Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4523

Search results for: enzyme activities

4523 Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.

Keywords: comparative analysis, enzyme activities, forest soil, Spearman's rank correlation

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4522 The Investigation of Enzymatic Activity in the Soils Under the Impact of Metallurgical Industrial Activity in Lori Marz, Armenia

Authors: T. H. Derdzyan, K. A. Ghazaryan, G. A. Gevorgyan

Abstract:

Beta-glucosidase, chitinase, leucine-aminopeptidase, acid phosphomonoestearse and acetate-esterase enzyme activities in the soils under the impact of metallurgical industrial activity in Lori marz (district) were investigated. The results of the study showed that the activities of the investigated enzymes in the soils decreased with increasing distance from the Shamlugh copper mine, the Chochkan tailings storage facility and the ore transportation road. Statistical analysis revealed that the activities of the enzymes were positively correlated (significant) to each other according to the observation sites which indicated that enzyme activities were affected by the same anthropogenic factor. The investigations showed that the soils were polluted with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Ni, Zn) due to copper mining activity in this territory. The results of Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between heavy metal pollution degree (Nemerow integrated pollution index) and soil enzyme activity. All of this indicated that copper mining activity in this territory causing the heavy metal pollution of the soils resulted in the inhabitation of the activities of the enzymes which are considered as biological catalysts to decompose organic materials and facilitate the cycling of nutrients.

Keywords: Armenia, metallurgical industrial activity, heavy metal pollutionl, soil enzyme activity

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4521 The Enzyme Inhibitory Potentials of Different Extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek

Abstract:

The key enzyme inhibitory theory is one of the most accepted strategies in the treatment of global health problems including Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes mellitus. For this reason, the enzyme inhibitory potentials of different solvent extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia were investigated against cholinesterase, and tyrosinase. The in vitro enzyme inhibitory potentials were measured with a microplate reader. The acetone and methanol extracts exhibited the strongest enzyme inhibitory effects on cholinesterase. However, the water extract was only active on tyrosinase. The results suggested that Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia could be considered as a source of natural enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of major health problems.

Keywords: enzyme inhibitors, cholinesterase, tyrosinase, linaria, Turkey

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4520 Expression of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase in Escherichia coli

Authors: Waranya Imprasittichai, Patsarawadee Paojinda, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai

Abstract:

Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. In this study, we constructed gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT (1,836 bp) in pTrcHisA vector and expressed as an 6xHis-tag bifunctional protein in three Escherichia coli strains (BL21, Rosetta, TOP10) at 18 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. The recombinant bifunctional protein was partially purified by Ni-Nitrilotriacetic acid-affinity chromatography. Specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in the bifunctional enzyme expressed in E. coli TOP10 cells were approximately 3-4-fold higher than those in BL21 cells. There were no enzymatic activities when the construct vector expressed in Rosetta cells. Maximal expression of the fused gene was observed at 18 °C and the bifunctional enzyme had specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in a ratio of 1:2. These results provide greater yields and better catalytic activities of the bifunctional OMPDC-OPRT enzyme for further purification and kinetic study.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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4519 Cytotoxic Effect of Purified and Crude Hyaluronidase Enzyme on Hep G2 Cell Line

Authors: Furqan M. Kadhum, Asmaa A. Hussein, Maysaa Ch. Hatem

Abstract:

Hyaluronidase enzyme was purified from the clinical isolate Staphyloccus aureus in three purification steps, first by precipitation with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose, and gel filtration chromatography throughout Sephacryl S-300. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was reached 930 U/mg protein with 7.4 folds of purification and 46.5% recovery. The enzyme has an average molecular weight of about 69 kDa, with an optimum pH of enzyme activity and stability at pH 7, also the optimum temperature for activity was 37oC. The enzyme was stable with full activity at a temperature ranged between 30-40 oC. Metal ions showed variable inhibitory degree with the strongest effect for Fe+3, however, the chelating and reducing agents had no or little effects. Cytotoxic studies for purified and crude hyaluronidase against cancer cell Hep G2 type at different enzyme concentrations and exposure times showed that the inhibition effect of both crude and purified enzyme increased by increasing the enzyme concentration with no change was observed at 24hr, while at 48 and 72 hrs the same inhibition rate were observed for purified enzyme and differ for the crude filtrate.

Keywords: hyaluronidase, S. aureus, metal ions, cytotoxicity

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4518 Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties

Authors: Kanchan Vishwakarma, Shivesh Sharma, Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.

Keywords: latitude gradient, microbial biomass, moisture, soil, organic carbon, temperature

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4517 Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrazol-3-yl Thiazole 4-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Targeting Enzyme in the Leukotriene Pathway

Authors: Shweta Sinha, Mukesh Doble, Manju S. L.

Abstract:

Pyrazole scaffold is an important group of compound in heterocyclic chemistry and is found to possess numerous uses in chemistry. Pyrazole derivatives are also known to possess important biological activities including antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is associated with pain, allergy and asthma. Leukotrienes are mediators of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and thus targeted for anti-inflammation. In vitro inhibitory activity of pyrazol-3-yl thiazole 4-carboxylic acid derivatives is tested against enzyme 5-LOX. Most of these compounds exhibit good inhibitory activity against this enzyme. Binding mode study of these compounds is determined by computational tool. Further experiments are being done to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds in inhibiting this enzyme. To conclude, these compounds appear to be a promising target in drug design against 5-LOX.

Keywords: inflammation, inhibition, 5-lipoxygenase, pyrazole

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4516 Effect of Select Surfactants on Activities of Soil Enzymes Involved in Nutrient Cycling

Authors: Frieda Eivazi, Nikita L. Mullings

Abstract:

Soils are recipient for surfactants in herbicide formulations. Surfactants entering the soil environment can possibly disrupt different chemical, physical and biological interactions. Therefore, it is critical that we understand the fate, behavior and transport of surfactants upon entering the soil. A comprehensive study was conducted to examine effect of surfactants on nutrient uptake, microbial community, and enzyme activity. The research was conducted in the greenhouse growing corn (Zea mays) as a test plant in a factorial experiment (three surfactants at two different rates with control, and three herbicides) organized as randomized blocked design. Surfactants evaluated were Activator 90, Agri-Dex, and Thrust; herbicides were glyphosate, atrazine, and bentazon. Treatments examined were surfactant only, herbicide only, and surfactant + herbicide combinations. Corn was planted in fertilized soils (silt loam and silty clay) with moisture content maintained at the field capacity for optimum growth. This paper will report results of above mentioned treatments on acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, beta-glucosaminidase, and dehydrogenase activities. In general, there were variations in the enzyme activities with some inhibition and some being enhanced by the treatments. Activator 90 appeared to have the highest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities. Atrazine application significantly decreased the activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase in both soils; however, combination of Atrazine + Agridex increased the acid phosphatase activity while significantly inhibiting the other enzyme activities in soils. It was concluded that long-term field studies are needed to validate changes in nutrient uptake, microbial community and enzyme activities due to surfactant-herbicide combination effects.

Keywords: herbicides, nutrient cycling, soil enzymes, surfactant

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4515 Production of Linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B-763

Authors: Ogbonnaya Nwokoro, Florence O. Anya

Abstract:

Nutritional factors relating to the production of linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B–763 were investigated. The microorganism was cultivated in a medium containing 1% linamarin. Enzyme was produced using a variety of carbon substrates but the highest enzyme activity was detected in the presence of salicin (522 U/ml) after 48 h while the lowest yield was observed with CM cellulose (38 U/ml) after 72 h. Enzyme was not produced in the presence of cellobiose. Among a variety of nitrogen substrates tested, peptone supported maximum enzyme production (412 U/ml) after 48 h. Lowest enzyme production was observed with urea (40 U/ml). Organic nitrogen substrates generally supported higher enzyme productivity than inorganic nitrogen substrates. Enzyme activity was observed in the presence of Mn2+ (% relative activity = 216) while Hg2+ was inhibitory (% relative activity = 28). Locally-formulated media were comparable to MRS broth in supporting linamarase production by the bacterium. Higher enzyme activity was produced in media with surfactant than in media without surfactant. The enzyme may be useful in enhanced degradation of cassava cyanide.

Keywords: linamarase, locally formulated media, carbon substrates, nitrogen substrates, metal ions

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4514 Effect of Ethanol Concentration and Enzyme Pre-Treatment on Bioactive Compounds from Ginger Extract

Authors: S. Lekhavat, T. Kajsongkram, S. Sang-han

Abstract:

Dried ginger was extracted and investigated the effect of ethanol concentration and enzyme pre-treatment on its bioactive compounds in solvent extraction process. Sliced fresh gingers were dried by oven dryer at 70 °C for 24 hours and ground to powder using grinder which their size were controlled by passing through a 20-mesh sieve. In enzyme pre-treatment process, ginger powder was sprayed with 1 % (w/w) cellulase and then was incubated at 45 °C for 2 hours following by extraction process using ethanol at concentration of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % (v/v), respectively. The ratio of ginger powder and ethanol are 1:9 and extracting conditions were controlled at 80 °C for 2 hours. Bioactive compounds extracted from ginger, either enzyme-treated or non enzyme-treated samples, such as total phenolic content (TPC), 6-Gingerol (6 G), 6-Shogaols (6 S) and antioxidant activity (IC50 using DPPH assay), were examined. Regardless of enzyme treatment, the results showed that 60 % ethanol provided the highest TPC (20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger), 6G (0.77%), 6S (0.036 %) and the lowest IC50 (625 μg/ml) compared to other ratios of ethanol. Considering the effect of enzyme on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, it was found that enzyme-treated sample has more 6G (0.17-0.77 %) and 6S (0.020-0.036 %) than non enzyme-treated samples (0.13-0.77 % 6G, 0.015-0.036 % 6S). However, the results showed that non enzyme-treated extracts provided higher TPC (6.76-20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger) and Lowest IC50 (625-1494 μg/ml ) than enzyme-treated extracts (TPC 5.36-17.50 GAE mg /g. dried ginger, IC50 793-2146 μg/ml).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, enzyme, extraction, ginger

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4513 Bifunctional Activity and Stability of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

Authors: Patsarawadee Paojinda, Waranya Imprasittichai, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai

Abstract:

Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. Here, we produced gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT and expressed the bifunctional protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using affinity and anion-exchange chromatography, exhibited enzymatic activities and functioned as a dimer. The activities, although unstable, can be stabilized by its substrate and product during purification and long-term storage. Furthermore, the enzyme expressed a perfect catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The kcat was selectively enhanced up to 3 orders of magnitude, while the Km was not much affected and remained at low µM levels when compared to the monofunctional enzymes. The fusion of the two enzymes, creating a “super-enzyme” with perfect catalytic power and more flexibility, reflects cryptic relationship of enzymatic reactivaties and metabolic functions on molecular evolution.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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4512 Assessment of Diagnostic Enzymes as Indices of Heavy Metal Pollution in Tilapia Fish

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Essien U. Essien

Abstract:

Diagnostic enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined as indices of heavy metal pollution in Tilapia guinensis. Three different sets of fishes treated with lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were used for the study while a fourth group with no heavy metal served as a control. Fishes in each of the groups were exposed to 2.65 mg/l of Pb, 0.85 mg/l of Fe and 0.35 mg/l of Cu in aerated aquaria for 96 hours. Tissue fractionation of the liver tissues was carried out and the three diagnostic enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) were estimated. Serum levels of the same diagnostic enzymes were also measured. The mean values of the serum enzyme activity for ALP in each experimental group were 19.5±1.62, 29.67±2.17 and 1.15±0.27 IU/L for Pb, Fe and Cu groups compared with 9.99±1.34 IU/L enzyme activity in the control. This result showed that Pb and Fe caused increased release of the enzyme into the blood circulation indicating increased tissue damage while Cu caused a reduction in the serum level as compared with the level in the control group. The mean values of enzyme activity obtained in the liver were 102.14±6.12, 140.17±2.06 and 168.23±3.52 IU/L for Pb, Fe and Cu groups, respectively compared to 91.20±9.42 IU/L enzyme activity for the control group. The serum and liver AST and ALT activities obtained in Pb, Fe, Cu and control groups are reported. It was generally noted that the presence of the heavy metal caused liver tissues damage and consequent increased level of the diagnostic enzymes in the serum.

Keywords: diagnostic enzymes, enzyme activity, heavy metals, tissues investigations

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4511 The Modeling of Viscous Microenvironment for the Coupled Enzyme System of Bioluminescence Bacteria

Authors: Irina E. Sukovataya, Oleg S. Sutormin, Valentina A. Kratasyuk

Abstract:

Effect of viscosity of media on kinetic parameters of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase was investigated with addition of organic solvents (glycerol and sucrose), because bioluminescent enzyme systems based on bacterial luciferases offer a unique and general tool for analysis of the many analytes and enzymes in the environment, research, and clinical laboratories and other fields. The possibility of stabilization and increase of activity of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase activity in vicious aqueous-organic mixtures have been shown.

Keywords: coupled enzyme system of bioluminescence bacteria NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase, glycerol, stabilization of enzymes, sucrose

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4510 Comparative Analysis of Enzyme Activities Concerned in Decomposition of Toluene

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

In recent years, pollutions of the environment by toxic substances become a serious problem. While there are many methods of environmental clean-up, the methods by microorganisms are considered to be reasonable and safety for environment. Compost is known that it catabolize the meladorous substancess in its production process, however the mechanism of its catabolizing system is not known yet. In the catabolization process, organic matters turn into inorganic by the released enzymes from lots of microorganisms which live in compost. In other words, the cooperative of activated enzymes in the compost decomposes malodorous substances. Thus, clarifying the interaction among enzymes is important for revealing the catabolizing system of meladorous substance in compost. In this study, we utilized statistical method to infer the interaction among enzymes. We developed a method which combined partial correlation with cross correlation to estimate the relevance between enzymes especially from time series data of few variables. Because of using cross correlation, we can estimate not only the associative structure but also the reaction pathway. We applied the developed method to the enzyme measured data and estimated an interaction among the enzymes in decomposition mechanism of toluene.

Keywords: enzyme activities, comparative analysis, compost, toluene

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4509 Quality of Low Fat Traditional Pork Sausage Containing Transglutaminase

Authors: Jiraporn Burakorn, Pran Pinthong, Supida Hutabaedya

Abstract:

Commercial traditional pork sausages (Moo Yaw) were produced by added more than 30% of pork fat for appetite customer. The pork sausages texture were softness, firmness, juiciness and smooth. If the pork sausages contained less fat, their textures were hardness, dryness and incoherence. This research investigated production of low fat traditional pork sausage containing transglutaminase for improved its sensory properties and nutritive values. The enzyme pork sausage composed of transglutaminase, soybean cake, rice bran oil and other ingredients. Consumer acceptance test was done by comparing the enzyme pork sausage with the 3 commercial pork sausage with 95 consumer. The enzyme pork sausage was accepted 92.6% and was preferred in all attributes over the 3 commercial pork sausages such as appearance, color, flavor, taste, firmness and overall liking. The enzyme pork sausage was high protein but low total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and carbohydrate. The enzyme pork sausage was lower calorie (90 kcal) than the commercial reference pork sausage (150 kcal) 64%. The morphological texture of the enzyme pork sausage was smooth and consistency when analyzed by SEM.

Keywords: low fat, Moo Yaw, pork sausage, transglutaminase

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4508 Improvement on the Specific Activities of Immobilized Enzymes by Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Surface Modification

Authors: Shaohua Li, Aihua Zhang, Kelly Zatopek, Saba Parvez, Andrew F. Gardner, Ivan R. Corrêa Jr., Christopher J. Noren, Ming-Qun Xu

Abstract:

Covalent immobilization of enzymes on solid supports is an alternative approach to biocatalysis with the added benefits of simple enzyme removal, improved stability, and adaptability to automation and high-throughput applications. Nevertheless, immobilized enzymes generally suffer from reduced activities compared to their soluble counterparts. One major factor leading to activity loss is the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the supporting material surface, which could result in the conformational change/confinement of enzymes. We report a strategy of utilizing flexible poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) moieties as to improve the surface hydrophilicity of solid supports used for enzyme immobilization. DNA modifying enzymes were covalently conjugated to PEO-coated magnetic-beads. Kinetics studies proved that the activities of the covalently-immobilized DNA modifying enzymes were greatly enhanced by the PEO modification on the bead surface.

Keywords: immobilized enzymes, biocatalysis, poly(ethylene oxide), surface modification

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4507 Antioxidant Potential and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Alzheimer's Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus by Monoterpene-Rich Essential Oil from Sideritis Galatica Bornm. Endemic to Turkey

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Cengiz Sarikurkcu, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Ramazan Ceylan

Abstract:

The present study was designated to characterize the essential oil from S. galatica (SGEOs) and evaluate its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Antioxidant capacity were tested different methods including free radical scavenging (DPPH, ABTS and NO), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC), metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum. Inhibitory activities were analyzed on acetylcholiesterase, butrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. SGEOs were chemically analyzed and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). 23 components, representing 98.1% of SGEOs were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (74.1%), especially α- (23.0%) and β-pinene (32.2%), were the main constituents in SGEOs. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were β-caryophyllene (16.9%), Germacrene-D (1.2%) and Caryophyllene oxide (1.2%), respectively. Generally, SGEOs has shown moderate free radical, reducing power, metal chelating and enzyme inhibitory activities. These activities related to chemical profile in SGEOs. Our findings supported that the possible utility of SGEOs is a source of natural agents for food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: sideritis galatica, antioxidant, monoterpenes, cholinesterase, anti-diabetic

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4506 Design and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamate Racemase (MurI) Inhibitors

Authors: Prasanthi Malapati, R. Reshma, Vijay Soni, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram

Abstract:

In the present study, we attempted to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibitors by exploring the pharmaceutically underexploited enzyme targets which are majorly involved in cell wall biosynthesis of mycobacteria. For this purpose, glutamate racemase (coded by MurI gene) was selected. This enzyme racemize L-glutamate to D-glutamate required for the construction of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall synthesis process. Furthermore this enzyme is neither expressed nor its product, D-glutamate is normally found in mammals, and hence designing inhibitors against this enzyme will not affect the host system as well act as potential antitubercular drugs. A library of BITS in house compounds were screened against Mtb MurI enzyme. Based on docking score, interactions and synthetic feasibility one hit lead was identified. Further optimization of lead was attempted and its derivatives were synthesized. Forty eight derivatives of 2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole and 2-phenylbenzo[d]thiazole were synthesized and evaluated for Mtb MurI inhibition study, in vitro activities against Mtb, cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cell line. Chemical derivatization of the lead resulted in compounds NR-1213 AND NR-1124 as the potent M. tuberculosis glutamate racemase inhibitors with IC50 of 4-5µM which are remarkable and were found to be non-cytotoxic. Molecular dynamics, dormant models and cardiotoxicity studies of the most active molecules are in process.

Keywords: cell wall biosynthesis, dormancy, glutamate racemase, tuberculosis

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4505 Functional Gene Expression in Human Cells Using Linear Vectors Derived from Bacteriophage N15 Processing

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Pei-Sheng Liew

Abstract:

This paper adapts the bacteriophage N15 protelomerase enzyme to assemble linear chromosomes as vectors for gene expression in human cells. Phage N15 has the unique ability to replicate as a linear plasmid with telomeres in E. coli during its prophage stage of life-cycle. The virus-encoded protelomerase enzyme cuts its circular genome and caps its ends to form hairpin telomeres, resulting in a linear human-chromosome-like structure in E. coli. In mammalian cells, however, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show for the first-time transfer of the protelomerase from phage into human and mouse cells and demonstrate recapitulation of its activity in these hosts. The function of this enzyme is assayed by demonstrating cleavage of its target DNA, followed by detecting telomere formation based on its resistance to recBCD enzyme digestion. We show protelomerase expression persists for at least 60 days, which indicates limited silencing of its expression. Next, we show that an intact human β-globin gene delivered on this linear chromosome accurately retains its expression in the human cellular environment for at least 60 hours, demonstrating its stability and potential as a vector. These results demonstrate that the N15 protelomerse is able to function in mammalian cells to cut and heal DNA to create telomeres, which provides a new tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts.

Keywords: chromosome, beta-globin, DNA, gene expression, linear vector

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4504 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi

Abstract:

Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: salinity, stress, vitamin c, antioxidant, NaCl, enzyme

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4503 Enzyme Immobilization on Functionalized Polystyrene Nanofibersfor Bioprocessing Applications

Authors: Mailin Misson, Bo Jin, Sheng Dai, Hu Zhang

Abstract:

Advances in biotechnology have witnessed a growing interest in enzyme applications for the development of green and sustainable bio processes. While known as powerful bio catalysts, enzymes are no longer of economic value when extended to large commercialization. Alternatively, immobilization technology allows enzyme recovery and continuous reuse which subsequently compensates high operating costs. Employment of enzymes on nano structured materials has been recognized as a promising approach to enhance enzyme catalytic performances. High porosity, inter connectivity and self-assembling behaviors endow nano fibers as exciting candidate for enzyme carrier in bio reactor systems. In this study, nano fibers were successfully fabricated via electro spinning system by optimizing the polymer concentration (10-30 %, w/v), applied voltage (10-30 kV) and discharge distance (11-26 cm). Microscopic images have confirmed the quality as homogeneous and good fiber alignment. The nano fibers surface was modified using strong oxidizing agent to facilitate bio molecule binding. Bovine serum albumin and β-galactosidase enzyme were employed as model bio catalysts and immobilized onto the oxidized surfaces through covalent binding. Maximum enzyme adsorption capacity of the modified nano fibers was 3000 mg/g, 3-fold higher than the unmodified counterpart (1000 mg/g). The highest immobilization yield was 80% and reached the saturation point at 2 mg/ml of enzyme concentration. The results indicate a significant increase of activity retention by the enzyme-bound modified nano fibers (80%) as compared to the nascent one (60%), signifying excellent enzyme-nano carrier bio compatibility. The immobilized enzyme was further used for the bio conversion of dairy wastes into value-added products. This study demonstrates great potential of acid-modified electrospun polystyrene nano fibers as enzyme carriers.

Keywords: immobilization, enzyme, nanocarrier, nanofibers

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4502 Effect of Zinc-Lysine on Growth, Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System and Chromium Uptake in Rice under Cr Stress

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Afzal Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan, Longhua Wu

Abstract:

Chromium (Cr) is one of the widespread and toxic trace elements present in the agricultural land. Chromium can enter into the food chain mainly through agricultural crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). The current study was done to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations foliar applied zinc (Zn) chelated with lysine (Zn-lys) (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L⁻¹) on rice biomass, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, key antioxidant enzyme activities and Cr uptake under increasing levels of Cr in the soil (0, 100, 500 mg kg⁻¹). Cr-induced toxicity reduced the height of plants, biomass, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activities while increased the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, and H₂O₂) in shoots and roots than control plants. Foliar application of Zn-lys increased the plant growth, photosynthesis, Zn concentrations, and enzyme activities in rice seedlings. In addition, Zn-lys reduced the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress compared to the respective Cr treatments alone. The present results indicate that foliar Zn-lys stimulates the antioxidant defense system in rice, increase the rice growth while reduced the Cr concentrations in plants by promoting the Zn uptake and photosynthesis. Taken together, foliar spray of Zn-lys chelate can efficiently be employed for improving plant growth and Zn contents while reducing Cr concentration in rice grown in Cr-contaminated and Zn-deficient soils.

Keywords: antioxidants, chromium, zinc-lysine, oxidative stress, photosynthesis, tolerance

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4501 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

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4500 Condition Optimization for Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Activities in Economic Animals

Authors: Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Buaream Maneewan, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

Abstract:

For animals, trypsin and chymotrypsin are the 2 proteases that play the important role in protein digestion and involving in growth rate. In many animals, these two enzymes are indicated as growth parameter by feed. Although enzyme assay at optimal condition is significant for its accuracy activity determination. There is less report of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Therefore, in this study, optimization of pH and temperature for trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C) in economic species; i.e. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sand goby (Oxyeleotoris marmoratus), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobachium rosenberchii) and native chicken (Gallus gallus) were investigated. Each enzyme of each species was assaying for its specific activity with variation of pH in range of 2-12 and temperature in range of 30-80 °C. It revealed that, for Nile tilapia, T had optimal condition at pH 9 and temperature 50-80 °C, whereas C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature 60 °C. For sand goby, T had optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 50 °C, while C had optimal condition at pH 11 and temperature of 70-75 °C. For juvenile freshwater prawn, T had optimal condition at pH 10-11 and temperature of 60-65 °C, C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 70°C. For starter native chicken, T has optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 70 °C, whereas C had o optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 60°C. This information of optimal conditions will be high valuable in further for, actual enzyme measurement of T and C activities that benefit for growth and feed analysis.

Keywords: trypsin, chymotrypsin, Oreochromis niloticus, Oxyeleotoris marmoratus, Macrobachium rosenberchii, Gallus gallus

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4499 Effects of Dietary Copper Supplementation on the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Authors: Muralisankar Thirunavukkarasu, Saravana Bhavan Periyakali, Santhanam Perumal

Abstract:

The present study was performed to assess the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on growth, biochemical constituents, digestive enzyme activities, enzymatic antioxidant and metabolic enzymes of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL). The Cu was supplemented at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 with the basal diets. Cu supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. At the end of the feeding experiment, 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in survival, growth, digestive enzyme activities and concentrations of biochemical constituents. However, PL fed with 60 to 80 mg Cu kg-1 showed negative performance. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, metabolic enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the muscle and hepatopancreas showed insignificant alterations (P > 0.05) up to 40 mg kg-1 Cu supplemented feeds fed PL. Whereas, 60 and 80 mg of Cu kg-1 supplemented feeds fed PL showed significant alterations on these antioxidants and metabolic enzymes levels. It indicates that beyond 40 mg Cu kg-1 diets were produced some toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, the present study suggests that 40 mg Cu kg-1 can be supplemented in the diets of M. rosenbergii PL for regulating better survival and growth.

Keywords: antioxidants, biochemical constituents, copper, growth, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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4498 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh

Abstract:

The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcuslactis, recombinant, phytase, poultry

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4497 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

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4496 Fungal Cellulase/Xylanase Complex and Their Industrial Applications

Authors: L. Kutateldze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, I. Khokhashvili, T. Sadunishvili

Abstract:

Microbial cellulase/xylanase have shown their potential application in various industries including pulp and paper, textile, laundry, biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, and agriculture. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Representatives of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are outstanding by relatively high activities of these enzymes. Among the producers were revealed thermophilic strains, representatives of the genus Aspergillus-Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wentii, also strains of Sporotrichum pulverulentum and Chaetomium thermophile. As a result of optimization of cultivation media and conditions, activities of enzymes produced by the strains have been increased by 4 -189 %. Two strains, active producers of cellulase/xylanase – Penicillium canescence E2 (mesophile) and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 (thermophile) were chosen for further studies. Cellulase/xylanase enzyme preparations from two different genera of microscopic fungi Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 were obtained with activities 220 U/g /1200 U/g and 125 U/g /940 U/g, correspondingly. Main technical characteristics were as follows: the highest enzyme activities were obtained for mesophilic strain Penicillium canescence E2 at 45-500C, while almost the same enzyme activities were fixed for the thermophilic strain Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 at temperature 60-65°C, exceeding the temperature optimum of the mesophile by 150C. Optimum pH of action of the studied cellulase/xylanases from mesophileic and thermophilic strains were similar and equaled to 4.5-5.0 It has been shown that cellulase/xylanase technical preparations from selected strains of Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 hydrolyzed cellulose of untreated wheat straw to reducible sugars by 46-52%, and to glucose by 22-27%. However the thermophilic enzyme preparations from the thermophilic A.versicolor strains conducted the process at 600C higher by 100C as compared to mesophlic analogue. Rate of hydrolyses of the pretreated substrate by the same enzyme preparations to reducible sugars and glucose conducted at optimum for their action 60 and 500C was 52-61% and 29-33%, correspondingly. Thus, maximum yield of glucose and reducible sugars form untreated and pretreated wheat straw was achieved at higher temperature (600C) by enzyme preparations from thermophilic strain, which gives advantage for their industrial application.

Keywords: cellulase/xylanase, cellulose hydrolysis, microscopic fungi, thermophilic strain

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4495 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi

Abstract:

Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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4494 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: specific enzyme, free fatty acids, Hydrolysis, lecitase ultra, ultrasound

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