Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: plasmodium falciparum

32 Plasmodium falciparum and Scistosoma haematobium Co-infection in School Aged Children in Jinduut, Shendam Local Government Area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: D. A. Dakul, T. M. Akindigh, B. J. Dogonyaro, O. J. Abba, K. T. Tangtur, N. Sambo, J. A. E. Okopi, J. A. Yohanna, G. E. Imade, G. S. Mwansat, S. Oguche


Malaria and urinary Schistosomaisis are both endemic in Nigeria and pose a serious health challenge in rural areas where co-infections are common. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of co-infection and the impact of concurrent infection on haemoglobin concentration, Eosinophil and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (MRDT) kits and the presence of visible haematuria respectively and confirmed by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (cPCR). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 110 children examined, 13 (11.8%) had concurrent infection with Schistosoma haematobium falciparum, 46(41.8%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection while 16(14.5%) had Schistosoma haematobium infection. A strong association between co-infection and the ages of 10-15 years with a 36.4% prevalence of anaemia was observed. Malaria was significantly associated with anaemia than with concurrent infections or schistomiasis alone. Co-infection with both pathogens and a high prevalence of anaemia was observed in Jinduut community. Although the causes of anaemia are multi-factorial, further investigation into the extent to which malaria and urinary schistosomiasis contribute to anaemia is needed. Also, integrated control efforts must be strengthened to mitigate the impact of concurrent infection in this group of vulnerable members in the community. The results can be applied to other communities during control.

Keywords: co-Infection, plasmodium falciparum and scistosoma haematobium, Jinduut, Nigeria

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31 Bifunctional Activity and Stability of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

Authors: Patsarawadee Paojinda, Waranya Imprasittichai, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai


Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. Here, we produced gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT and expressed the bifunctional protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using affinity and anion-exchange chromatography, exhibited enzymatic activities and functioned as a dimer. The activities, although unstable, can be stabilized by its substrate and product during purification and long-term storage. Furthermore, the enzyme expressed a perfect catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The kcat was selectively enhanced up to 3 orders of magnitude, while the Km was not much affected and remained at low µM levels when compared to the monofunctional enzymes. The fusion of the two enzymes, creating a “super-enzyme” with perfect catalytic power and more flexibility, reflects cryptic relationship of enzymatic reactivaties and metabolic functions on molecular evolution.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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30 Expression of Fused Plasmodium falciparum Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase in Escherichia coli

Authors: Waranya Imprasittichai, Patsarawadee Paojinda, Sudaratana R. Krungkrai, Nirianne Marie Q. Palacpac, Toshihiro Horii, Jerapan Krungkrai


Fusion of the last two enzymes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the inversed order by having COOH-terminal orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and NH2-terminal orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), as OMPDC-OPRT, are described in many organisms. In this study, we constructed gene fusions of Plasmodium falciparum OMPDC-OPRT (1,836 bp) in pTrcHisA vector and expressed as an 6xHis-tag bifunctional protein in three Escherichia coli strains (BL21, Rosetta, TOP10) at 18 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. The recombinant bifunctional protein was partially purified by Ni-Nitrilotriacetic acid-affinity chromatography. Specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in the bifunctional enzyme expressed in E. coli TOP10 cells were approximately 3-4-fold higher than those in BL21 cells. There were no enzymatic activities when the construct vector expressed in Rosetta cells. Maximal expression of the fused gene was observed at 18 °C and the bifunctional enzyme had specific activities of OPRT and OMPDC domains in a ratio of 1:2. These results provide greater yields and better catalytic activities of the bifunctional OMPDC-OPRT enzyme for further purification and kinetic study.

Keywords: bifunctional enzyme, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, plasmodium falciparum

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29 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal


With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

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28 Genetic Polymorphism and Insilico Study Epitope Block 2 MSP1 Gene of Plasmodium falciparum Isolate Endemic Jayapura

Authors: Arsyam Mawardi, Sony Suhandono, Azzania Fibriani, Fifi Fitriyah Masduki


Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium sp. This disease has a high prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Jayapura. The vaccine that is currently being developed has not been effective in overcoming malaria. This is due to the high polymorphism in the Plasmodium genome especially in areas that encode Plasmodium surface proteins. Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1) Plasmodium falciparum is a surface protein that plays a role in the invasion process in human erythrocytes through the interaction of Glycophorin A protein receptors and sialic acid in erythrocytes with Reticulocyte Binding Proteins (RBP) and Duffy Adhesion Protein (DAP) ligands in merozoites. MSP1 can be targeted to be a specific antigen and predicted epitope area which will be used for the development of diagnostic and malaria vaccine therapy. MSP1 consists of 17 blocks, each block is dimorphic, and has been marked as the K1 and MAD20 alleles. Exceptions only in block 2, because it has 3 alleles, among others K1, MAD20 and RO33. These polymorphisms cause allelic variations and implicate the severity of patients infected P. falciparum. In addition, polymorphism of MSP1 in Jayapura isolates has not been reported so it is interesting to be further identified and projected as a specific antigen. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the allele polymorphism as well as detected the MSP1 epitope antigen candidate on block 2 P. falciparum. Clinical samples of selected malaria patients followed the consecutive sampling method, examining malaria parasites with blood preparations on glass objects observed through a microscope. Plasmodium DNA was isolated from the blood of malarial positive patients. The block 2 MSP1 gene was amplified using PCR method and cloned using the pGEM-T easy vector then transformed to TOP'10 E.coli. Positive colonies selection was performed with blue-white screening. The existence of target DNA was confirmed by PCR colonies and DNA sequencing methods. Furthermore, DNA sequence analysis was done through alignment and formation of a phylogenetic tree using MEGA 6 software and insilico analysis using IEDB software to predict epitope candidate for P. falciparum. A total of 15 patient samples have been isolated from Plasmodium DNA. PCR amplification results show the target gene size about ± 1049 bp. The results of MSP1 nucleotide alignment analysis reveal that block 2 MSP1 genes derived from the sample of malarial patients were distributed in four different allele family groups, K1 (7), MAD20 (1), RO33 (0) and MSP1_Jayapura (10) alleles. The most commonly appears of the detected allele is MSP1_Jayapura single allele. There was no significant association between sex variables, age, the density of parasitemia and alel variation (Mann Whitney, U > 0.05), while symptomatic signs have a significant difference as a trigger of detectable allele variation (U < 0.05). In this research, insilico study shows that there is a new epitope antigen candidate from the MSP1_Jayapura allele and it is predicted to be recognized by B cells with 17 amino acid lengths in the amino acid sequence 187 to 203.

Keywords: epitope candidate, insilico analysis, MSP1 P. falciparum, polymorphism

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27 Two Antiplasmodial Compounds from Lauraceae: Actinodaphne macrophylla and Nectandra angustifolia

Authors: Tiah Rachmatiah, Subaryanti


Plants of Lauraceae family are known to contain many chemical compounds which have potential bioactivity such as alkaloids, flavonoids, lactones, terpenes, etc. Actinodaphne macrophylla and Nectandra angustifolia are two species from Lauraceae. A previous study on the crude alkaloidal extract from the bark of Act. macrophylla and n-hexane extract from the bark of N. angustifolia showed antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The study was continued to find antiplasmodial active compounds from the two extracts. The materials were obtained from Bogor Botanical Garden, West Java, Indonesia. Crude alkaloidal extract of Act. macrophylla was prepared by maceration in dichloromethane after moistened with NH4OH 25% and n-hexane extract of N. angustifolia was prepared by maceration in n-hexane. A major compound was isolated by column chromatography using silica gel and a mixture of CH2Cl2 and methanol as a gradient solvent system for the alkaloidal extract and mixture of n-hexane and ethyl acetate for n-hexane extract. Fine white needle crystals were obtained from the alkaloidal extract and rod crystals from n-hexane extract. Molecular structure of the compounds was determined by analysis of spectra of NMR, IR, MS and compared by references. In vitro bioactivity test of the compound was performed against Plasmodium falciparum. The results showed that the bark of Act. macrophylla contained an aporphine alkaloid, actinodaphnine, that had activity against P. falciparum with IC50 value of 0.095 µg/mL and the bark of N. angustifolia contained a lignan compound, sesamine, with IC50 of 0.122 µg/mL.

Keywords: actinodaphne macrophylla, alkaloid, antiplasmodial, lauraceae, lignan, nectandra angustifolia

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26 In silico Designing and Insight into Antimalarial Potential of Chalcone-Quinolinylpyrazole Hybrids by Preclinical Study in Mice

Authors: Deepika Saini, Sandeep Jain, Ajay Kumar


The quinoline scaffold is one of the most widely studied in the discovery of derivatives with various heterocyclic moieties due to its potential antimalarial activities. In the present study, a chalcone series of quinoline derivatives clubbed with pyrazole were synthesized to evaluate their antimalarial property by in vitro schizont maturation inhibition assay against both chloroquine sensitive, 3D7 and chloroquine resistant, RKL9 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Further, top five compounds were studied for in vivo preclinical study for antimalarial potential against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice. To understand the mechanism of synthesized analogues, they were screened computationally by molecular docking techniques. Compounds were docked into the active site of a protein receptor, Plasmodium falciparum Cysteine Protease Falcipain-2. The compounds were successfully synthesized, and structural confirmation was performed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In vitro study suggested that the compounds 5b, 5g, 5l, 5s and 5u possessed best antimalarial activity and further tested for in vivo screening. Compound 5u (CH₃ on both rings) with EC₅₀ 0.313 & 0.801 µg/ml against CQ-S & CQ-R strains of P. falciparum respectively and 78.01% suppression of parasitemia. The molecular docking studies of the compounds helped in understanding the mechanism of action against falcipain-2. The present study reveals the binding signatures of the synthesized ligands within the active site of the protein, and it explains the results from in vitro study in their EC₅₀ values and percentage parasitemia.

Keywords: antimalarial activity, chalcone, docking, quinoline

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25 Nanoparticle-Based Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Assay for the Detection of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Falciparum

Authors: Yagahira E. Castro-Sesquen, Chloe Kim, Robert H. Gilman, David J. Sullivan, Peter C. Searson


Diagnosis of severe malaria is particularly important in highly endemic regions since most patients are positive for parasitemia and treatment differs from non-severe malaria. Diagnosis can be challenging due to the prevalence of diseases with similar symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is increasingly important to avoid overprescribing antimalarial drugs, minimize drug resistance, and minimize costs. A nanoparticle-based assay for detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) in urine and serum is reported. The assay uses magnetic beads conjugated with anti-HRP2 antibody for protein capture and concentration, and antibody-conjugated quantum dots for optical detection. Western Blot analysis demonstrated that magnetic beads allows the concentration of HRP2 protein in urine by 20-fold. The concentration effect was achieved because large volume of urine can be incubated with beads, and magnetic separation can be easily performed in minutes to isolate beads containing HRP2 protein. Magnetic beads and Quantum Dots 525 conjugated to anti-HRP2 antibodies allows the detection of low concentration of HRP2 protein (0.5 ng mL-1), and quantification in the range of 33 to 2,000 ng mL-1 corresponding to the range associated with non-severe to severe malaria. This assay can be easily adapted to a non-invasive point-of-care test for classification of severe malaria.

Keywords: HRP2 protein, malaria, magnetic beads, Quantum dots

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24 Malaria Menace in Pregnancy; Hard to Ignore

Authors: Nautiyal Ruchira, Nautiyal Hemant, Chaudhury Devnanda, Bhargava Surbhi, Chauhan Nidhi


Introduction: South East Asian region contributes 2.5 million cases of malaria each year to the global burden of 300 to 500 million of which 76% is reported from India. Government of India launched a national program almost half a century ago, still malaria remains a major public health challenge. Pregnant women are more susceptible to severe malaria and its fetomaternal complications. Inadequate surveillance and under-reporting underestimates the problem. Aim: Present study aimed to analyze the clinical course and pattern of malaria during pregnancy and to study the feto-maternal outcome. Methodology: This is a prospective observational study carried out at Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences – a tertiary care center in the sub-Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, Northern India. All the pregnant women with malaria and its complications were recruited in the study during 2009 to 2014 which included referred cases from the state of western Uttar Pradesh. A thorough history and clinical examination were carried out to assess maternal and fetal condition. Relevant investigations including haemogram, platelet count, LFT, RFT, and USG was done. Blood slides and rapid diagnostic tests were done to diagnose the type of malaria.The primary outcomes measured were the type of malaria infection, maternal complications associated with malaria, outcome of pregnancy and effect on the fetus. Results: 67 antenatal cases with malaria infection were studied. 71% patients were diagnosed with plasmodium vivax infection, 25% cases were plasmodium falciparum positive and in 3% cases mixed infection was found. 38(56%) patients were primigravida and 29(43%) were multiparous. Most of the patients had already received some treatment from their local doctors and presented with severe malaria with the complications. Thrombocytopenia was the commonest manifestation seen in 35(52%) patients, jaundice in 28%, severe anemia in 18%, and severe oligohydramnios in 10% and renal failure in 6% cases. Regarding pregnancy outcome there were 44 % preterm deliveries, 22% had IUFD and abortions in 6% cases.20% of newborn were low birth weight and 6% were IUGR. There was only one maternal death which occurred due to ARDS in falciparum malaria. Although Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite considering the severity of clinical presentation, all the patients received intensive care. As most of the patients had received chloroquine therapy hence they were treated with IV artesunate followed by oral artemesinin combination therapy. Other therapies in the form of packed RBC’s and platelet transfusions, dialysis and ventilator support were provided when required. Conclusion: Even in areas with annual parasite index (API) less than 2 like ours, malaria in pregnancy could be an alarming problem. Vivax malaria cannot be considered benign in pregnancy because of high incidence of morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality significantly. Increased community level research, integrating ANC checkups with the distribution of insecticide-treated nets in areas of high endemicity, imparting education and awareness will strengthen the existing control strategies.

Keywords: severe malaria, pregnancy, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum

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23 Renal Complications in Patients with Falciparum Malaria

Authors: Saira Baloch, Mohsin Ali Baloch


Background: Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease and also a major public health problem in Pakistan. Renal failure is an emerging problem correlated with morbidity and mortality, however can be diagnosed and treated in the early stages. Objectives: To elucidate the biochemical renal parameters in patients with falciparum malaria and comparison with healthy control subjects. Method: 80 patients, who were diagnosed to be affected by falciparum malaria. Detailed history, general physical and systemic examination and necessary pathological, biochemical renal laboratory parameters and investigations were done. Results: Among the 80 patients, 43 were males and 37 were females. All patients were infected with P. falciparum. All patients had increased serum creatinine and urea levels and urine output of less than 400 ml/day were categorized as suffering from renal failure. Conclusion: Patients infected with P. falciparum are at an increased risk of developing renal failure when compared to patients infected with other complications. P. vivax has massive potential to cause life threatening complications and even death. Further research is required to understand the exact pathogenesis of various complications encountered in vivax malaria.

Keywords: falciparum malaria, renal failure, biochemical parameters, pathogenesis

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22 Improvement of Artemisinin Production by P. indica in Hairy Root Cultures of A. annua L.

Authors: Seema Ahlawat, Parul Saxena, Malik Zainul Abdin


Malaria is a major health problem in many developing countries. The parasite responsible for the vast majority of fatal malaria infections is Plasmodium falciparum. Unfortunately, most Plasmodium strains including P. falciparum have become resistant to most of the antimalarials including chloroquine, mefloquine, etc. To combat this problem, WHO has recommended the use of artemisinin and its derivatives in artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT). Due to its current use in artemisinin based-combination therapy (ACT), its global demand is increasing continuously. But, the relatively low yield of artemisinin in A. annua L. plants and unavailability of economically viable synthetic protocols are the major bottlenecks for its commercial production and clinical use. Chemical synthesis of artemisinin is also very complex and uneconomical. The hairy root system, using the Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402 strain to enhance the production of artemisinin in A. annua L., is developed in our laboratory. The transgenic nature of hairy root lines and the copy number of trans gene (rol B) were confirmed using PCR and Southern Blot analyses, respectively. The effect of different concentrations of Piriformospora indica on artemisinin production in hairy root cultures were evaluated. 3% P. indica has resulted 1.97 times increase in artemisinin production in comparison to control cultures. The effects of P. indica on artemisinin production was positively correlated with regulatory genes of MVA, MEP and artemisinin biosynthetic pathways, viz. hmgr, ads, cyp71av1, aldh1, dxs, dxr and dbr2 in hairy root cultures of A. annua L. Mass scale cultivation of A. annua L. hairy roots by plant tissue culture technology may be an alternative route for production of artemisinin. A comprehensive investigation of the hairy root system of A. annua L. would help in developing a viable process for the production of artemisinin. The efficiency of the scaling up systems still needs optimization before industrial exploitation becomes viable.

Keywords: A. annua L., artemisinin, hairy root cultures, malaria

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21 Antiplasmodial Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpene Isolated from Warburgia salutaris

Authors: Mthokozisi Simelane


Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in tropical regions despite the advances in the treatment of this disease, it still remains a significant burden as some parasites have become resistant to the currently available drugs. This has created a necessity for the development of alternative, more efficient antimalarial drugs. Warburgia salutaris is a traditional medicinal plant used in malaria treatment by Zulu traditional healers. Materials and methods: The W. salutaris stem-bark was extracted with dichloromethane and the compound was isolated through column chromatography. The compound was identified and characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS) and the structure was also confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The anti-plasmodial activity (in vitro) was studied on NF54 Plasmodium falciparum strain (CQS). Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on HEK239 and HEPG2 cell lines. Docking of Mukaadial acetate was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Structural modifications were conducted in UCSF Chimera and molecular interactions examined in LigPlot. Results: The compound, Mukaadial Acetate showed appreciable inhibition (IC50 0.44±0.10 µg/ml) of the parasite growth and cytotoxicity activity of 0.124±0.109 and 0.199±0.083 (µg/ml) on HEK293 and HEPG2 cells respectively. Molecular docking revealed that Mukaadial Acetate binds to the purine, pyrophosphate and ribose binding sites of the PfHGXPRT with an optimum binding conformation and forms hydrogen bond, steric and hydrophobic interactions with the residues inhabiting the respective binding sites. Conclusion: It is apparent that W. salutaris contains components (including Mukaadial Acetate) that exhibit antimalarial activity. This study scientifically validates the use of this plant in folk medicine.

Keywords: plasmodium falciparum, molecular docking, antimalarial activity, PfHGXPRT, Warburgia salutaris, mukaadial acetate

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20 The Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata and Chromolaena odorata Plant Extract against Malaria Parasite

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Abdul O. Momoh


Malaria constitutes one of the major health problems in Nigeria. One of the reasons attributed for the upsurge was the development of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and the emergence of multi-resistant strains of the parasite to anti-malaria drugs. A continued search for other effective, safe and cheap plant-based anti-malaria agents thus becomes imperative in the face of these difficulties. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Androgaphis paniculata leaves. The two plants were evaluated for their anti-malaria efficacy in vivo in a 4-day curative test assay against Plasmodium berghei strain in mice. The group treated with 500mg/ml dose of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata plant showed parasite suppression with increase in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value except day 3 which showed a slight decrease in PCV value. During the 4-day curative test, an increase in the PCV values, weight measurement and zero count of Plasmodium berghei parasite values was recorded after day 3 of drug administration. These results obtained in group treated with A. paniculata extract showed anti-malarial efficacy with higher mortality rate in parasitaemia count when compared with Chromolaena odorata group. These results justify the use of ethanolic extracts of A. paniculata plant as medicinal herb used in folklore medicine in the treatment of malaria.

Keywords: anti-malaria, curative, plant-based anti-malaria agents, biology

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19 Pyrazolylpyrazolines: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Dual Acting Antimalarial-Antileishmanial Agents

Authors: Adnan Bekhit, Eskedar Lodebo, Ariaya Hymete, Hanan Ragab, Alaa El-Din Bekhit


Malaria and leishmaniasis have emerged as serious universal health problems throughout history of mankind. According to the WHO 2008 malarial report, half of the world population is at risk of malarial infection with an estimate of 1 million deaths occurring annually mainly in the African region. Furthermore, 12-15 million people are infected with Leishmaniasis worldwide. Despite the continuous introduction of a large number of agents for the treatment of malaria, there is still unmet medical needs due to the emergence of resistance. Resistance has occurred for almost all therapeutic agents approved for the treatment of malaria. Accordingly, it was the aim of this work to design and synthesis a group of antimalarial-antileshmanial agents that would show inhibitory activity against chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The synthesized compounds were designed to contain a pyrazolylpyrazoline moiety having an aromatic group (p-tolyl or p-chlorophenyl) at N1-position of one pyrazoline ring due to the reports of promising activities of such compounds. A formyl or acyl substituent was introduced at the N1-position of the other pyrazoline ring, to investigate the effect of bulkiness of acyl substituents at this position. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in-vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei infected mice at dose levels of 20 and 30 mg/Kg. the two most active compounds were evaluated for their antimalarial activity against chloroquin-resistant strain (RKL9) of Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, the synthesized compounds were tested for their in-vitro antileshmanial activity against Leishmania aethiopica promastigotes and amastigotes. For both antimalarial and antileishmanial activities, compounds having an N1-p-tolyl group at the first pyrazoline ring did not require bulkiness at the second pyrazoline ring nitrogen where the compound bearing an acetyl group proved to be the most active of the whole series. On the other hand, bulkiness at the N1-position of the second pyazoline ring was necessary in case of compounds carrying the p-chlorophenyl group, where the two derivatives having an N1-butanoyl and an N1-benzoyl moieties at the second pyrazoline showed the best activity. Furthermore, the toxicity of the active compounds were tested and were proved to be non-toxic at 125, 250 and 500 mg/Kg. In addition, docking of the most active compound (having a p-tolyl group at the first pyrazoline-N and an acetyl moiety on the other pyrazoline-N) was performed against dihydrofolate reductase enzyme.

Keywords: pyrazoline derivatives, in-vivo antimalarial activity, docking, dihydrofolate reductase

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18 Discovering Traditional Plants Used by Indigenous People in the Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia for the Treatment of Malaria

Authors: Izdihar Ismail, Alona C. Linatoc, Maryati Mohamed


The tropical rainforest of Malaysia is known for its rich biological diversity and high endemicity. The potential for these forests to hold the cure for many diseases and illnesses is high and much is yet to be discovered. This study explores the richness of the tropical rainforest of Endau-Rompin National Park in Johor, Malaysia in search of plants traditionally used by the indigenous people in the treatment of malaria and malaria-like symptoms. Seven species of plants were evaluated and tested for antiplasmodial activities. Different plant parts were subjected to methanolic and aqueous extractions. A total of 24 extracts were evaluated by histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) assay against K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant. Ten extracts showed significant inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum. Phytochemical screening of the same extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. This study affirms that tropical rainforests may still hold undiscovered cures for many diseases and illnesses that have inflicted millions of people worldwide. The species studied herein have not known to have been studied elsewhere before.

Keywords: Endau-Rompin, malaria, Malaysia, tropical rainforest, traditional knowledge

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17 The Impact of Artesunate-Amodiaquine on Schistosoma mansoni Infection among Children Infected by Plasmodium in Rural Area of Lemfu, Kongo Central, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Authors: Mbanzulu Kennedy, Zanga Josue, Wumba Roger


Malaria and schistosomiasis remain life-threatening public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. The infection pattern related to age indicates that preschool and school-age children are at the highest risk of malaria and schistosomiasis. Both parasitic infections, separately or combined, may have negative impacts on the haemoglobin concentration levels. The existing data revealed that artemisinin derivatives commonly used to cure malaria present also in antischistosomal activities. The current study investigated the impact of Artesunate-Amodiaquine (AS-AQ) on schistosomiasis when administered to treat malaria in rural area of Lemfu, DRC. A prospective longitudinal study including 171 coinfected children screened for anaemia, Schistosoma mansoni, and Plasmodium falciparum infections. The egg reduction rate and haemoglobin concentration were assessed four weeks after the treatment with AS-AQ, of all coinfected children of this series. One hundred and twenty-five (74.4%) out of 168 coinfected children treated and present during the assessment were found stool negative for S. mansoni eggs. Out of 43 (25.6%) children who remained positives, 37 (22%) showed a partial reduction of eggs amount, and no reduction was noted in 3.6% of coinfected. The mean of haemoglobin concentration and the prevalence of anaemia were, respectively, 10.74±1.5g/dl , 11.2±1.3g/dl, and 64.8%, 51.8%, respectively, before and after treatment, p<0.001. The AS-AQ commonly used against Plasmodium allowed curing S. mansoni in coinfected children and increasing the Hb level. For the future, the randomized and multicentric clinical trials are needed for a better understanding of the effectiveness of AS-AQ against Schistosoma spp. The trial registration number was 3487183.

Keywords: paludisme, schistosomiase, as-aq, enfants lemfu

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16 The Abnormality of Blood Cells Parasitized by Plasmodium vivax

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar, Phiman Thirarattanasunthon, Bhukdee PhunPhuech, Nuoil Phiwklam


Introduction: Malaria due to Plasmodium vivax has placed huge burdens on the health, longevity, and general prosperity of large sections of the human population. This study aimed at prospectively collecting information on the clinical profile of Plasmodium vivax from subjects acutely infected with P. vivax residing in some of the highest malaria transmission regions in Thailand. Methods: A retrospective study of malaria cases, hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and parasitological results on admission, age, and gender were mined from medical records at Phop Phra Hospital located in endemic areas of Tak Province, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of admission to the hospital to determine the present of parasite and also parasite count by thick and thin film examination, and also Complete blood count (CBC) parameters. Results: Results showed that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (276 cases) had a high monocyte count (mean=390 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously lower during later stage (any stage with gametocyte, mean=230 cells/µL) of infection (P value=0.021) whereas, patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had a low basophil count (mean=20 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously higher during later stage of infection (mean at stage with gametocyte=70 cells/µL) (P value=0.033). In addition, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count (mean=1180 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=1350 cells/µL)(P value=0.011) whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count (mean=60 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=80 cells/µL) (P value=0.01). Conclusion: This study indicated that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had high monocyte count and low basophil count during initial stage of infection which was continuously lower during later stage of infection. Patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count than patients with only one stage infection whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count than patients with only one stage infection. This information contributes to better understanding of pathological characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infection.

Keywords: plasmodium vivax, Thailand, asexual erythrocytic stages, hematological parameters

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15 Immunoliposome-Mediated Drug Delivery to Plasmodium-Infected and Non-Infected Red Blood Cells as a Dual Therapeutic/Prophylactic Antimalarial Strategy

Authors: Ernest Moles, Patricia Urbán, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Sara Viera-Morilla, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Maria Antònia Busquets, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets


Bearing in mind the absence of an effective vaccine against malaria and its severe clinical manifestations causing nearly half a million deaths every year, this disease represents nowadays a major threat to life. Besides, the basic rationale followed by currently marketed antimalarial approaches is based on the administration of drugs on their own, promoting the emergence of drug-resistant parasites owing to the limitation in delivering drug payloads into the parasitized erythrocyte high enough to kill the intracellular pathogen while minimizing the risk of causing toxic side effects to the patient. Such dichotomy has been successfully addressed through the specific delivery of immunoliposome (iLP)-encapsulated antimalarials to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBCs). Unfortunately, this strategy has not progressed towards clinical applications, whereas in vitro assays rarely reach drug efficacy improvements above 10-fold. Here, we show that encapsulation efficiencies reaching >96% can be achieved for the weakly basic drugs chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine using the pH gradient active loading method in liposomes composed of neutrally charged, saturated phospholipids. Targeting antibodies are best conjugated through their primary amino groups, adjusting chemical crosslinker concentration to retain significant antigen recognition. Antigens from non-parasitized RBCs have also been considered as targets for the intracellular delivery of drugs not affecting the erythrocytic metabolism. Using this strategy, we have obtained unprecedented nanocarrier targeting to early intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite for which there is a lack of specific extracellular molecular tags. Polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes conjugated with monoclonal antibodies specific for the erythrocyte surface protein glycophorin A (anti-GPA iLP) were capable of targeting 100% RBCs and pRBCs at the low concentration of 0.5 μM total lipid in the culture, with >95% of added iLPs retained into the cells. When exposed for only 15 min to P. falciparum in vitro cultures synchronized at early stages, free CQ had no significant effect over parasite viability up to 200 nM drug, whereas iLP-encapsulated 50 nM CQ completely arrested its growth. Furthermore, when assayed in vivo in P. falciparum-infected humanized mice, anti-GPA iLPs cleared the pathogen below detectable levels at a CQ dose of 0.5 mg/kg. In comparison, free CQ administered at 1.75 mg/kg was, at most, 40-fold less efficient. Our data suggest that this significant improvement in drug antimalarial efficacy is in part due to a prophylactic effect of CQ found by the pathogen in its host cell right at the very moment of invasion.

Keywords: immunoliposomal nanoparticles, malaria, prophylactic-therapeutic polyvalent activity, targeted drug delivery

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14 Distribution of Malaria-Infected Anopheles Mosquitoes in Kudat, Ranau and Tenom of Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Fakhriy Hassan, Rohani Ahmad, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad Ali


In Malaysia, it was realized that while the incidence of human malaria is decreasing, the incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria appears to be on the rise, especially in rural areas of Sabah, East Malaysia. The primary vector for P. knowlesi malaria in Sabah is An. balabacensis a species found abundant in rural areas, shown to rest and feed outdoor throughout the night, which makes its control very challenging. This study aims to examine the distribution of malaria-infected Anopheles mosquitoes in three areas in Sabah, namely Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom, known as areas in Sabah that presented high number of malaria cases. Briefly, mosquitoes were caught every 6 weeks for the period of 18 months using Human Landing Catching (HLC) technique from May 2016 to November 2017. Identification of species was done using microscopy and molecular methods. Molecular method is also used to detect malaria parasite in all mosquito collected. An. balabacensis was present in all the study areas. In Kudat, six other Anopheles species were also detected, namely, An. barumbrosus, An. latens, An. letifer, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus and An. tesselatus. In Ranau five other Anopheles species were detected, namely, An. barumbrosus, An. donaldi., An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. tesselatus while in Tenom seven more species An. donaldi, An. umbrosus, An. barumbrosus, An.latens, An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. tesselatus were detected. This study showed 24% out of 259, 39% out of 127, and 26% out of 265 Anopheles mosquito collected in Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom were detected positive for malaria parasite respectively. In Kudat An. balabacensis, An. barumbrosus, An. latens, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus and An. tesselatus were the six out of eight Anopheles species that were found infected with malaria parasite. All Anopheles species collected in Ranau were positive for malaria while In Tenom, only five out of eight species; An. balabacensus, An. donaldi, An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. latens were detected positive for malaria parasite. Interestingly, for all study areas An. balabacensis was shown to be the only species infected with four malaria species; P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. vivax, and Plasmodium sp. This finding clearly indicates that An. balabacensis is the dominant malaria vector in Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom.

Keywords: Anopheles balabacensis, human landing catching technique, nested PCR, Plasmodium knowlesi, Simian malaria

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13 Malaria Outbreak Facilitated by Appearance of Vector-Breeding Sites after Heavy Rainfall and Inadequate Preventive Measures: Nwoya District, Uganda, March–May 2018

Authors: Godfrey Nsereko, Daniel Kadobera, Denis Okethwangu, Joyce Nguna, Alex Riolexus Ario


Background: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. In April 2018, malaria cases surged in Nwoya District, northern Uganda, exceeding the action thresholds. We investigated to assess the outbreak’s magnitude, identify transmission risk factors, and recommend evidence-based control measures. Methods: We defined a malaria case as onset of fever in a resident of Nwoya District with a positive Rapid Diagnostic Test or microscopy for malaria P. falciparum from 1 February to 22 May 2018. We reviewed medical records in all health facilities of affected sub-counties to find cases. In a case-control study, we compared exposure risk factors between 107 case-persons and 107 asymptomatic controls matched by age and village. We conducted entomological assessment on vector-density and behavior. Results: We identified 3,879 case-persons (attack rate [AR]=6.5%) and 2 deaths (case-fatality rate=5.2/10,000). Females (AR=8.1%) were more affected than males (AR=4.7%). Of all age groups, the 5-18 year age group (AR=8.4%) was most affected. Heavy rain started on 4 March; a propagated outbreak began during the week of 2 April. In the case-control study, 55% (59/107) of case-patients and 18% (19/107) of controls had stagnant water around households for several days following rainfall (ORM-H=5.6, 95%CI=3.0-11); 25% (27/107) of case-patients and 51% (55/107) of controls wore long-sleeve cloths during evening hours (ORM-H=0.30, 95%CI=0.20-0.60); 29% (31/107) of case-patients and 15% (16/107) of controls did not sleep under a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) (ORM-H=2.3, 95%CI=1.1-4.9); 37% (40/107) of case-patients and 52% (56/107) of controls had ≥1 LLIN per 2 household members (ORM-H=0.54, 95%CI=0.30-0.97). Entomological assessment indicated active breeding sites; Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species were the predominant vector. Conclusion: Increased vector breeding sites after heavy rainfall, together with inadequate malaria preventive measures caused this outbreak. We recommended increasing coverage for LLINs and larviciding breeding sites.

Keywords: malaria outbreak, Plasmodium falciparum, global health security, Uganda

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12 Immunosupressive Effect of Chloroquine through the Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase

Authors: J. B. Minari, O. B. Oloyede


Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a crucial role in a variety of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Indeed, the involvement of PMNs in host defence against Plasmodium falciparum is well documented both in vitro and in vivo. Many of the antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine used in the treatment of human malaria significantly reduce the immune response of the host in vitro and in vivo. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme found in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil which plays a crucial role in its function. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme. In investigating the effects of the drug on myeloperoxidase, the influence of concentration, pH, partition ratio estimation and kinetics of inhibition were studied. This study showed that chloroquine is concentration-dependent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase with an IC50 of 0.03 mM. Partition ratio estimation showed that 40 enzymatic turnover cycles are required for complete inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine. The influence of pH on the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme showed significant inhibition of myeloperoxidase at physiological pH. The kinetic inhibition studies showed that chloroquine caused a non-competitive inhibition with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.27mM. The results obtained from this study shows that chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase and it is capable of inactivating the enzyme. It is therefore considered that the inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine as revealed in this study may partly explain the impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and consequent immunosuppression of the host defence system against secondary infections.

Keywords: myeloperoxidase, chloroquine, inhibition, neutrophil, immune

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11 Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria in Surat Thani, Southern Thailand

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Chatree Ratcha, Kwuntida Uthaisar


Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in Thailand. This study, a retrospective data of patients in Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand during 2012-2015 was retrieved and analyzed. These data include demographic data, clinical characteristics and laboratory diagnosis. Statistical analyses were performed to demonstrate the frequency, proportion, data tendency, and group comparisons. Total of 395 malaria patients were found. Most of patients were male (253 cases, 64.1%). Most of patients (262 cases, 66.3%) were admitted at 6 am-11.59 am of the day. Three hundred and fifty-five patients (97.5%) were positive with P. falciparum. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCHC between P. falciparum and P. vivax were significant different (P value<0.05).During 2012-2015, prevalence of malaria was highest in 2013. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were significantly changed among patients with fever ≤ 3 days compared with patients with fever >3 days. This information will guide to understanding pathogenesis and characteristic of malaria infection in Sothern Thailand.

Keywords: prevalence, malaria, Surat Thani, Thailand

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10 Awareness Creation of Benefits of Antitrypsin-Free Nutraceutical Biopowder for Increasing Human Serum Albumin Synthesis as Possible Adjunct for Management of MDRTB or MDRTB-HIV Patients

Authors: Vincent Oghenekevbe Olughor, Olusoji Mayowa Ige


Except for a preexisting liver disease and malnutrition, there are no predilections for low serum albumin (SA) levels in humans. At normal reference levels (4.0-6.0g/dl) SA is a universal marker for mortality and morbidity risks assessments where depletion by 1.0g/dl increases mortality risk by 137% and morbidity by 89%.It has 40 known functions contributing significantly to the sustenance of human life. A depletion in SA to <2.2g/dl, in most clinical settings worldwide, leads to loss of oncotic pressure of blood causing clinical manifestations of bipedal Oedema, in which the patients remain conscious. SA also contributes significantly to buffering of blood to a life-sustaining pH of 7.35-7.45. A drop in blood pH to <6.9 will lead to instant coma and death, which can occur after SA continues to deplete after manifestations of bipedal Oedema. In an intervention study conducted in 2014 following the discovery that “SA is depleted during malaria fever”, a Nutraceutical formulated for use as treatment adjunct to prevent SA depletions during malaria to <2.4g/dl after Efficacy testing was found to be satisfactory. There are five known types of Malaria caused by Apicomplexan parasites, Plasmodium: the most lethal being that caused by Plasmodium falciparum causing malignant tertian malaria, in which the fever was occurring every 48 hours coincides with the dumping of malaria-toxins (Hemozoin) into blood, causing contamination: blood must remain sterile. Other Apicomplexan parasites, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium, are opportunistic infections of HIV. Separate studies showed SA depletions in MDRTB (multidrug resistant TB), and MDRTB-HIV patients by the same mechanism discovered with malaria and such depletions will be further complicated whenever Apicomplexan parasitic infections co-exist. Both Apicomplexan parasites and the TB parasite belong to the Obligate-group of Parasites, which are parasites that replicate only inside its host; and most of them have capacities to over-consume host nutrients during parasitaemia. In MDRTB patients the body attempts repeatedly to prevent depletions in SA to critical levels in the presence of adequate nutrients and only for a while in MDRTB-HIV patients. These groups of patients will, therefore, benefit from the already tested Nutraceutical in malaria patients. The Nutraceutical bio-Powder was formulated (to BP 1988 specification) from twelve nature-based food-grade nutrients containing all dedicated nutrients for ensuring improved synthesis of Albumin by the liver. The Nutraceutical was administered daily for 38±2days in 23 children, in a prospective phase-2 clinical trial, and its impact on body weight and core blood parameters were documented at the start and end of efficacy testing period. Sixteen children who did not experience malaria-induced depletions of SA had significant SA increase; seven children who experienced malaria-induced depletions of SA had insignificant SA decrease. The Packed Cell Volume Percentage (PCV %), a measure of the Oxygen carrying capacity of blood and the amount of nutrients the body can absorb, increased in both groups. The total serum proteins (SA+ Globulins) increased or decreased within the continuum of normal. In conclusion, MDRTB and MDRTB-HIV patients will benefit from a variant of this Nutraceutical when used as treatment adjunct.

Keywords: antitrypsin-free Nutraceutical, apicomplexan parasites, no predilections for low serum albumin, toxoplasmosis

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9 The Potential of Ursolic Acid Acetate as an Agent for Malarial Chemotherapy

Authors: Mthokozisi B. C. Simelane


Despite the various efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed at eradicating the disease, malaria is said to kill a child every 30 seconds. Traditional healers use different concoctions prepared from medicinal plants to treat malaria. In the quest to bio-prospect plant-derived triterpenes for anti-malaria activity, we report here the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ursolic acid acetate (ursolic acid isolated from dichloromethane extract of Mimusops caffra was chemically modified to its acetate derivative). The transdermal administration of ursolic acid acetate (UAA) dose dependently showed complete inhibition of the parasites’ growth at the highest concentration of 400 mg/kg after 15 days of Plasmodium berghei infection. UAA prevented the in vitro aggregation of MDH but did not prevent the expression of PfHsp 70 in E. coli XL1 blue cells. It, however, enhanced PfHsp70 ATPase activity with the specific activity of 65 units (amount of phosphate released 73.83 nmolPi/ Ursolic acid acetate prevented the formation of hemozoin (60 ± 0.02% at 6 mg/ml). The results suggest that Ursolic acid acetate possesses potential anti-malaria properties.

Keywords: Mimusops caffra, ursolic acid acetate, hemozoin, Malaria

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8 Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies on Chiral Chloroquine Analogues as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: Srinivasarao Kondaparla, Utsab Debnath, Awakash Soni, Vasantha Rao Dola, Manish Sinha, Kumkum Kumkum Srivastava, Sunil K. Puri, Seturam B. Katti


In a focused exploration, we have designed synthesized and biologically evaluated chiral conjugated new chloroquine (CQ) analogs with substituted piperazines as antimalarial agents. In vitro as well as in vivo studies revealed that compound 7c showed potent activity [for in vitro IC₅₀= 56.98nM (3D7), 97.76nM (K1); for in vivo (up to at the dose of 12.5 mg/kg); SI = 3510] as a new lead of antimalarial agent. Other compounds 6b, 6d, 7d, 7h, 8c, 8d, 9a, and 9c are also showing moderate activity against CQ-sensitive (3D7) strain and superior activity against resistant (K1) strain of P. falciparum. Furthermore, we have carried out docking and 3D-QSAR studies of all in-house data sets (168 molecules) of chiral CQ analogs to explain the structure activity relationships (SAR). Our new findings specified the significance of H-bond interaction with the side chain of heme for biological activity. In addition, the 3D-QSAR study against 3D7 strain indicated the favorable and unfavorable sites of CQ analogs for incorporating steric, hydrophobic and electropositive groups to improve the antimalarial activity.

Keywords: piperazines, CQ-sensitive strain-3D7, in-vitro and in-vivo assay, docking, 3D-QSAR

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7 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal


Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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6 Malaria Management among Dispensers in Drug Retail Outlets in Buea Community: An Assessment of Knowledge of Malaria and Antimalarial Drug Prescription and Dispensing Practices

Authors: Marcelus U. Ajonina, Deodata B. Ngonga, Kenric B. Ware, Carine K. Nfor


Background: Lack of knowledge of rational use of antimalarial drugs among dispensers is a serious problem, especially in areas of intense transmission, thus increasing the risk of resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of malaria as well as perception and dispensing practices of antimalarials among vendors in Buea community. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 drug vendors living within the Buea community was conducted between March and June 2017. A questionnaire was designed to obtain information from drug vendors on the general knowledge of malaria as well as dispensing practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20.0 and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Knowledge of malaria symptoms, transmission, and prevention was reasonable among 55.8% (77) of the respondents. Only 33.6% (47) of the respondents could attribute the cause of malaria to protozoan of genus Plasmodium species. Of the 140 vendors, 115 (82.7%) prescribe antimalarial drugs. The knowledge of the national protocol was malaria case management among dispensers was 35.0%. Vendors in hospital/community pharmacies were 2.4 times (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 4.14 - 8.74, p < 0.001) more knowledgeable about malaria treatment protocol than those of in drugstores. The prevalence of self-prescription of antimalarials was 39.3%. Self-prescription was significantly higher in drugstores than hospital/community pharmacies (p=0.004). In all, 56 (40.6%) of vendors showed good practices regarding antimalarial drug dispensing with the majority (51.7%) from community pharmacies (OR=2.27,95% CI: 1.13-4.56). Conclusion: Findings reveal moderate knowledge of malaria but poor prescription and dispensing practices of antimalarial drugs among vendors, thus indicating a need for routine monitoring and evaluation to prevent the emergence of resistant strains to current efficacious antimalarials.

Keywords: antimalarials, drug retail outlets, dispensing, drug resistance, prescription

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5 Infused Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Organs Morphology in Cerebral Malaria Infection

Authors: Reva Sharan Thakur, Mrinalini Tiwari, Jyoti das


Cerebral malaria-associated over expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines ultimately results in the up-regulation of adhesion molecules in the brain endothelium leading to sequestration of mature parasitized RBCs in the brain. The high-parasitic load subsequently results in increased mortality or development of neurological symptoms within a week of infection. Studies in the human and experimental cerebral malaria have implicated the breakdown of the integrity of blood-brain barrier during the lethal course of infection, cerebral dysfunction, and fatal organ pathologies that result in multi-organ failure. In the present study, using Plasmodium berghei Anka as a mouse model and in vitro conditions, we have investigated the effect of MSCs to attenuate cerebral malaria pathogenesis by diminishing the effect of inflammation altered organ morphology, reduced parasitemia, and increased survival of the mice. MSCs are also validated for their role in preventing BBB dysfunction and reducing malarial toxins. It was observed that administration of MSCs significantly reduced parasitemia and increased survival in Pb A infected mice. It was further demonstrated that MSCs play a significant role in reversing neurological complexities associated with cerebral malaria. Infusion of MSCs in infected mice decreased hemozoin deposition; oedema, and haemorrhagic lesions in vascular organs. MSCs administration also preserved the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reduced neural inflammation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of MSCs as an emerging anti-malarial candidate.

Keywords: cerebral malaria, mesenchymal stem cells, erythropoesis, cell death

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4 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Younus, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Sanan Raza, Amar Nasir


Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: dengue fever, blood, serum, malaria, ELISA

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3 NMR-Based Metabolomic Study of Antimalarial Plant Species Used Traditionally by Vha-Venda People in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Johanna Bapela, Heino Heyman, Marion Meyer


Regardless of the significant advances accomplished in reducing the burden of malaria and other tropical diseases in recent years, malaria remains a major cause of mortality in endemic countries. This is especially the case in sub-Saharan Africa where 99% of the estimated global malaria deaths occurs on an annual basis. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium species and the lack of diversified chemotherapeutic agents provide the rationale for bioprospecting for antiplasmodial scaffolds. Crude extracts from twenty indigenous antimalarial plant species were screened for antimalarial activity and then subjected to 1H NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Ten plant extracts exhibited significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 ≤ 5 µg/ml). The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the acquired 1H NMR spectra could not separate the analyzed plant extracts according to the detected antiplasmodial bioactivity. Application of supervised Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to the 1H NMR profiles resulted in a discrimination pattern that could be correlated to bioactivity. A contribution plot generated from the OPLS-DA scoring plot illustrated the classes of compounds responsible for the observed grouping. Given the preliminary in vitro results, Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf. (Apocynaceae) and Vangueria infausta Burch. subsp. infausta (Rubiaceae) were subjected to further phytochemical investigations. Two indole alkaloids, dregamine and tabernaemontanine possessing antiplasmodial activity were isolated from T. elegans. Two compounds were isolated from V. infausta subsp. infausta and identified as friedelin (IC50 = 3.01 µg/ml) and morindolide (IC50 = 18.5 µg/ml). While these compounds have been previously identified, this is the first account of their occurrence in the genus Vangueria and their antiplasmodial activity. Based on the results of the study, metabolomics can be used to globally identify classes of plant secondary metabolites that are responsible for antiplasmodial activity.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, Malaria, medicinal plants, metabolomics

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