Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Kumaran Narayanan

23 Intracellular Strategies for Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells Using Bacteria as a Vector

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Andrew N. Osahor

Abstract:

E. coli has been engineered by our group and by others as a vector to deliver DNA into cultured human and animal cells. However, so far conditions to improve gene delivery using this vector have not been investigated, resulting in a major gap in our understanding of the requirements for this vector to function optimally. Our group recently published novel data showing that simple addition of the DNA transfection reagent Lipofectamine increased the efficiency of the E. coli vector by almost 3-fold, providing the first strong evidence that further optimization of bactofection is possible. This presentation will discuss advances that demonstrate the effects of several intracellular strategies that improve the efficiency of this vector. Conditions that promote endosomal escape of internalized bacteria to evade lysosomal destruction after entry in the cell, a known obstacle limiting this vector, are elucidated. Further, treatments that increase bacterial lysis so that the vector can release its transgene into the mammalian environment for expression will be discussed. These experiments will provide valuable new insight to advance this E. coli system as an important class of vector technology for genetic correction of human disease models in cells and whole animals.

Keywords: DNA, E. coli, gene expression, vector

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22 Functional Gene Expression in Human Cells Using Linear Vectors Derived from Bacteriophage N15 Processing

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Pei-Sheng Liew

Abstract:

This paper adapts the bacteriophage N15 protelomerase enzyme to assemble linear chromosomes as vectors for gene expression in human cells. Phage N15 has the unique ability to replicate as a linear plasmid with telomeres in E. coli during its prophage stage of life-cycle. The virus-encoded protelomerase enzyme cuts its circular genome and caps its ends to form hairpin telomeres, resulting in a linear human-chromosome-like structure in E. coli. In mammalian cells, however, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show for the first-time transfer of the protelomerase from phage into human and mouse cells and demonstrate recapitulation of its activity in these hosts. The function of this enzyme is assayed by demonstrating cleavage of its target DNA, followed by detecting telomere formation based on its resistance to recBCD enzyme digestion. We show protelomerase expression persists for at least 60 days, which indicates limited silencing of its expression. Next, we show that an intact human β-globin gene delivered on this linear chromosome accurately retains its expression in the human cellular environment for at least 60 hours, demonstrating its stability and potential as a vector. These results demonstrate that the N15 protelomerse is able to function in mammalian cells to cut and heal DNA to create telomeres, which provides a new tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts.

Keywords: chromosome, beta-globin, DNA, gene expression, linear vector

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21 Preservation of Historical Zelkova carpinifolia Wooden Structure in Humid Weather

Authors: A. Mahshid Kakouei, B. Kumaran Suberamanin, C. Sabzali Musa Kahn, D. Mina Kakouei

Abstract:

This study aims to identify suitable conservative product for the conservation and restoration of historical Zelkova Carpinifolia wood located in humid weather. The superficial properties and hardness of 14 compounds treated with several consolidants were compared. The consolidants have been applied alone, with synthetic resin or with protein glues and natural resins by the brushing method. Colorimetric measurements, observation methods and hardness tests were conducted before and after aging to verify the possible changes of the treated wood and the consolidating resistance. The compound 1:2 of Butvar B98 and sandarac in 5% ethanol was found to be more effective, providing a suitable compound compared to the other consolidants tested.

Keywords: Zelkova carpinifolia, consolidation, synthetic resin, penetration depth, hardness

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20 Audio-Visual Entrainment and Acupressure Therapy for Insomnia

Authors: Mariya Yeldhos, G. Hema, Sowmya Narayanan, L. Dhiviyalakshmi

Abstract:

Insomnia is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders worldwide. Some of the deficiencies of the current treatments of insomnia are: side effects in the case of sleeping pills and high costs in the case of psychotherapeutic treatment. In this paper, we propose a device which provides a combination of audio visual entrainment and acupressure based compression therapy for insomnia. This device provides drug-free treatment of insomnia through a user friendly and portable device that enables relaxation of brain and muscles, with certain advantages such as low cost, and wide accessibility to a large number of people. Tools adapted towards the treatment of insomnia: -Audio -Continuous exposure to binaural beats of a particular frequency of audible range -Visual -Flash of LED light -Acupressure points -GB-20 -GV-16 -B-10

Keywords: insomnia, acupressure, entrainment, audio-visual entrainment

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19 Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hafizan Junoh, Kumaran Palanisamy, Yip Chan Heng, Pua Fei Ling

Abstract:

This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.

Keywords: food waste, pretreatments, respond surface methodology, ANOVA, anaerobic digestion

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18 Jitter Based Reconstruction of Transmission Line Pulse Using On-Chip Sensor

Authors: Bhuvnesh Narayanan, Bernhard Weiss, Tvrtko Mandic, Adrijan Baric

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method to reconstruct internal high-frequency signals through subsampling techniques in an IC using an on-chip sensor. Though there are existing methods to internally probe and reconstruct high frequency signals through subsampling techniques; these methods have been applicable mainly for synchronized systems. This paper demonstrates a method for making such non-intrusive on-chip reconstructions possible also in non-synchronized systems. The TLP pulse is used to demonstrate the experimental validation of the concept. The on-chip sensor measures the voltage in an internal node. The jitter in the input pulse causes a varying pulse delay with respect to the on-chip sampling command. By measuring this pulse delay and by correlating it with the measured on-chip voltage, time domain waveforms can be reconstructed, and the influence of the pulse on the internal nodes can be better understood.

Keywords: on-chip sensor, jitter, transmission line pulse, subsampling

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17 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

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This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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16 Approximation of Convex Set by Compactly Semidefinite Representable Set

Authors: Anusuya Ghosh, Vishnu Narayanan

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The approximation of convex set by semidefinite representable set plays an important role in semidefinite programming, especially in modern convex optimization. To optimize a linear function over a convex set is a hard problem. But optimizing the linear function over the semidefinite representable set which approximates the convex set is easy to solve as there exists numerous efficient algorithms to solve semidefinite programming problems. So, our approximation technique is significant in optimization. We develop a technique to approximate any closed convex set, say K by compactly semidefinite representable set. Further we prove that there exists a sequence of compactly semidefinite representable sets which give tighter approximation of the closed convex set, K gradually. We discuss about the convergence of the sequence of compactly semidefinite representable sets to closed convex set K. The recession cone of K and the recession cone of the compactly semidefinite representable set are equal. So, we say that the sequence of compactly semidefinite representable sets converge strongly to the closed convex set. Thus, this approximation technique is very useful development in semidefinite programming.

Keywords: semidefinite programming, semidefinite representable set, compactly semidefinite representable set, approximation

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15 Design of a Controlled BHJ Solar Cell Using Modified Organic Vapor Spray Deposition Technique

Authors: F. Stephen Joe, V. Sathya Narayanan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

A comprehensive review of the literature on photovoltaic cells has been carried out for exploring the better options for cost efficient technologies for future solar cell applications. Literature review reveals that the Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Polymer Solar cells offer special opportunities as renewable energy resources. It is evident from the previous studies that the device fabricated with TiOx layer shows better power conversion efficiency than that of the device without TiOx layer. In this paper, authors designed a controlled BHJ solar cell using a modified organic vapor spray deposition technique facilitated with a vertical-moving gun named as 'Stephen Joe Technique' for getting a desirable surface pattern over the substrate to improving its efficiency over the years for industrial applications. We comprehended that the efficient processing and the interface engineering of these solar cells could increase the efficiency up to 5-10 %.

Keywords: BHJ polymer solar cell, photovoltaic cell, solar cell, Stephen Joe technique

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14 The Conceptual Design Model of an Automated Supermarket

Authors: V. Sathya Narayanan, P. Sidharth, V. R. Sanal Kumar

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The success of any retail business is predisposed by its swift response and its knack in understanding the constraints and the requirements of customers. In this paper a conceptual design model of an automated customer-friendly supermarket has been proposed. In this model a 10-sided, space benefited, regular polygon shaped gravity shelves have been designed for goods storage and effective customer-specific algorithms have been built-in for quick automatic delivery of the randomly listed goods. The algorithm is developed with two main objectives, viz., delivery time and priority. For meeting these objectives the randomly listed items are reorganized according to the critical-path of the robotic arm specific to the identified shop and its layout and the items are categorized according to the demand, shape, size, similarity and nature of the product for an efficient pick-up, packing and delivery process. We conjectured that the proposed automated supermarket model reduces business operating costs with much customer satisfaction warranting a win-win situation.

Keywords: automated supermarket, electronic shopping, polygon-shaped rack, shortest path algorithm for shopping

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13 A Semiotic Approach to the Construction of Classical Identity in Indian Classical Music Videos

Authors: Jayakrishnan Narayanan, Sengamalam Periyasamy Dhanavel

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Indian classical (Karnatik) music videos across various media platforms have followed an audio-visual pattern that conforms to its socio-cultural and quasi-religious identity. The present paper analyzes the semiotic variations between ‘pure Karnatik music videos’ and ‘independent/contemporary-collaborative music videos’ posted on social media by young professional Karnatik musicians. The paper analyzes these media texts by comparing their various structural sememes namely, the title, artists, music, narrative schemata, visuals, lighting, sound, and costumes. The paper argues that the pure Karnatik music videos are marked by the presence of certain recurring mythological or third level signifiers and that these signifiers and codes are marked by their conspicuous absence in the independent music videos produced by the same musicians. While the music and the musical instruments used in both these sets of music videos remain similar, the meaning that is abducted by the beholder in each case is entirely different. The paper also attempts to study the identity conflicts that are projected through these music videos and the extent to which the cultural connotations of Karnatik music govern the production of its music videos.

Keywords: abduction, identity, media semiotics, music video

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12 Improvement of Cross Range Resolution in Through Wall Radar Imaging Using Bilateral Backprojection

Authors: Rashmi Yadawad, Disha Narayanan, Ravi Gautam

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Through Wall Radar Imaging is gaining increasing importance now a days in the field of Defense and one of the most important criteria that forms the basis for the image quality obtained is the Cross-Range resolution of the image. In this research paper, the Bilateral Back projection algorithm has been implemented for Through Wall Radar Imaging. The sole purpose is to enhance the resolution in the cross range direction of the obtained Back projection image. Synthetic Data is generated for two targets which are placed at various locations in a room of dimensions 8 m by 6m. Two algorithms namely, simple back projection and Bilateral Back projection have been implemented, images are obtained and the obtained images are compared. Numerical simulations have been coded in MATLAB and experimental results of the two algorithms have been shown. Based on the comparison between the two images, it can be clearly seen that the ringing effect and chess board effect have been heavily reduced in the bilaterally back projected image and hence promising results are obtained giving a relatively sharper image with relatively well defined edges.

Keywords: through wall radar imaging, bilateral back projection, cross range resolution, synthetic data

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11 Adsorption of Peppermint Essential Oil by Polypropylene Nanofiber

Authors: Duduku Krishnaiah, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Kumaran Govindaraj, Chiam Chel Ken, Zykamilia Kamin

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Pure essential oil is highly demanded in the market since most of the so-called pure essential oils in the market contains alcohol. This is because of the usage of alcohol in separating oil and water mixture. Removal of pure essential oil from water without using any chemical solvent has become a challenging issue. Adsorbents generally have the properties of separating hydrophobic oil from hydrophilic mixture. Polypropylen nanofiber is a thermoplastic polymer which is produced from propylene. It was used as an adsorbent in this study. Based on the research, it was found that the polypropylene nanofiber was able to adsorb peppermint oil from the aqueous solution over a wide range of concentration. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), nanofiber has very small nano diameter fiber size in average before the adsorption and larger scaled average diameter of fibers after adsorption which indicates that smaller diameter of nanofiber enhances the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity of peppermint oil increases as the initial concentration of peppermint oil and amount of polypropylene nanofiber used increases. The maximum adsorption capacity of polypropylene nanofiber was found to be 689.5 mg/g at (T= 30°C). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of peppermint oil decreases as the temperature of solution increases. The equilibrium data of polypropylene nanofiber is best represented by Freundlich isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 689.5 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of polypropylene nanofiber was best represented by pseudo-second order model.

Keywords: nanofiber, adsorption, peppermint essential oil, isotherms, adsorption kinetics

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10 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

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In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

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9 Spatial-Temporal Clustering Characteristics of Dengue in the Northern Region of Sri Lanka, 2010-2013

Authors: Sumiko Anno, Keiji Imaoka, Takeo Tadono, Tamotsu Igarashi, Subramaniam Sivaganesh, Selvam Kannathasan, Vaithehi Kumaran, Sinnathamby Noble Surendran

Abstract:

Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately and still require systematic clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal clustering relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites were used to develop an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling temporal analysis, spatial statistical analysis and space-time clustering analysis. Our present results showed that increases in the number of the combination of ecological factor and socio-economic and demographic factors with above the average or the presence contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters.

Keywords: ALOS/AVNIR-2, dengue, space-time clustering analysis, Sri Lanka

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8 Evolving Convolutional Filter Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Classification

Authors: Rujia Chen, Ajit Narayanan

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Convolutional neural networks (CNN), as typically applied in deep learning, use layer-wise backpropagation (BP) to construct filters and kernels for feature extraction. Such filters are 2D or 3D groups of weights for constructing feature maps at subsequent layers of the CNN and are shared across the entire input. BP as a gradient descent algorithm has well-known problems of getting stuck at local optima. The use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for evolving weights between layers of standard artificial neural networks (ANNs) is a well-established area of neuroevolution. In particular, the use of crossover techniques when optimizing weights can help to overcome problems of local optima. However, the application of GAs for evolving the weights of filters and kernels in CNNs is not yet an established area of neuroevolution. In this paper, a GA-based filter development algorithm is proposed. The results of the proof-of-concept experiments described in this paper show the proposed GA algorithm can find filter weights through evolutionary techniques rather than BP learning. For some simple classification tasks like geometric shape recognition, the proposed algorithm can achieve 100% accuracy. The results for MNIST classification, while not as good as possible through standard filter learning through BP, show that filter and kernel evolution warrants further investigation as a new subarea of neuroevolution for deep architectures.

Keywords: neuroevolution, convolutional neural network, genetic algorithm, filters, kernels

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7 Development of Multilayer Capillary Copper Wick Structure using Microsecond CO₂ Pulsed Laser

Authors: Talha Khan, Surendhar Kumaran, Rajeev Nair

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The development of economical, efficient, and reliable next-generation thermal and water management systems to provide efficient cooling and water management technologies is being pursued application in compact and lightweight spacecraft. The elimination of liquid-vapor phase change-based thermal and water management systems is being done due to issues with the reliability and robustness of this technology. To achieve the motive of implementing the principle of using an innovative evaporator and condenser design utilizing bimodal wicks manufactured using a microsecond pulsed CO₂ laser has been proposed in this study. Cylin drical, multilayered capillary copper wicks with a substrate diameter of 39 mm are additively manufactured using a pulsed laser. The copper particles used for layer-by-layer addition on the substrate measure in a diameter range of 225 to 450 micrometers. The primary objective is to develop a novel, high-quality, fast turnaround, laser-based additive manufacturing process that will eliminate the current technical challenges involved with the traditional manufacturing processes for nano/micro-sized powders, like particle agglomeration. Raster-scanned, pulsed-laser sintering process has been developed to manufacture 3D wicks with controlled porosity and permeability.

Keywords: liquid-vapor phase change, bimodal wicks, multilayered, capillary, raster-scanned, porosity, permeability

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6 Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment with Different Intensities on the Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery from Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: D. Hephzibah, P. Kumaran, N. M. Saifuddin

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion is a well-known technique for sustainable energy recovery from sewage sludge. However, sewage sludge digestion is restricted due to certain factors. Pre-treatment methods have been established in various publications as a promising technique to improve the digestibility of the sewage sludge and to enhance the biogas generated which can be used for energy recovery. In this study, continuous flow microwave (MW) pre-treatment with different intensities were compared by using 5 L semi-continuous digesters at a hydraulic retention time of 27 days. We focused on the effects of MW at different intensities on the sludge solubilization, sludge digestibility, and biogas production of the untreated and MW pre-treated sludge. The MW pre-treatment demonstrated an increase in the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (sCOD/tCOD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Besides that, the total volatile solid (TVS) removal efficiency and tCOD removal efficiency also increased during the digestion of the MW pre-treated sewage sludge compared to the untreated sewage sludge. Furthermore, the biogas yield also subsequently increases due to the pre-treatment effect. A higher MW power level and irradiation time generally enhanced the biogas generation which has potential for sustainable energy recovery from sewage treatment plant. However, the net energy balance tabulation shows that the MW pre-treatment leads to negative net energy production.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, microwave pre-treatment, sewage sludge

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5 An Investigation of Suppression in Mid-19th Century Japan: Case Study of the 1855 Catfish Prints as a Product of Censorship

Authors: Vasanth Narayanan

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The mid-nineteenth century saw the Japanese elite and townsfolk alike undergo the now-infamous Ansei Edo earthquakes. The quakes decimated Japan in the final decades of the Tokugawa Era and, perhaps more consequentially, birthed a new genre of politically inspired artwork, the most notable of which are the namazu-e. This essay advocates an understanding of the 1855 Catfish Prints (namazu-e) that prioritizes the function of iconography and anthropomorphic deity in shaping the namazu-e into a wholly political experience that makes the censorship of the time part of its argument. The visual program is defined as the creation of a politically profitable experience, crafted through the union of explicit religion, highly masked commentary, and the impositions of censorship. The strategies by which the works are designed, in the face of censorship, to engage a less educated, pedestrian audience with its theme, including considerations of iconography, depictions of the working class, anthropomorphism, and the relationship between textual and visual elements, are discussed herein. The essay then takes up the question of the role of tense Japan–United States relations in fostering censorship and as a driver of the production of namazu-e. It is ultimately understood that the marriage of hefty censorship protocol, the explicitly religious medium, and inimical sentiment towards United States efforts at diplomacy renders the production of namazu-e an offspring of the censorship and deeply held frustrations of the time, cementing its status as a primitive form of peaceful protest against a seemingly apathetic government.

Keywords: Japan, Ansei Earthquake, Namazu, prints, censorship, religion

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4 Learning and Rethinking Language through Gendered Experiences

Authors: Neha Narayanan

Abstract:

The paper tries to explore the role of language in determining spaces occupied by women in everyday lives. It is inspired from an ongoing action research work which employs ‘immersion’- arriving at a research problematic through community research, as a methodology in a Kondh adivasi village, Kirkalpadu located in Rayagada district of the Indian state of Odisha. In the dominant development discourse, language is associated with either preservation or conservation of endangered language or empowerment through language. Beyond these, is the discourse of language as a structure, with the hegemonic quality to organise lifeworld in a specific manner. This rigid structure leads to an experience of constriction of space for women. In Kirkalpadu, the action research work is with young and unmarried women of the age 15-25. During daytime, these women are either in the agricultural field or in the bari -the backyard of the house whose rooms are linearly arranged one after the other ending with the kitchen followed by an open space called bari (in Odia) which is an intimate and gendered space- where they are not easily visible. They justify the experience of restriction in mobility and fear of moving out of the village alone by the argument that the place and the men are nihi-aaeh (not good). These women, who have dropped out of school early to contribute to the (surplus) labour requirement in the household, want to learn English to be able to read signboards when they are on the road, to be able to fill forms at a bank and use mobile phones to communicate with their romantic partner(s). But the incapacity to have within one’s grasp the province of language and the incapacity to take the mobile phone to the kind of requirements marked by the above mentioned impossible transactions with space restricts them to the bari of the house. The paper concludes by seeking to explore the possibilities of learning and rethinking languages which takes into cognizance the gendered experience of women and the desire of women to cross the borders and occupy spaces restricted to them.

Keywords: action research, gendered experience, language, space

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3 Comparative in vitro Anticancer Activity of Two Siddha Formulations: Neeradi Muthu Vallathymezugu and Thamira Kattu Chendooram

Authors: Vasudha Devi, Arul Amuthan, K. Narayanan, Praveen KS, Venkata Rao J

Abstract:

Background: Siddha Medicine is one of the Indian traditional medical systems, in which the cancer disease is mentioned as 'putrunoi' which literally means the disease of growth like termite mound. There are number of formulations available for the treatment of cancer disease. Neeradi muthu vallathymezugu (NMV) and thamira kattu chendooram (TKC) are two drugs commonly prescribed by Siddha physicians. These drugs have been clinically reported to be safe and effective when given orally. Though these formulations are in practice for centuries, no efforts have been made to standardize them and explore their anti-cancer potential systematically. Objective: To compare the cytotoxic activity of NMV and TKC with doxorubicin using cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: For this study, ethanol extract of NMV was taken, whereas TKC was used as such. In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine (SRB) assay against human hepatic cancer cells (HepG2), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human cervical cancer cells [KeLa]. Doxorubicin was used as the standard. The SRB assay is based on the ability of cellular proteins to bind with sulphorhodamine-B. The number of live cells in drug treated cell lines directly affects the color formation in the assay, which is estimated calorimetrically by measuring the absorbance at 540 nm to calculate the cytotoxicity (inhibitory concentration - IC50 value) of the drug. Results: The IC50values of NMV, TKC and doxorubicin against HepG2 were 3.08 µg/ml, 20.21 µg/ml and 1.21µg/ml respectively. In MCF-7, it was 11.75 µg/ml, 17.67 µg/ml and 2.8µg/ml. In HeLa, the values were 24.76 µg/ml, 73.35 µg/ml and 1.12µg/ml. Conclusions: The study proves the possible anti-cancer potential of these two formulations. Compared to TKC, NMV showed good cytotoxic effect even at low dose. Human hepatic cancer cells responded well even at very low dose, when compared to other cancer cells. Though, cytotoxic potential of these compounds was found to be less compared to doxorubicin, the isolated lead compound may have the potential to be used as an anticancer drug clinically.

Keywords: Neeradi muthu vallathymezugu (Hydnocarpus laurifolia), thamira kattu chendooram, cytotoxicity, in-vitro, Siddha Medicine

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2 Mechanical Properties and Antibiotic Release Characteristics of Poly(methyl methacrylate)-based Bone Cement Formulated with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Kumaran Letchmanan, Shou-Cang Shen, Wai Kiong Ng

Abstract:

Postoperative implant-associated infections in soft tissues and bones remain a serious complication in orthopaedic surgery, which leads to impaired healing, re-implantation, prolong hospital stay and increase cost. Drug-loaded implants with sustained release of antibiotics at the local site are current research interest to reduce the risk of post-operative infections and osteomyelitis, thus, minimize the need for follow-up care and increase patient comfort. However, the improved drug release of the drug-loaded bone cements is usually accompanied by a loss in mechanical strength, which is critical for weight-bearing bone cement. Recently, more attempts have been undertaken to develop techniques to enhance the antibiotic elution as well as preserve the mechanical properties of the bone cements. The present study investigates the potential influence of addition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) on the in vitro drug release kinetics of gentamicin (GTMC), along with the mechanical properties of bone cements. Simplex P was formulated with MSN and loaded with GTMC by direct impregnation. Meanwhile, Simplex P with water soluble poragen (xylitol) and high loading of GTMC as well as commercial bone cement CMW Smartset GHV were used as controls. MSN-formulated bone cements are able to increase the drug release of GTMC by 3-fold with a cumulative release of more than 46% as compared with other control groups. Furthermore, a sustained release could be achieved for two months. The loaded nano-sized MSN with uniform pore channels significantly build up an effective nano-network path in the bone cement facilitates the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. Compared with formulations using xylitol and high GTMC loading, incorporation of MSN shows no detrimental effect on biomechanical properties of the bone cements as no significant changes in the mechanical properties as compared with original bone cement. After drug release for two months, the bending modulus of MSN-formulated bone cements is 4.49 ± 0.75 GPa and the compression strength is 92.7 ± 2.1 MPa (similar to the compression strength of Simplex-P: 93.0 ± 1.2 MPa). The unaffected mechanical properties of MSN-formulated bone cements was due to the unchanged microstructures of bone cement, whereby more than 98% of MSN remains in the matrix and supports the bone cement structures. In contrast, the large portions of extra voids can be observed for the formulations using xylitol and high drug loading after the drug release study, thus caused compressive strength below the ASTM F541 and ISO 5833 minimum of 70 MPa. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement as a highly efficient, sustained and local drug delivery system with good mechanical properties.

Keywords: antibiotics, biomechanical properties, bone cement, sustained release

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1 Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Strongly Rotating Rarefied Gas Flows

Authors: S. Pradhan, V. Kumaran

Abstract:

Centrifugal gas separation processes effect separation by utilizing the difference in the mole fraction in a high speed rotating cylinder caused by the difference in molecular mass, and consequently the centrifugal force density. These have been widely used in isotope separation because chemical separation methods cannot be used to separate isotopes of the same chemical species. More recently, centrifugal separation has also been explored for the separation of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. The efficiency of separation is critically dependent on the secondary flow generated due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall or due to inserts, and it is important to formulate accurate models for this secondary flow. The widely used Onsager model for secondary flow is restricted to very long cylinders where the length is large compared to the diameter, the limit of high stratification parameter, where the gas is restricted to a thin layer near the wall of the cylinder, and it assumes that there is no mass difference in the two species while calculating the secondary flow. There are two objectives of the present analysis of the rarefied gas flow in a rotating cylinder. The first is to remove the restriction of high stratification parameter, and to generalize the solutions to low rotation speeds where the stratification parameter may be O (1), and to apply for dissimilar gases considering the difference in molecular mass of the two species. Secondly, we would like to compare the predictions with molecular simulations based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows, in order to quantify the errors resulting from the approximations at different aspect ratios, Reynolds number and stratification parameter. In this study, we have obtained analytical and numerical solutions for the secondary flows generated at the cylinder curved surface and at the end-caps due to linear wall temperature gradient and external gas inflow/outflow at the axis of the cylinder. The effect of sources of mass, momentum and energy within the flow domain are also analyzed. The results of the analytical solutions are compared with the results of DSMC simulations for three types of forcing, a wall temperature gradient, inflow/outflow of gas along the axis, and mass/momentum input due to inserts within the flow. The comparison reveals that the boundary conditions in the simulations and analysis have to be matched with care. The commonly used diffuse reflection boundary conditions at solid walls in DSMC simulations result in a non-zero slip velocity as well as a temperature slip (gas temperature at the wall is different from wall temperature). These have to be incorporated in the analysis in order to make quantitative predictions. In the case of mass/momentum/energy sources within the flow, it is necessary to ensure that the homogeneous boundary conditions are accurately satisfied in the simulations. When these precautions are taken, there is excellent agreement between analysis and simulations, to within 10 %, even when the stratification parameter is as low as 0.707, the Reynolds number is as low as 100 and the aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylinder is as low as 2, and the secondary flow velocity is as high as 0.2 times the maximum base flow velocity.

Keywords: rotating flows, generalized onsager and carrier-Maslen model, DSMC simulations, rarefied gas flow

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