Pattani due to the continued unrest in the area since 2005. The objectives of the study are to find out the changes of the poverty situation after 10 years and to see the impacts of the poverty reduction projects implemented by the government on the poor. The research methodology used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The same villages in the four provinces studied in 1999 were again chosen. In each village, five ultra-poor people and heads of the villages were interviewed. The results show that the poverty situation of the ultra-poor groups has not changed much since they lacked the basic key factor to get themselves out of poverty: The ownership of land. Their chronic poverty situation has been passed on from the last generation. In the province of Phatthalung, the ultra-poor have improved in terms of economic situation because of the big increase in the price of rubber. However, the same could not be said for other provinces. Even though the government’s projects have not reduced the poverty directly, the projects have significantly contributed to the improvement of the quality of life of the poor and the people in the areas.

Keywords: poverty, Southern Thailand, ultra-poor, social sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
453 Comparison of Vessel Detection in Standard vs Ultra-WideField Retinal Images

Authors: Maher un Nisa, Ahsan Khawaja


Retinal imaging with Ultra-WideField (UWF) view technology has opened up new avenues in the field of retinal pathology detection. Recent developments in retinal imaging such as Optos California Imaging Device helps in acquiring high resolution images of the retina to help the Ophthalmologists in diagnosing and analyzing eye related pathologies more accurately. This paper investigates the acquired retinal details by comparing vessel detection in standard 450 color fundus images with the state of the art 2000 UWF retinal images.

Keywords: color fundus, retinal images, ultra-widefield, vessel detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
452 The Development of the Spatial and Hierarchic Urban Structure of the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Population in Israel

Authors: Lee Cahaner, Nissim Leon


The segregation of populations is one of the main axes in the research of urban geography, which refers to the spatial and functional relationships between settlements. In Israel, this phenomenon has its unique expression in the spatial processes concerning the ultra-orthodox population. This population holds a set of interactions within itself as well as with the non-orthodox surrounding population because of historical and contemporary motivations on its which strength depends on its homogeneousness and separation. Its demographic growth rate and the internal social processes that the ultra-orthodox society undergoes create a new image of the ultra-orthodox concentration and its location in the Israeli space. The goals of the present study have also been defined with the express intention of filling the scholarly vacuum noted above: firstly, to discuss the development of the Israeli ultra-Orthodox sector’s hierarchical and spatial structure as of 2015, in light of the principles and mechanisms that guide it and vis-à-vis the general population’s hierarchical locality system; secondly, to map Israel’s ultra-Orthodox population, with attention to its physical boundaries, its subdivisions (Hassidic, Lithuanian, Sephardic) and the geographical and demographic processes that have characterized it in recent years; and thirdly, to shed light on the interactions between ultra-Orthodox localities via several different parameters, e.g. migration, education, transportation, employment, consumerism and community services. In order to understand the changes in ultra-Orthodox geographic distribution and the social processes that these changes have generated, a number of research activities were conducted during the course of this study− notably, gathering and assembling material from earlier academic studies, newspaper advertisements, state and private archives; in-depth interviews with major figures in the ultra-Orthodox community and others who come into contact with it; tours of the core areas of ultra-Orthodox settlement; and gathering quantitative and qualitative data from the statistical reports of governmental and other bodies. In addition, a multi-participant (2400-respondent) quantitative survey was conducted among residents of the new ultra-Orthodox cities, designed to elucidate the attributes and spatial attitudes of the residents− as a means of tracing and understanding this new settlement pattern within ultra-Orthodox space. A major portion of the quantitative and qualitative material was processed to form a system of maps that visually describe the distribution of Israel’s ultra-Orthodox population.

Keywords: migration, new cities, segregation, ultra-orthodox

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451 An Approach For Evolving a Relaible Low Power Ultra Wide Band Transmitter with Capacitve Sensing

Authors: N.Revathy, C.Gomathi


This work aims for a tunable capacitor as a sensor which can vary the control voltage of a voltage control oscillator in a ultra wide band (UWB) transmitter. In this paper power consumption is concentrated. The reason for choosing a capacitive sensing is it give slow temperature drift, high sensitivity and robustness. Previous works report a resistive sensing in a voltage control oscillator (VCO) not aiming at power consumption. But this work aims for power consumption of a capacitive sensing in ultra wide band transmitter. The ultra wide band transmitter to be used is a direct modulation of pulses. The VCO which is the heart of pulse generator of UWB transmitter works on the principle of voltage to frequency conversion. The VCO has and odd number of inverter stages which works on the control voltage input this input is now from a variable capacitor and the buffer stages is reduced from the previous work to maintain the oscillating frequency. The VCO is also aimed to consume low power. Then the concentration in choosing a variable capacitor is aimed. A compact model of a capacitor with the transient characteristics is to be designed with a movable dielectric and multi metal membranes. Previous modeling of the capacitor transient characteristics is with a movable membrane and a fixed membrane. This work aims at a membrane with a wide tuning suitable for ultra wide band transmitter.This is used in this work because a capacitive in a ultra wide transmitter need to be tuned in such a way that all satisfies FCC regulations.

Keywords: capacitive sensing, ultra wide band transmitter, voltage control oscillator, FCC regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
450 Assessment of Ultra-High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of EN-GJL-250 Cast Iron Using Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Saeedeh Bakhtiari, Johannes Depessemier, Stijn Hertelé, Wim De Waele


High cycle fatigue comprising up to 107 load cycles has been the subject of many studies, and the behavior of many materials was recorded adequately in this regime. However, many applications involve larger numbers of load cycles during the lifetime of machine components. In this ultra-high cycle regime, other failure mechanisms play, and the concept of a fatigue endurance limit (assumed for materials such as steel) is often an oversimplification of reality. When machine component design demands a high geometrical complexity, cast iron grades become interesting candidate materials. Grey cast iron is known for its low cost, high compressive strength, and good damping properties. However, the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of cast iron is poorly documented. The current work focuses on the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of EN-GJL-250 (GG25) grey cast iron by developing an ultrasonic (20 kHz) fatigue testing system. Moreover, the testing machine is instrumented to measure the temperature and the displacement of  the specimen, and to control the temperature. The high resonance frequency allowed to assess the  behavior of the cast iron of interest within a matter of days for ultra-high numbers of cycles, and repeat the tests to quantify the natural scatter in fatigue resistance.

Keywords: GG25, cast iron, ultra-high cycle fatigue, ultrasonic test

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449 Comparison between Ultra-High-Performance Concrete and Ultra-High-Performance-Glass Concrete

Authors: N. A. Soliman, A. F. Omran, A. Tagnit-Hamou


The finely ground waste glass has successfully used by the authors to develop and patent an ecological ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC), which was named as ultra-high-performance-glass concrete (UHPGC). After the successful development in laboratory, the current research presents a comparison between traditional UHPC and UHPGC produced using large-scale pilot plant mixer, in terms of rheology, mechanical, and durability properties. The rheology of the UHPGCs was improved due to the non-absorptive nature of the glass particles. The mechanical performance of UHPGC was comparable and very close to the traditional UHPC due to the pozzolan reactivity of the amorphous waste glass. The UHPGC has also shown excellent durability: negligible permeability (chloride-ion ≈ 20 Coulombs from the RCPT test), high abrasion resistance (volume loss index less than 1.3), and almost no freeze-thaw deterioration even after 1000 freeze-thaw cycles. The enhancement in the strength and rigidity of the UHPGC mixture can be referred to the inclusions of the glass particles that have very high strength and elastic modulus.

Keywords: ground glass pozzolan, large-scale production, sustainability, ultra-high performance glass concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
448 Shear Behavior of Ultra High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ghada Diaa, Enas A. Khattab


Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) is a new advanced concrete that is being transferred from laboratory researches to practicable applications. In addition to its excellent durability properties, UHSC has high compressive and tensile strengths, and high modulus of elasticity. Despite of this low degree of hydration, ultra high strength values can be achieved by controlling the mixture proportions. In this research, an experimental program was carried out to investigate the shear behavior of ultra high strength concrete beams. A total of nine beams were tested to determine the effect of different parameters on the shear behavior of UHSC beams. The parameters include concrete strength, steel fiber volume, shear span to depth ratio, and web reinforcement ratio. The results demonstrated that nominal shear stress at cracking load and at ultimate load increased with the increase of concrete strength or the decrease in shear span-depth ratio. Using steel fibers or shear reinforcement increases the ultimate shear strength and makes the shear behavior more ductile. In this study, a simplified analytical model to calculate the shear strength of UHSC beams is introduced. Shear strength estimated according to the proposed method in this research is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: ultra high strength, shear strength, diagonal, cracking, steel fibers

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447 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid


We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: coefficient of performance, environment friendly zeotropic mixture, integrated cascade, ultra low temperature, vapor compression refrigeration cycles

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446 Investigating the Viability of Ultra-Low Parameter Count Networks for Real-Time Football Detection

Authors: Tim Farrelly


In recent years, AI-powered object detection systems have opened the doors for innovative new applications and products, especially those operating in the real world or ‘on edge’ – namely, in sport. This paper investigates the viability of an ultra-low parameter convolutional neural network specially designed for the detection of footballs on ‘on the edge’ devices. The main contribution of this paper is the exploration of integrating new design features (depth-wise separable convolutional blocks and squeezed and excitation modules) into an ultra-low parameter network and demonstrating subsequent improvements in performance. The results show that tracking the ball from Full HD images with negligibly high accu-racy is possible in real-time.

Keywords: deep learning, object detection, machine vision applications, sport, network design

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
445 Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code

Authors: Jamel Miri, Bechir Nsiri, Ridha Bouallegue


Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a great development during the last decade which makes it a promising candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However, like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the performances of the protocol in terms of security communication in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different merits of the protocols are analyzed.

Keywords: distance bounding, mapping code ultrawideband, terrorist fraud, physical layer technology

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444 Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Silica Fume

Authors: Jisong Zhang, Yinghua Zhao


The present study investigated the mechanical properties and microstructure of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) containing supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF), and to verify the synergistic effect in the ternary system. On the basis of 30% fly ash replacement, the incorporation of either 10% SF or 20% SF show a better performance compared to the reference sample. The efficiency factor (k-value) was calculated as a synergistic effect to predict the compressive strength of UHPC with these SCMs. The SEM of micrographs and pore volume from BJH method indicate a high correlation with compressive strength. Further, an artificial neural networks model was constructed for prediction of the compressive strength of UHPC containing these SCMs.

Keywords: artificial neural network, fly ash, mechanical properties, ultra-high performance concrete

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443 Segmental Dynamics of Poly(Alkyl Methacrylate) Chain in Ultra-Thin Spin-Cast Films

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


Polymeric materials are often used in a form of thin film such as food wrap and surface coating. In such the applications, polymer films thinner than 100 nm have been often used. The thickness of such the ultra-thin film is less than the unperturbed size of a polymer chain; therefore, the polymer chain in an ultra-thin film is strongly constrained. However, the details on the constrained dynamics of polymer molecules in ultra-thin films are still unclear. In the current study, the segmental dynamics of single polymer chain was directly investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The individual chains of poly(alkyl methacrylate) labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule were observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was directly analyzed. The segmental motion in a thin film with a thickness of 10 nm was found to be suppressed compared to that in a bulk state. The detailed analysis of the molecular motion revealed that the diffusion rate of the in-plane rotation was similar to the thin film and the bulk; on the other hand, the out-of-plane motion was restricted in a thin film. This result indicates that the spatial restriction in an ultra-thin film thinner than the unperturbed chain dimension alters the dynamics of individual molecules in a polymer system.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, molecular motion, fluorescence microscopy, super-resolution techniques

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442 Effect of Addition Rate of Expansive Additive on Autogenous Shrinkage and Delayed Expansion of Ultra-High Strength Mortar

Authors: Yulu Zhang, Atushi Teramoto, Taka-Aki Ohkubo


In this study, the effect of expansive additives on autogenous shrinkage and delayed expansion of ultra-high strength mortar was explored. The specimens made for the study were composed of ultra-high strength mortar, which was mixed with ettringite-lime composite type expansive additive. Two series of experiments were conducted with the specimens. The experimental results confirmed that the autogenous shrinkage of specimens was effectively decreased by increasing the proportion of the expansive additive. On the other hand, for the specimens, which had 7% expansive additive, and were cured for seven days at a constant temperature of 20°C, and then cured for a long time in either in an underwater, moist (Relative humidity: 100%) or dry air (Relative humidity: 60%) environment, excessively large expansion strain occurred. Specifically, typical turtle shell-like swelling expansion cracks were confirmed in the specimens that underwent long-term curing in an underwater and moist environment. According to the result of hydration analysis, the formation of expansive substances, calcium hydroxide and alumina, ferric oxide, tri-sulfate contribute to the occurrence of delayed expansion.

Keywords: ultra-high strength mortar, expansive additive, autogenous shrinkage, delayed expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
441 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang


Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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440 Insecticidal Effect of a Botanical Plant Extracts (Ultra Act®) on Bactrocera oleae (Diptera:Tephritidae) Preimaginal Development and Pupa Survival

Authors: Imen Blibech, Mohieddine Ksantini, Manohar Shete


Bactrocera oleae is one of the most economically damaging insects of olive in Tunisia and other producing countries of olive trees. As a reliable alternative to synthetic chemical insecticides, botanical insecticides are considered natural control methods safe for the environment and human health. The certified botanical insecticide ULTRA-ACT® effectively on large scale of insects is approved per Indian and International organic standards certified organic pesticides. Olives with signs of olive fly infestation were collected from productive olive trees in three Sahel localities of Tunisia. Infested fruits were separated daily for larval stage control purposes, into new rearing boxes under microclimatic conditions at 75% R.H, 25 ± 3°C and 8 L-16D. Treatment with ULTRA-ACT® extract solutions was made by dipping methods; each fruit was pipetted in 5 mL of extract for 10 seconds then air- dried. Five doses of ULTRA-ACT® were used for a bioassay, plus a water-only control. A total of 200 infested olive fruits were treated in separate dishes with a proportion of 10 olives per dish. A total of 20 dishes were used for each concentration treatment as well as 20 dished utilized as control. The bioassay was conducted with 3 replicates. The development of the larval and pupal stages was recorded since the egg hatching until emergence of adults. It was determined that ULTRA-ACT® extracts on succeeding concentrations; 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% show significant effect on the biology of the pest. Increased concentration decreased significantly adult emergence from pupae and affect the egg hatchability percentage. Therefore, larval mortality increased insignificantly with the increase of the product concentration. The 2nd instar larvae were more susceptible to the product and after 72 hours the maximum mortality (75%) was observed with ULTRA-ACT® 2%. The present work aimed to give a possible and efficient alternative solution for B. oleae biological control with a promising botanical insecticide.

Keywords: Bactrocera oleae, olive insect pest, Ultra Act®, larval mortality, pupal emergency, biological control

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
439 Enhancement of Dune Sand from the Western Erg (Algeria) in the Formulation of New Concrete

Authors: Ahmed Tafraoui, Gilles Escadeillas, Thierry Vidal


The southern Algeria is known for its huge sand dunes that cover part of its territory (Sahara). This sand has features that allow a glimpse of a recovery in the construction field in the form of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC). This type of concrete using a large amount of silica fume, ultra fine addition that gives very high performance but is also relatively rare and expensive. Replacing it with another addition to equivalent properties, such as metakaolin, can also be considered. The objective of this study is to both enhance the sand dunes of Erg south west western Algeria but also reduce manufacturing costs of Ultra High Performance Concrete to incorporating metakaolin to instead of silica fume. Performances to determine mechanical performance are instantaneous, compression and bending. Initially, we characterized the Algerian sand dune. Then, we have to find a formulation of UHPC, adequate in terms of implementation and to replace silica fume by metakaolin. Finally, we studied the actual value of the sand dune. Concrete obtained have very high mechanical performance, up to a compressive strength of 250 MPa, a tensile strength of 45 MPa by bending with the method of heat treatment. This study shows that the enhancement of dune sand studied is quite possible in UHPC, and in particular UHPC bundles and the replacement of silica fume by metakaolin do not alter the properties of these concretes.

Keywords: Ultra High Performance Concrete, sand dune, formulations, silica fume, metakaolin, strength

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438 Compact Microstrip Ultra Wideband Bandstop Filter with Quasi Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Faris H. Almansour, Hussein N. Shaman


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband.

Keywords: ultra-wideband bandstop filters, microstrip filters, transmission line filters

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437 A Parasitic Resonator-Based Diamond Shape Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wide-Band Applications

Authors: M. Zulfiker Mahmud, M. Naimur Rahman, Farhad Bin Ashraf, Norbahiah Misran, Mohammad Tariqul Islam


This study proposes a diamond-shaped microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications. The antenna is made up of a diamond shape radiating patch, partial ground plane, and three asterisk-shaped parasitic elements. The parasitic elements are positioned above the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 30 x 25 x 1.6 mm3 and achieves an overall bandwidth (S11<-10dB) is 5.8 GHz from 2.7 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The antenna attains more than 4 dBi realized the gain and 80% efficiency over the bandwidth with omnidirectional radiation pattern. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna are performed in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The observation during the analysis of the simulated data reveals that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ultra wide-band (UWB) applications where high gain is required.

Keywords: diamond-shaped antenna, microstrip antenna, parasitic resonator, UWB applications

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436 Ultra Wideband Breast Cancer Detection by Using SAR for Indication the Tumor Location

Authors: Wittawat Wasusathien, Samran Santalunai, Thanaset Thosdeekoraphat, Chanchai Thongsopa


This paper presents breast cancer detection by observing the specific absorption rate (SAR) intensity for identification tumor location, the tumor is identified in coordinates (x,y,z) system. We examined the frequency between 4-8 GHz to look for the most appropriate frequency. Results are simulated in frequency 4-8 GHz, the model overview include normal breast with 50 mm radian, 5 mm diameter of tumor, and ultra wideband (UWB) bowtie antenna. The models are created and simulated in CST Microwave Studio. For this simulation, we changed antenna to 5 location around the breast, the tumor can be detected when an antenna is close to the tumor location, which the coordinate of maximum SAR is approximated the tumor location. For reliable, we experiment by random tumor location to 3 position in the same size of tumor and simulation the result again by varying the antenna position in 5 position again, and it also detectable the tumor position from the antenna that nearby tumor position by maximum value of SAR, which it can be detected the tumor with precision in all frequency between 4-8 GHz.

Keywords: specific absorption rate (SAR), ultra wideband (UWB), coordinates, cancer detection

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435 Analysis of the Impact of Refractivity on Ultra High Frequency Signal Strength over Gusau, North West, Nigeria

Authors: B. G. Ayantunji, B. Musa, H. Mai-Unguwa, L. A. Sunmonu, A. S. Adewumi, L. Sa'ad, A. Kado


For achieving reliable and efficient communication system, both terrestrial and satellite communication, surface refractivity is critical in planning and design of radio links. This study analyzed the impact of atmospheric parameters on Ultra High Frequency (UHF) signal strength over Gusau, North West, Nigeria. The analysis exploited meteorological data measured simultaneously with UHF signal strength for the month of June 2017 using a Davis Vantage Pro2 automatic weather station and UHF signal strength measuring devices respectively. The instruments were situated at the premise of Federal University, Gusau (6° 78' N, 12° 13' E). The refractivity values were computed using ITU-R model. The result shows that the refractivity value attained the highest value of 366.28 at 2200hr and a minimum value of 350.66 at 2100hr local time. The correlation between signal strength and refractivity is 0.350; Humidity is 0.532 and a negative correlation of -0.515 for temperature.

Keywords: refractivity, UHF (ultra high frequency) signal strength, free space, automatic weather station

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434 Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Surface Roughness in Ultra High Precision Grinding of Borosilicate-Crown Glass

Authors: Goodness Onwuka, Khaled Abou-El-Hossein


The increase in the demand for precision optics, coupled with the absence of much research output in the ultra high precision grinding of precision optics as compared to the ultrahigh precision diamond turning of optical metals has fostered the need for more research in the ultra high precision grinding of an optical lens. Furthermore, the increase in the stringent demands for nanometric surface finishes through lapping, polishing and grinding processes necessary for the use of borosilicate-crown glass in the automotive and optics industries has created the demand to effectively monitor the surface roughness during the production process. Acoustic emission phenomenon has been proven as useful monitoring technique in several manufacturing processes ranging from monitoring of bearing production to tool wear estimation. This paper introduces a rare and unique approach with the application of acoustic emission technique to monitor the surface roughness of borosilicate-crown glass during an ultra high precision grinding process. This research was carried out on a 4-axes Nanoform 250 ultrahigh precision lathe machine using an ultra high precision grinding spindle to machine the flat surface of the borosilicate-crown glass with the tip of the grinding wheel. A careful selection of parameters and design of experiment was implemented using Box-Behnken method to vary the wheel speed, feed rate and depth of cut at three levels with a 3-center point design. Furthermore, the average surface roughness was measured using Taylor Hobson PGI Dimension XL optical profilometer, and an acoustic emission data acquisition device from National Instruments was utilized to acquire the signals while the data acquisition codes were designed with National Instrument LabVIEW software for acquisition at a sampling rate of 2 million samples per second. The results show that the raw and root mean square amplitude values of the acoustic signals increased with a corresponding increase in the measured average surface roughness values for the different parameter combinations. Therefore, this research concludes that acoustic emission monitoring technique is a potential technique for monitoring the surface roughness in the ultra high precision grinding of borosilicate-crown glass.

Keywords: acoustic emission, borosilicate-crown glass, surface roughness, ultra high precision grinding

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433 Predicting the Solubility of Aromatic Waste Petroleum Paraffin Wax in Organic Solvents to Separate Ultra-Pure Phase Change Materials (PCMs) by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Fathi Soliman


With the ultimate goal of developing the separation of n-paraffin as phase change material (PCM) by means of molecular dynamic simulations, we attempt to predict the solubility of aromatic n-paraffin in two organic solvents: Butyl Acetate (BA) and Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK). A simple model of aromatic paraffin: 2-hexadecylantharacene with amorphous molecular structure and periodic boundary conditions was constructed. The results showed that MIBK is the best solvent to separate ultra-pure phase change materials and this data was compatible with experimental data done to separate ultra-pure n-paraffin from waste petroleum aromatic paraffin wax, the separated n-paraffin was characterized by XRD, TGA, GC and DSC, moreover; data revealed that the n-paraffin separated by using MIBK is better as PCM than that separated using BA.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, n-paraffin, organic solvents, phase change materials, solvent extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
432 The Electrical Properties of Polyester Materials as Outdoor Insulators

Authors: R. M. EL-Sharkawy, L. S. Nasrat, K. B. Ewiss


This work presents a study of flashover voltage for outdoor polyester and composite insulators under dry, ultra-violet and contaminated conditions. Cylindrical of polyester composite samples (with different lengths) have been prepared after incorporated with different concentration of inorganic filler e.g. Magnesium Hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] to improve the electrical and thermal properties in addition to maximize surface flashover voltage and decrease tracking phenomena. Results showed that flashover voltage reaches to 46 kV for samples without filler and 52.6 kV for samples containing 40% of [Mg(OH)2] filler in dry condition. A comparison between different concentrations of filler under various environmental conditions (dry and contaminated conditions) showed higher flashover voltage values for samples containing filler with ratio 40% [Mg(OH)2] and length 3cm than that of samples containing filler [Mg(OH)2] with ratios 20%, 30% and lengths 0.5cm, 1cm, 2cm and 2.5cm. Flashover voltage decreases by adding [Mg(OH)2] filler for polyester samples under ultra-violet condition; as the ratio of filler increases, the value of flashover voltage decreases Also, in this study, the effect of thermal performance with respect to surface of the sample under test have been investigated in details.

Keywords: flashover voltage, filler, polymers, ultra-violet radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
431 Effects of Aging on Ultra: Triathlon Performance

Authors: Richard S. Jatau, Kankanala Venkateswarlu, Bulus Kpame


The purpose of this critical review is to find out what is known and what is unknown about the effects of aging on endurance performance, especially on ultra- triathlon performance. It has been shown that among master’s athlete’s peak levels of performance decreased by 50% by age 50 it has also been clearly revealed that age associated atrophy, weakness and fatigability cannot be halted, although year round athletic training can slow down this age associated decline. Studies have further revealed that 30% to 50% decrease in skeletal muscle mass between ages 40 and 80 years, which is accompanied by an equal or even greater decline in strength and power and an increase in muscle weakness and fatigability. Studies on ultra- triathlon athletes revealed that 30 to 39 year old showed fastest time, with athletes in younger and older age groups were slower. It appears that the length of the endurance performance appears to influence age related endurance performance decline in short distance triathlons. A significant decline seems to start at the age of 40 to 50 years, whereas in long distance triathlons this decline seems to start after the age of 65 years. However, it is not clear whether this decline is related in any way to the training methods used, the duration of training, or the frequency of training. It’s also not clear whether the triathlon athletes experience more injuries due to long hours of training. It’s also not clear whether these athletes used performance enhancing drugs to enhance their performance. It’s not also clear whiles there has been tremendous increase in the number of athletes specializing in triathlon. On the basis of our experience and available research evidence we have provided answers to some of these questions. We concluded that aging associated decline in ultra–endurance performance is inevitable although it can be slowed down.

Keywords: aging, triathlon, atrophy, endurance

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430 Artificial Neural Network in Ultra-High Precision Grinding of Borosilicate-Crown Glass

Authors: Goodness Onwuka, Khaled Abou-El-Hossein


Borosilicate-crown (BK7) glass has found broad application in the optic and automotive industries and the growing demands for nanometric surface finishes is becoming a necessity in such applications. Thus, it has become paramount to optimize the parameters influencing the surface roughness of this precision lens. The research was carried out on a 4-axes Nanoform 250 precision lathe machine with an ultra-high precision grinding spindle. The experiment varied the machining parameters of feed rate, wheel speed and depth of cut at three levels for different combinations using Box Behnken design of experiment and the resulting surface roughness values were measured using a Taylor Hobson Dimension XL optical profiler. Acoustic emission monitoring technique was applied at a high sampling rate to monitor the machining process while further signal processing and feature extraction methods were implemented to generate the input to a neural network algorithm. This paper highlights the training and development of a back propagation neural network prediction algorithm through careful selection of parameters and the result show a better classification accuracy when compared to a previously developed response surface model with very similar machining parameters. Hence artificial neural network algorithms provide better surface roughness prediction accuracy in the ultra-high precision grinding of BK7 glass.

Keywords: acoustic emission technique, artificial neural network, surface roughness, ultra-high precision grinding

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429 Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz

Authors: M. Khazini, M.Damou, Z. Souar


In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.

Keywords: ultra wideband, wearable antenna, slot antenna, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), CST studio

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428 Ultra Reliable Communication: Availability Analysis in 5G Cellular Networks

Authors: Yosra Benchaabene, Noureddine Boujnah, Faouzi Zarai


To meet the growing demand of users, the fifth generation (5G) will continue to provide services to higher data rates with higher carrier frequencies and wider bandwidths. As part of the 5G communication paradigm, Ultra Reliable Communication (URC) is envisaged as an important technology pillar for providing anywhere and anytime services to end users. Ultra Reliable Communication (URC) is considered an important technology that why it has become an active research topic. In this work, we analyze the availability of a service in the space domain. We characterize spatially available areas consisting of all locations that meet a performance requirement with confidence, and we define cell availability and system availability, individual user availability, and user-oriented system availability. Poisson point process (PPP) and Voronoi tessellation are adopted to model the spatial characteristics of a cell deployment in heterogeneous networks. Numerical results are presented, also highlighting the effect of different system parameters on the achievable link availability.

Keywords: URC, dependability and availability, space domain analysis, Poisson point process, Voronoi Tessellation

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427 Synthesis of Ultra-Small Platinum, Palladium and Gold Nanoparticles by Electrochemically Active Biofilms and Their Enhanced Catalytic Activities

Authors: Elaf Ahmed, Shahid Rasul, Ohoud Alharbi, Peng Wang


Ultra-Small Nanoparticles of metals (USNPs) have attracted the attention from the perspective of both basic and developmental science in a wide range of fields. These NPs exhibit electrical, optical, magnetic, and catalytic phenomena. In addition, they are considered effective catalysts because of their enormously large surface area. Many chemical methods of synthesising USNPs are reported. However, the drawback of these methods is the use of different capping agents and ligands in the process of the production such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Thiol and Ethylene Glycol. In this research ultra-small nanoparticles of gold, palladium and platinum metal have been successfully produced using electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) after optimising the pH of the media. The production of ultra-small nanoparticles has been conducted in a reactor using a simple two steps method. Initially biofilm was grown on the surface of a carbon paper for 7 days using Shewanella Loihica bacteria. Then, biofilm was employed to synthesise platinum, palladium and gold nanoparticles in water using sodium lactate as electron donor without using any toxic chemicals at mild operating conditions. Electrochemically active biofilm oxidise the electron donor and produces electrons in the solution. Since these electrons are a strong reducing agent, they can reduce metal precursors quite effectively and quickly. The As-synthesized ultra-small nanoparticles have a size range between (2-7nm) and showed excellent catalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange. The growth of metal USNPs is strongly related to the condition of the EAB. Where using low pH for the synthesis was not successful due to the fact that it might affect and destroy the bacterial cells. However, increasing the pH to 7 and 9, led to the successful formation of USNPs. By changing the pH value, we noticed a change in the size range of the produced NPs. The EAB seems to act as a Nano factory for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by offering a green, sustainable and toxic free synthetic route without the use of any capping agents or ligands and depending only on their respiration pathway.

Keywords: electrochemically active biofilm, electron donor, shewanella loihica, ultra-small nanoparticles

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