Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: carrot

37 Alternative Animal Feed Additive Obtain with Different Drying Methods from Carrot Unsuitable for Human Consumption

Authors: Rabia Göçmen, Gülşah Kanbur, Sinan Sefa Parlat


This study was conducted to determine that carrot powder obtain by different drying methods (oven and vacuum-freeze dryer) of carrot unfit for human consumption that whether feed additives in animal nutrition or not. Carrots randomly divided 2 groups. First group was dried by using oven, second group was by using vacuum freeze dryer methods. Dried carrot prepared from fresh carrot was analysed nutrient matter (energy, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, beta carotene, mineral concentration and colour). The differences between groups in terms of energy, crude protein, ash, Ca and Mg was not significant (P> 0,05). Crude oil, P, beta carotene content and colour values (L, a, b) with vacuum-freeze dryer group was greater than oven group (P<0,05). Consequently, carrot powder obtained by drying the vacuum-freeze dryer method can be used as a source of carotene.

Keywords: carrot, vacuum freeze dryer, oven, beta carotene

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
36 The Effect of Ultrasound on Permeation Flux and Changes in Blocking Mechanisms during Dead-End Microfiltration of Carrot Juice

Authors: A. Hemmati, H. Mirsaeedghazi, M. Aboonajmi


Carrot juice is one of the most nutritious foods that are consumed around the world. Large particles in carrot juice causing turbid appearance make some problems in the concentration process such as off-flavor due to the large particles burnt on the walls of evaporators. Microfiltration (MF) is a pressure driven membrane separation method that can clarify fruit juices without enzymatic treatment. Fouling is the main problem in the membrane process causing reduction of permeate flux. Ultrasound as a cleaning technique was applied at 20 kHz to reduce fouling in membrane clarification of carrot juice using dead-end MF system with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Results showed that application of ultrasound waves reduce diphasic characteristic of carrot juice and permeate flux increased. Evaluation of different membrane fouling mechanisms showed that application of ultrasound waves changed creation time of each fouling mechanism. Also, its behavior was changed with varying transmembrane pressure.

Keywords: Carrot juice, Dead end, Microfiltration, Ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
35 The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Bioactive Compounds of Freeze-Dried Carrots

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz


Although drying is one of the most prevalent techniques applied to enhance food stability, it is a complicated method covering simultaneous coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena and the theoretical application of these phenomena to food products becomes challenging because of the complex structure and to the physical and chemical changes that happen at drying. Pretreatment of materials before drying has been shown to be effective in solving drying problems such as long drying times and poor product quality. The study was conducted to examine the effect of ultrasound (US) pre-treatment on physical and chemical/nutritional attributes of freeze-dried carrot slices. The carrots were washed, hand-peeled, and cut with dimensions of 1 cm (L) x 0.2 (W) cm x 1 cm (H). The carrot samples were treated in an ultrasonic bath in two different times, which were 15 and 30 minutes. Untreated and ultrasound pre-treated carrot samples were dried in a freeze dryer. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed in terms of bioactive compounds, including total phenols, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity. Significant differences were found among dried carrot samples with and without ultrasound. The freeze-dried carrot slices treated with a US (especially 30 minutes - treatment) showed higher preservation of bioactive compounds. In overall, US pretreatment is a promising process, as demonstrated in current research by its capability to better retain freeze-dried carrot quality.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, carrot, freeze drying, ultrasound-pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
34 Evaluation of Storage Stability and Quality Parameters in Biscuit Made from Blends of Wheat, Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour

Authors: Aminat. O Adelekan, Olawale T. Gbadebo


Biscuit is one of the most consumed cereal foods in Nigeria and research has shown that locally available tropical crops like cassava, sweet potato can be made into flour and used in the production of biscuits and other pastries. This study investigates some quality parameters in biscuits made from blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour. The values of result of samples increased with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour in some quality parameter like fiber, ash, gluten content, and carbohydrate. The protein content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour which ranged from 14.80% to 11.80% compared with the control sample which had 15.60%. There was a recorded significant increase (P < 0.05) in some mineral composition such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamin A and C composition as the percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour increased. During storage stability test, samples stored in the fridge and freezer were found to be the best storage location to preserve the sensory attributes and inhibit microbial growth when compared with storage under the sun and on the shelf. Biscuit made with blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour can therefore serve as an alternative to biscuits made from 100% wheat flour, as they are richer in vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and some essential minerals.

Keywords: biscuit, carrot, flour blends, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
33 Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana R. B. Figueiredo, Paula M. R. Correia, Fernando J. Gonçalves


The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial analysis that revealed that the bean, apple and cinnamon jam was globally better accepted. However, with this study, the consumers determined that the bean and carrot jam had the most attractive color and the bean and apple jam the better consistency. Additionally, it was possible to analyze the jams for their chemical components, namely fat, fiber, protein, sugars and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the bean and carrot jam had the highest lipid content, while the bean, apple and cinnamon jam had the highest fiber content, when compared to the other two jams. Regarding the sugar content, both jams with apple revealed similar sugar values, which were higher than the sugar content of the bean and carrot jam. The antioxidant activity was on average 10 mg TE/g.

Keywords: Bean jam, chemical composition, sensorial analysis, product acceptability

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
32 Chemical Modifications of Carotol and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Dalvir Kataria, Khushminder Kaur Chahal, Amit Kumar


The carrot seed essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol solvents were used for extraction of carrot seed by Soxhlet extraction methods. The major and minor compounds identified in carrot seed essential oil were carotol (52.73), daucol (5.10), daucene (5.68), (E)-β-farnesene (5.40), β-cubebene (3.19), longifolenaldehyde (3.23), β-elimene (3.23), (E)-caryophyllene (1.22), β-bisabolene (2.95) etc. The chemical composition of hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts was different. Carotol was the common compound present. Major compounds isolated were from the carrot seed essential oil by column chromatography. Chemical transformations of carotol (2) with mercuric acetate/sodium borohydride, dry hydrochloric acid gas, acetonitrile/sulfuric acid, selenium dioxide/t-butyl hydrogen peroxide, N-bromosuccinimide, hydrogen iodide, and phenol were carried out. The derivatives of carotol were designed to explore the significance of some structural modifications in relation to antioxidant activities. The structures of major compounds and derivatives were confirmed on the basis of FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity of carrot seed essential oil, various extracts and isolated compounds were tested by in vitro models involving 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl (OH•), nitric oxide (NO•), superoxide radical scavenging methods and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Chemical transformations of major isolated compound carotol were carried out, and antioxidant activity of all compounds was undertaken. The major sesquiterpenoidcarotol isolated from carrot seed essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity in all the methods. The methanol extract showed higher antioxidant potential as compared to carrot seed essential oil, hexane, and dichloromethane extracts.

Keywords: antioxidant, carotol, carrot, DPPH

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
31 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun


Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
30 Carrot: A Possible Source of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Transmission

Authors: M. Dahiru, O. I. Enabulele


The research wish to investigate the occurrence of multidrug- resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of carrot in its transmission, in a rapidly growing urban population. Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater irrigation farms and analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates tested against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively. Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A. baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and co-trimoxazole, were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from 37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs tested. There was a similarity in the resistant shown by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones drugs and β- lactame drugs families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Interestingly, when resistant similarities to different antibiotics were compared for A. baumannii and A. lwoffii as a whole, significant correlation was observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%) respectively, and high multi drug resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and overall MDR of 42.11% in all isolates. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.

Keywords: urban agriculture, public health, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, multidrug-resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
29 A Combined Deep Learning and Distance Transform- based Strategy for Carrot Yield Prediction on UAV Images

Authors: Oumaima EL Mansouri, paul Charnay, Grégoire Dupre


This is paper introduces a new method for carrot yield prediction (CaYi), using imagery provided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Carrots are one of the most economically important vegetables in the world because of their importance to food security and their dietary benefits to humans. Accurate yield estimation is important for all crop industries to support better decisionmaking for crop management, labor requirements, storage, transportation, and marketing hence the importance of carrot yield prediction. The proposed method CaYi aims at combining a distance transform-based method and a deep learning approach. It starts with a pixel-based segmentation algorithm to restrict the analysis to the crop pixels, which has been shown to generally improve crop yield forecasting ability. Then, a map distance is computed using the transform distance, and the local maxima are estimated to detect centers of carrot plants. Given that carrot crops are organized in rows, we propose a crop row detection method based on the random Hough transform to simplify the separation between weeds and carrot plants. Finally, the resulting labeled images are used to train a Faster R-CNN object detection model. The accuracy and the interest of this method are shown quantitatively and qualitatively via evaluations of UAV images. We deployed this method on a 50-hectare field and compared the density maps with a manual counting on several regions of the field.

Keywords: crop yield, deep learning, image segmentation, precision agriculture, random hough transform

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28 Extraction and Encapsulation of Carotenoids from Carrot

Authors: Gordana Ćetković, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Vanja Šeregelj, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić


The color of food is one of the decisive factors for consumers. Potential toxicity of artificial food colorants has led to the consumers' preference for natural products over products with artificial colors. Natural pigments have many bioactive functions, such as antioxidant, provitamin and many other. Having this in mind, the acceptability of natural colorants by the consumers is much higher. Being present in all photosynthetic plant tissues carotenoids are probably most widespread pigments in nature. Carrot (Daucus carota) is a good source of functional food components. Carrot is especially rich in carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotene and lutein. For this study, carrot was extracted using classical extraction with hexane and ethyl acetate, as well as supercritical CO₂ extraction. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by estimation of carotenoid yield determined spectrophotometrically. Classical extraction using hexane (18.27 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) was the most efficient method for isolation of carotenoids, compared to ethyl acetate classical extraction (15.73 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) and supercritical CO₂ extraction (0.19 mg β-carotene/100 g DM). Three carrot extracts were tested in terms of antioxidant activity using DPPH and reducing power assay as well. Surprisingly, ethyl acetate extract had the best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals (AADPPH=120.07 μmol TE/100 g) while hexane extract showed the best reducing power (RP=1494.97 μmol TE/100 g). Hexane extract was chosen as the most potent source of carotenoids and was encapsulated in whey protein by freeze-drying. Carotenoid encapsulation efficiency was found to be high (89.33%). Based on our results it can be concluded that carotenoids from carrot can be efficiently extracted using hexane and classical extraction method. This extract has the potential to be applied in encapsulated form due to high encapsulation efficiency and coloring capacity. Therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: carotenoids, carrot, extraction, encapsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
27 Study on Preparation and Storage of Jam Incorporating Carrots (Dacus Carrota), Banana (Musa Acuminata) and Lime (Citrus Aurantifola)

Authors: K. Premakumar, D. S. Rushani, H. N. Hettiarachchi


The production and consumption of preserved foods have gained much importance due to globalization, and they provide a health benefit apart from the basic nutritional functions. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop a jam incorporating carrot, banana, and lime. Considering the findings of several preliminary studies, five formulations of the jam were prepared by blending different percentages of carrot and banana including control (where the only carrot was added). The freshly prepared formulations were subjected to physicochemical and sensory analysis.Physico-Chemical parameters such as pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total sugar and non-reducing sugar and organoleptic qualities such as colour, aroma, taste, spread ability and overall acceptability and microbial analysis (total plate count) were analyzed after formulations. Physico-Chemical Analysis of the freshly prepared Carrot –Banana Blend jam showed increasing trend in titrable acidity (from 0.8 to 0.96, as % of citric acid), TSS (from 70.05 to 67.5 0Brix), ascorbic acid content (from 0.83 to 11.465 mg/100ml), reducing sugar (from 15.64 to 20.553%) with increase in carrot pulp from 50 to 100%. pH, total sugar, and non-reducing sugar were also reduced when carrot concentration is increased. Five points hedonic scale was used to evaluate the organoleptic characters. According to Duncan's Multiple Range Test, the mean scores for all the assessed sensory characters varied significantly (p<0.05) in the freshly made carrot-banana blend jam formulations. Based on the physicochemical and sensory analysis, the most preferred carrot: banana combinations of 50:50, 100:0 and 80:20 (T1, T2, and T5) were selected for storage studies.The formulations were stored at 300 °C room temperature and 70-75% of RH for 12 weeks. The physicochemical characteristics were measured at two weeks interval during storage. The decreasing trends in pH and ascorbic acid and an increasing trend in TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar were noted with advancement of storage periods of 12 weeks. The results of the chemical analysis showed that there were significance differences (p<0.05) between the tested formulations. Sensory evaluation was done for carrot –banana blends jam after a period of 12 weeks through a panel of 16 semi-trained panelists. The sensory analysis showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) for organoleptic characters between carrot-banana blend jam formulations. The highest overall acceptability was observed in formulation with 80% carrot and 20% banana pulp. Microbiological Analysis was carried out on the day of preparation, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months after preparation. No bacterial growth was observed in the freshly made carrot -banana blend jam. There were no counts of yeast and moulds and coliforms in all treatments after the heat treatments and during the storage period. Only the bacterial counts (Total Plate Counts) were observed after three months of storage below the critical level, and all formulations were microbiologically safe for consumption. Based on the results of physio-chemical characteristics, sensory attributes, and microbial test, the carrot –banana blend jam with 80% carrot and 20% banana (T2) was selected as best formulation and could be stored up to 12 weeks without any significant changes in the quality characteristics.

Keywords: formulations, physicochemical parameters, microbiological analysis, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
26 Evaluation of Visco-Elastic Properties and Microbial Quality of Oat-Based Dietetic Food

Authors: Uchegbu Nneka Nkechi, Okoye Ogochukwu Peace


The evaluation of the visco-elastic properties and microbial quality of a formulated oat-based dietetic food were investigated. Oat flour, pumpkin seed flour, carrot flour and skimmed milk powder were blended in varying proportions to formulate a product with codes OCF, which contains 70% oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 10% skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 65 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 15 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 60 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 20 % skimmed milk powder, OCF which contains 55 % oat flour, 10 % carrot flour, 10 % pumpkin seed flour and 25 % skimmed milk powder and OF with 95 % oat as the commercial control. All the samples were assessed for their proximate composition, microbial quality and visco-elastic properties. The moisture content was highest at sample OF (10.73%) and lowest at OCF (7.10%) (P<0.05). Crude protein ranged from 13.38%-22.86%, with OCF having the highest (P<0.05) protein content and OF having the lowest. Crude fat was 3.74% for OCF and 6.31% for OF. Crude fiber ranged from 3.58% - 17.39% with OF having the lowest (P<0.05) fiber content and OCF having the highest. Ash content was 1.30% for OCF and 2.75% for OCF. There was no mold growth in the samples. The total viable ml/wl count ranged from 1.5×10³ cfu/g - 2.6×10³ cfu/g, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest (P<0.05) total viable count. The peak viscosity of the sample ranged from 75.00 cP-2895.00 cP, with OCF having the lowest and OF having the highest value. The final viscosity was 130.50 cP in OCF and 3572.50 cP in OF. The setback viscosity was 58.00 cP in OCF and 1680.50 cP in OF. The peak time was 6.93 mins in OCF to 5.57 mins in OF. There was no pasting temperature for all samples except the OF, which had 86.43. Sample OF was the highest in terms of overall acceptability. This study showed that the oat-based composite flour produced had a nutritional profile that would be acceptable for the aged population.

Keywords: dietetic, pumpkin, visco-elastic, microbial

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
25 Effect of Poultry Manure and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (15:15:15) Soil Amendment on Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota)

Authors: Benjamin Osae Agyei, Hypolite Bayor


This present experiment was carried out during the 2012 cropping season, at the Farming for the Future Experimental Field of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala Campus in the Northern Region of Ghana. The objective of the experiment was to determine the carrot growth and yield responses to poultry manure and N.P.K (15:15:15). Six treatments (Control (no amendment), 20 t/ha poultry manure (PM), 40 t/ha PM, 70 t/ha PM, 35 t/ha PM + 0.11t/ha N.P.K and 0.23 t/ha N.P.K) with three replications for each were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, canopy spread, root diameter, root weight, and root length. Microsoft Excel and Genstat Statistical Package (9th edition) were used for the data analysis. The treatment means were compared by using Least Significant Difference at 10%. Generally, the results showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.1) among the treatments with respect to number of leaves per plant, root diameter, root weight, and root length. However, significant differences occurred among plant heights and canopy spreads. Plant height treated with 40 t/ha PM at the fourth week after planting and canopy spread at eight weeks after planting and ten weeks after planting by 70 t/ha PM and 20 t/ha PM respectively showed significant difference (P<0.1). The study recommended that any of the amended treatments can be applied at their recommended rates to plots for carrot production, since there were no significant differences among the treatments.

Keywords: poultry manure, N.P.K., soil amendment, growth, yield, carrot

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24 Investigation of Green Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Natural Dyes

Authors: M. Hosseinnezhad, K. Gharanjig


Natural dyes, extracted from black carrot and bramble, were utilized as photosensitizers to prepare dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Spectrophotometric studies of the natural dyes in solution and on a titanium dioxide substrate were carried out in order to assess changes in the status of the dyes. The results show that the bathochromic shift is seen on the photo-electrode substrate. The chemical binding of the natural dyes at the surface photo-electrode were increased by the chelating effect of the Ti(IV) ions. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that all extracts are suitable to be performed in DSSCs. Finally, photochemical performance and stability of DSSCs based on natural dyes were studied. The DSSCs sensitized by black carrot extract have been reported to achieve up to Jsc=1.17 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.55 V, FF= 0.52, η=0.34%, whereas Bramble extract can obtain up to Jsc=2.24 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.54 V, FF= 0.57, η=0.71%. The power conversion efficiency was obtained from the mixed dyes in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using mixed Black carrot and Bramble dye is the average of the their efficiency in single DSSCs.

Keywords: anthocyanin, dye-sensitized solar cells, green energy, optical materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
23 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Faith Semwayo


Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, nanoparticles, tomato, carrot

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22 The Effects of Food Matrix and Different Excipient Foods on β-Carotene Bioaccessibility in Carrots

Authors: Birgul Hizlar, Sibel Karakaya


Nowadays, consumers are more and more aware of the benefits beyond basic nutrition provided by food and food compounds. Between these, carotenoids have been demonstrated to exhibit multiple health benefits (for example, some types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, among others). However, carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability is generally rather low due to their specific localization in plant tissue and lipophilic nature. This situation is worldwide issue, since both developed and developing countries have their interest and benefits in increasing the uptake of carotenoids from the human diet. Recently, a new class of foods designed to improve the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds is introduced: excipient foods. Excipient foods are specially designed foods which are prepared depending on the physicochemical properties of target bioactive compounds and increasing the bioavailability or bioaccessibility of bioactive compound. In this study, effects of food matrix (greating, boiling and mashing) and different excipient foods (olive oil, lemon juice, whey curd and dried artichoke leaf powder) on bioaccessibility of β-carotene in carrot were investigated by means of simulating in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. β-carotene contents of grated, boiled and mashed (after boiling process) carrots were 79.28, 147.63 and 151.19 μg/g respectively. No significant differences among boiled and mashed samples indicated that mashing process had no effect on the release of β-carotene from the food matrix (p > 0.05). On the contrary, mashing causes significant increase in the β-carotene bioaccessibility (p < 0.05). The highest β-carotene content was found in the mashed carrots incorporated with olive oil and lemon juice (C2). However, no significant differences between that sample and C1 (mashed carrot with lemon juice, olive oil, dried artichoke leaf powder), C3 (mashed carrot with addition of olive oil, lemon juice, whey curd) and). Similarly, the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility (50.26%) was found mashed C3 sample (p < 0.05). The increase in the bioaccessibility was approximately 5 fold and 50 fold when compared to grated and mashed samples containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. The results demonstrate that both, food matrix and excipient foods, are able to increase the bioaccessibility of β-carotene.

Keywords: bioaccessibility, carotenoids, carrot, β-carotene

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
21 Medium-Scale Multi-Juice Extractor for Food Processing

Authors: Flordeliza L. Mercado, Teresito G. Aguinaldo, Helen F. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan


Most fruits and vegetables are available in large quantities during peak season which are oftentimes marketed at low price and left to rot or fed to farm animals. The lack of efficient storage facilities, and the additional cost and unavailability of small machinery for food processing, results to low price and wastage. Incidentally, processed fresh fruits and vegetables are gaining importance nowadays and health conscious people are also into ‘juicing’. One way to reduce wastage and ensure an all-season availability of crop juices at reasonable costs is to develop equipment for effective extraction of juice. The study was conducted to design, fabricate and evaluate a multi-juice extractor using locally available materials, making it relatively cheaper and affordable for medium-scale enterprises. The study was also conducted to formulate juice blends using extracted juices and calamansi juice at different blending percentage, and evaluate its chemical properties and sensory attributes. Furthermore, the chemical properties of extracted meals were evaluated for future applications. The multi-juice extractor has an overall dimension of 963mm x 300mm x 995mm, a gross weight of 82kg and 5 major components namely; feeding hopper, extracting chamber, juice and meal outlet, transmission assembly, and frame. The machine performance was evaluated based on juice recovery, extraction efficiency, extraction rate, extraction recovery, and extraction loss considering type of crop as apple and carrot with three replications each and was analyzed using T-test. The formulated juice blends were subjected to sensory evaluation and data gathered were analyzed using Analysis of Variance appropriate for Complete Randomized Design. Results showed that the machine’s juice recovery (73.39%), extraction rate (16.40li/hr), and extraction efficiency (88.11%) for apple were significantly higher than for carrot while extraction recovery (99.88%) was higher for apple than for carrot. Extraction loss (0.12%) was lower for apple than for carrot, but was not significantly affected by crop. Based on adding percentage mark-up on extraction cost (Php 2.75/kg), the breakeven weight and payback period for a 35% mark-up is 4,710.69kg and 1.22 years, respectively and for a 50% mark-up, the breakeven weight is 3,492.41kg and the payback period is 0.86 year (10.32 months). Results on the sensory evaluation of juice blends showed that the type of juice significantly influenced all the sensory parameters while the blending percentage including their respective interaction, had no significant effect on all sensory parameters, making the apple-calamansi juice blend more preferred than the carrot-calamansi juice blend in terms of all the sensory parameter. The machine’s performance is higher for apple than for carrot and the cost analysis on the use of the machine revealed that it is financially viable with a payback period of 1.22 years (35% mark-up) and 0.86 year (50% mark-up) for machine cost, generating an income of Php 23,961.60 and Php 34,444.80 per year using 35% and 50% mark-up, respectively. The juice blends were of good qualities based on the values obtained in the chemical analysis and the extracted meal could also be used to produce another product based on the values obtained from proximate analysis.

Keywords: food processing, fruits and vegetables, juice extraction, multi-juice extractor

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20 Morphology Analysis of Apple-Carrot Juice Treated by Manothermosonication (MTS) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Processes

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Manothermosonication (MTS), which consists of the simultaneous application of heat and ultrasound under moderate pressure (100-700 kPa), is one of the technologies which destroy microorganisms and inactivates enzymes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through it. The environmental scanning electron microscope or ESEM is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that allows for the option of collecting electron micrographs of specimens that are "wet," uncoated. These microscopy techniques allow us to observe the processing effects on the samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MTS and HTST treatments on the morphology of apple-carrot juices by using TEM and ESEM microscopy. Apple-carrot juices treated with HTST (72 0C, 15 s), MTS 50 °C (60 s, 200 kPa), and MTS 60 °C (30 s, 200 kPa) were observed in both ESEM and TEM microscopy. For TEM analysis, a drop of the solution dispersed in fixative solution was put onto a Parafilm ® sheet. The copper coated side of the TEM sample holder grid was gently laid on top of the droplet and incubated for 15 min. A drop of a 7% uranyl acetate solution was added and held for 2 min. The grid was then removed from the droplet and allowed to dry at room temperature and presented into the TEM. For ESEM analysis, a critical point drying of the filters was performed using a critical point dryer (CPD) (Samdri PVT- 3D, Tousimis Research Corp., Rockville, MD, USA). After the CPD, each filter was mounted onto a stub and coated with gold/palladium with a sputter coater (Desk II TSC Denton Vacuum, Moorestown, NJ, USA). E.Coli O157:H7 cells on the filters were observed with an ESEM (Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG, FEI Co., Eindhoven, The Netherland). ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) images showed extensive damage for the samples treated with MTS at 50 and 60 °C such as ruptured cells and breakage on cell membranes. The damage was increasing with increasing exposure time.

Keywords: MTS, HTST, ESEM, TEM, E.COLI O157:H7

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19 Validation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation on Apple-Carrot Juice Treated with Manothermosonication by Kinetic Models

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Several models such as Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear, and Log-logistic models have been proposed in order to describe non-linear inactivation kinetics and used to fit non-linear inactivation data of several microorganisms for inactivation by heat, high pressure processing or pulsed electric field. First-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) have often been used in order to identify microbial inactivation by non-thermal processing methods such as ultrasound. Most ultrasonic inactivation studies employed first-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) in order to describe the reduction on microbial survival count. This study was conducted to analyze the E. coli O157:H7 inactivation data by using five microbial survival models (First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic). First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic kinetic models were used for fitting inactivation curves of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The residual sum of squares and the total sum of squares criteria were used to evaluate the models. The statistical indices of the kinetic models were used to fit inactivation data for E. coli O157:H7 by MTS at three temperatures (40, 50, and 60 0C) and three pressures (100, 200, and 300 kPa). Based on the statistical indices and visual observations, the Weibull and Biphasic models were best fitting of the data for MTS treatment as shown by high R2 values. The non-linear kinetic models, including the Modified Gompertz, First-order, and Log-logistic models did not provide any better fit to data from MTS compared the Weibull and Biphasic models. It was observed that the data found in this study did not follow the first-order kinetics. It is possibly because of the cells which are sensitive to ultrasound treatment were inactivated first, resulting in a fast inactivation period, while those resistant to ultrasound were killed slowly. The Weibull and biphasic models were found as more flexible in order to determine the survival curves of E. coli O157:H7 treated by MTS on apple-carrot juice.

Keywords: Weibull, Biphasic, MTS, kinetic models, E.coli O157:H7

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18 Carotenoid Bioaccessibility: Effects of Food Matrix and Excipient Foods

Authors: Birgul Hizlar, Sibel Karakaya


Recently, increasing attention has been given to carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the field of nutrition research. As a consequence of their lipophilic nature and their specific localization in plant-based tissues, carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability is generally quite low in raw fruits and vegetables, since carotenoids need to be released from the cellular matrix and incorporated in the lipid fraction during digestion before being absorbed. Today’s approach related to improving the bioaccessibility is to design food matrix. Recently, the newest approach, excipient food, has been introduced to improve the bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds. The main idea is combining food and another food (the excipient food) whose composition and/or structure is specifically designed for improving health benefits. In this study, effects of food processing, food matrix and the addition of excipient foods on the carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrots were determined. Different excipient foods (olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd) and different food matrices (grating, boiling and mashing) were used. Total carotenoid contents of the grated, boiled and mashed carrots were 57.23, 51.11 and 62.10 μg/g respectively. No significant differences among these values indicated that these treatments had no effect on the release of carotenoids from the food matrix. Contrary to, changes in the food matrix, especially mashing caused significant increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility. Although the carotenoid bioaccessibility was 10.76% in grated carrots, this value was 18.19% in mashed carrots (p<0.05). Addition of olive oil and lemon juice as excipients into the grated carrots caused 1.23 times and 1.67 times increase in the carotenoid content and the carotenoid bioaccessibility respectively. However, addition of the excipient foods in the boiled carrot samples did not influence the release of carotenoid from the food matrix. Whereas, up to 1.9 fold increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility was determined by the addition of the excipient foods into the boiled carrots. The bioaccessibility increased from 14.20% to 27.12% by the addition of olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. The highest carotenoid content among mashed carrots was found in the mashed carrots incorporated with olive oil and lemon juice. This combination also caused a significant increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility from 18.19% to 29.94% (p<0.05). When compared the results related with the effect of the treatments on the carotenoid bioaccessibility, mashed carrots containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd had the highest carotenoid bioaccessibility. The increase in the bioaccessibility was approximately 81% when compared to grated and mashed samples containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the food matrix and addition of the excipient foods had a significant effect on the carotenoid content and the carotenoid bioaccessibility.

Keywords: carrot, carotenoids, excipient foods, food matrix

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17 Evaluation of Low Temperature as Treatment Tool for Eradication of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Artificial Diet

Authors: Farhan J. M. Al-Behadili, Vineeta Bilgi, Miyuki Taniguchi, Junxi Li, Wei Xu


Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits and vegetables. Medfly originated from Africa and spread in many countries, and is currently an endemic pest in Western Australia. Medfly has been recorded from over 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, nuts and its main hosts include blueberries, citrus, stone fruit, pome fruits, peppers, tomatoes, and figs. Global trade of fruits and other farm fresh products are suffering from the damages of this pest, which prompted towards the need to develop more effective ways to control these pests. The available quarantine treatment technologies mainly include chemical treatment (e.g., fumigation) and non-chemical treatments (e.g., cold, heat and irradiation). In recent years, with the loss of several chemicals, it has become even more important to rely on non-chemical postharvest control technologies (i.e., heat, cold and irradiation) to control fruit flies. Cold treatment is one of the most potential trends of focus in postharvest treatment because it is free of chemical residues, mitigates or kills the pest population, increases the strength of the fruits, and prolongs storage time. It can also be applied to fruits after packing and ‘in transit’ during lengthy transport by sea during their exports. However, limited systematic study on cold treatment of Medfly stages in artificial diets was reported, which is critical to provide a scientific basis to compare with previous research in plant products and design an effective cold treatment suitable for exported plant products. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate and understand Medfly responses to cold treatments. Medfly stages were tested. The long-term goal was to optimize current postharvest treatments and develop more environmentally-friendly, cost-effective, and efficient treatments for controlling Medfly. Cold treatment with different exposure times is studied to evaluate cold eradication treatment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), that reared on carrot diet. Mortality is important aspect was studied in this study. On the other hand, study effects of exposure time on mortality means of medfly stages.

Keywords: cold treatment, fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, carrot diet, temperature effects

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16 Dyeing Properties of Natural Dyes on Silk Treated with ß-Cyclodextrin

Authors: Samera Salimpour Abkenar


In this work, silk yarns were treated using ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and cross-linked with citric acid (CA) via pad-dry-cure method. Elemental and FESEM analyses confirmed the presence of ß-CD on the treated silk samples even after five washing cycles. Then, the treated samples were dyed using natural dyes (carrot, orange and tomato). Results showed that the color strength (K/S) of the treated samples had been markedly enhanced compared with the control sample (after treatment with metal mordant). Finally, the color strength (K/S value) and color fastness (fading, staining and light fastness) of the treated samples with ß-CD were investigated and compared.

Keywords: ß-cyclodextrin, dyeing, natural dyes, silk yarn

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15 Mechanical Properties of Recycled Plasticized PVB/PVC Blends

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Christian Carrot, Caroline Pillon, Vít Petránek


The mechanical properties of blends consisting of plasticized poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of using recycled PVB waste derived from windshields. PVC was plasticized with 38% of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), while PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The optimal process conditions for the PVB/PVC blend in 1:1 ratio were determined. Entropy was used in order to theoretically predict the blends miscibility. The PVB content of each blend composition used was ranging from zero to 100%. Tensile strength and strain were tested. In addition, a comparison between recycled and original PVB, used as constituents of the blend, was performed.

Keywords: poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl chloride), windshield, polymer waste, mechanical properties

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14 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi


Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate, sewage sludge

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13 Designing of Household Dishes to Help Food Waste Prevention Strategies

Authors: Ching-Hsu Huang, Shang-Huan Wu


In recent years, environmental awareness has increased, environmental issues caused by meat-eating have been extended to promote reducing food surplus and waste advocates. We lose more than 3 million tons of food on average on a daily basis. Private households represent the largest food-waste faction. The main purpose of this study is to design and develop household dishes by using edible food surplus. The questionnaires were conducted to find the majority of food surplus from households, including carrot peel, pumpkin, fish skin, and soy dregs—this study designed and developed the household dishes by using the leftovers. We briefly discuss the contributions of the dishes. Mapping the household dishes deepens the promotion of household food waste prevention strategies. This study also linked the results with a set of policy, education, and restaurant business options

Keywords: food waste, food surplus, household dishes design, food waste prevention strategies

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12 Assessment of Cadmium Levels in Soil and Vegetables Grown Along Kubanni Stream Channels, Zaria, Kaduna State

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji


Quantitative determination of cadmium levels in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni stream channels were seasonally analyzed for a period of two years using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.00 – 3.50 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 1.31 – 7.15 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil samples while the vegetables (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) had concentrations in the range of 0.20 – 6.10 mg/Kg in 2013 and 0.60 – 5.60 mg/Kg in 2014 respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in cadmium levels across the locations and seasons for soil and vegetable analyzed. Pearson correlation results for cadmium concentrations between the year 2013 and 2014 revealed negligible (r = 0.002) relationship for soils while low (r = 0.395) relationship was obtained for vegetable and these were attributed to heavy application of fertilizers and nature of wastewater use for irrigation. Cadmium levels for both soil and vegetable exceeded the maximum allowable limit set by Standard Organization such as FAO and WHO.

Keywords: cadmium, level, soil, vegetables

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11 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas


Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: lactobacillus, antifungal substances, aspergillus, biopreservation

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10 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji


The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

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9 Supporting the ESL Student in a Tertiary Setting: Carrot and Stick

Authors: Ralph Barnes


The internationalization and globalization of education are now a huge, multi-million dollar industry. The movement of international students across the globe has provided a rich vein of revenue for universities and institutions of higher learning to exploit and harvest. A concerted effort has been made by universities worldwide to court students from overseas, with some countries relying up to one-third of student fees, coming from international students. Australian universities and English Language Centres are coming under increased government scrutiny in respect to such areas as the academic progression of international students, management and understanding of student visa requirements and the design of higher education courses and effective assessment regimes. As such, universities and other higher education institutions are restructuring themselves more as service providers rather than as strictly education providers. In this paper, the high-touch, tailored academic model currently followed by some Australian educational institutions to support international students, is examined and challenged. Academic support services offered to international students need to be coordinated, sustained and reviewed regularly, in order to assess their effectiveness. Maintaining the delivery of high-quality educational programs and learning outcomes for this high income-generating student cohort is vital, in order to continue the successful academic and social engagement by international students across the Australian university and higher education landscape.

Keywords: ESL, engagement, tertiary, learning

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8 Antioxidant Juice Prevents UV- Induced Skin Damage in Rats

Authors: S. P. Gomes, D. C. Goncalves, E. Ribeiro, M. C. L. Seelaender


Skin is susceptible to photo damage induced by exposure to sunlight, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which induces breakdown of extracellular matrix, DNA degradation, skin cell lesion and apoptosis, and development of cancer. Phytonutrients demonstrate protective effects against UV damage. The purpose of this study was evaluating the effect of an antioxidant juice (AJ) contaning Brazilian natural products upon skin damage. The juice was produced by Metabolics®. Male Wistar rats were divided in 4 groups: Animals receiving the antioxidant juice (AJ): orange, carrot, honey, tomato extract, avocado, ginger and camu-camu (Brazilian fruit, a major source of vitamin C) ad libitum for 21 days; or water (C), subdivided in groups exposed or not to UV radiation for 2 non consecutive days, during five hours each day, after 15 days of juice supplementation. On the 22nd day, rats were killed by decapitation and epithelium samples from the dorsal skin removed, fixed in bouin and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or mallory and picrosirius red. Isolated DNA was submitted to electrophoresis (1.8% agarose gel, 0.5% ethidium bromide). UV radiation significantly induced sunburn of superficial epithelial cells of C, AJ treatment reduced this effect. Collagen changes were observed in UV groups, yet AJ treatment prevented collagen degradation. UV radiation induced significant DNA degradation, in C, which was prevented by AJ treatment. The antioxidant juice consumed chronically protected against acute skin damage.

Keywords: nutraceuticals, antioxidants, photoprotection, uv radiation

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