Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3416

Search results for: linear vector

3416 A Deletion-Cost Based Fast Compression Algorithm for Linear Vector Data

Authors: Qiuxiao Chen, Yan Hou, Ning Wu


As there are deficiencies of the classic Douglas-Peucker Algorithm (DPA), such as high risks of deleting key nodes by mistake, high complexity, time consumption and relatively slow execution speed, a new Deletion-Cost Based Compression Algorithm (DCA) for linear vector data was proposed. For each curve — the basic element of linear vector data, all the deletion costs of its middle nodes were calculated, and the minimum deletion cost was compared with the pre-defined threshold. If the former was greater than or equal to the latter, all remaining nodes were reserved and the curve’s compression process was finished. Otherwise, the node with the minimal deletion cost was deleted, its two neighbors' deletion costs were updated, and the same loop on the compressed curve was repeated till the termination. By several comparative experiments using different types of linear vector data, the comparison between DPA and DCA was performed from the aspects of compression quality and computing efficiency. Experiment results showed that DCA outperformed DPA in compression accuracy and execution efficiency as well.

Keywords: Douglas-Peucker algorithm, linear vector data, compression, deletion cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
3415 Semigroups of Linear Transformations with Fixed Subspaces: Green’s Relations and Ideals

Authors: Yanisa Chaiya, Jintana Sanwong


Let V be a vector space over a field and W a subspace of V. Let Fix(V,W) denote the set of all linear transformations on V with fix all elements in W. In this paper, we show that Fix(V,W) is a semigroup under the composition of maps and describe Green’s relations on this semigroup in terms of images, kernels and the dimensions of subspaces of the quotient space V/W where V/W = {v+W : v is an element in V} with v+W = {v+w : w is an element in W}. Let dim(U) denote the dimension of a vector space U and Vα = {vα : v is an element in V} where vα is an image of v under a linear transformation α. For any cardinal number a let a'= min{b : b > a}. We also show that the ideals of Fix(V,W) are precisely the sets. Fix(r) ={α ∊ Fix(V,W) : dim(Vα/W) < r} where 1 ≤ r ≤ a' and a = dim(V/W). Moreover, we prove that if V is a finite-dimensional vector space, then every ideal of Fix(V,W) is principle.

Keywords: Green’s relations, ideals, linear transformation semi-groups, principle ideals

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3414 Determination of the Axial-Vector from an Extended Linear Sigma Model

Authors: Tarek Sayed Taha Ali


The dependence of the axial-vector coupling constant gA on the quark masses has been investigated in the frame work of the extended linear sigma model. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation. Our study shows a better fitting to the experimental data compared with the existing models.

Keywords: extended linear sigma model, nucleon properties, axial coupling constant, physic

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3413 Speed up Vector Median Filtering by Quasi Euclidean Norm

Authors: Vinai K. Singh


For reducing impulsive noise without degrading image contours, median filtering is a powerful tool. In multiband images as for example colour images or vector fields obtained by optic flow computation, a vector median filter can be used. Vector median filters are defined on the basis of a suitable distance, the best performing distance being the Euclidean. Euclidean distance is evaluated by using the Euclidean norms which is quite demanding from the point of view of computation given that a square root is required. In this paper an optimal piece-wise linear approximation of the Euclidean norm is presented which is applied to vector median filtering.

Keywords: euclidean norm, quasi euclidean norm, vector median filtering, applied mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
3412 Extension of Positive Linear Operator

Authors: Manal Azzidani


This research consideres the extension of special functions called Positive Linear Operators. the bounded linear operator which defined from normed space to Banach space will extend to the closure of the its domain, And extend identified linear functional on a vector subspace by Hana-Banach theorem which could be generalized to the positive linear operators.

Keywords: extension, positive operator, Riesz space, sublinear function

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3411 Comparison of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classifications for Electromyography Signals Acquired at Five Positions of Elbow Joint

Authors: Amna Khan, Zareena Kausar, Saad Malik


Bio Mechatronics has extended applications in the field of rehabilitation. It has been contributing since World War II in improving the applicability of prosthesis and assistive devices in real life scenarios. In this paper, classification accuracies have been compared for two classifiers against five positions of elbow. Electromyography (EMG) signals analysis have been acquired directly from skeletal muscles of human forearm for each of the three defined positions and at modified extreme positions of elbow flexion and extension using 8 electrode Myo armband sensor. Features were extracted from filtered EMG signals for each position. Performance of two classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been compared by analyzing the classification accuracies. SVM illustrated classification accuracies between 90-96%, in contrast to 84-87% depicted by LDA for five defined positions of elbow keeping the number of samples and selected feature the same for both SVM and LDA.

Keywords: classification accuracies, electromyography, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Myo armband sensor, support vector machine (SVM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3410 Solving Linear Systems Involved in Convex Programming Problems

Authors: Yixun Shi


Many interior point methods for convex programming solve an (n+m)x(n+m)linear system in each iteration. Many implementations solve this system in each iteration by considering an equivalent mXm system (4) as listed in the paper, and thus the job is reduced into solving the system (4). However, the system(4) has to be solved exactly since otherwise the error would be entirely passed onto the last m equations of the original system. Often the Cholesky factorization is computed to obtain the exact solution of (4). One Cholesky factorization is to be done in every iteration, resulting in higher computational costs. In this paper, two iterative methods for solving linear systems using vector division are combined together and embedded into interior point methods. Instead of computing one Cholesky factorization in each iteration, it requires only one Cholesky factorization in the entire procedure, thus significantly reduces the amount of computation needed for solving the problem. Based on that, a hybrid algorithm for solving convex programming problems is proposed.

Keywords: convex programming, interior point method, linear systems, vector division

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3409 Optimality Conditions for Weak Efficient Solutions Generated by a Set Q in Vector Spaces

Authors: Elham Kiyani, S. Mansour Vaezpour, Javad Tavakoli


In this paper, we first introduce a new distance function in a linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. So, we define Q-weak efficient solutions generated by the algebraic interior of a set Q, where Q is not necessarily convex. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since, for a convex cone K in topological spaces, we have int(K)=cor(K), which means that topological interior of a convex cone K is equal to the algebraic interior of K. Moreover, we used the scalarization technique including the distance function generated by the vectorial closure of a set to characterize these Q-weak efficient solutions. Scalarization is a useful approach for solving vector optimization problems. This technique reduces the optimization problem to a scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real-valued objective function. For instance, Q-weak efficient solutions of vector optimization problems can be characterized and computed as solutions of appropriate scalar optimization problems. In the convex case, linear functionals can be used as objective functionals of the scalar problems. But in the nonconvex case, we should present a suitable objective function. It is the aim of this paper to present a new distance function that be useful to obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for Q-weak efficient solutions of general optimization problems via scalarization.

Keywords: weak efficient, algebraic interior, vector closure, linear space

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
3408 A Linear Relation for Voltage Unbalance Factor Evaluation in Three-Phase Electrical Power System Using Space Vector

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A Ghaeb


The Voltage Unbalance Factor (VUF) index is recommended to evaluate system performance under unbalanced operation. However, its calculation requires complex algebra which limits its use in the field. Furthermore, one system cycle is required at least to detect unbalance using the VUF. Ideally unbalance mitigation must be performed within 10 ms for 50 Hz systems. In this work, a linear relation for VUF evaluation in three-phase electrical power system using space vector (SV) is derived. It is proposed to determine the voltage unbalance quickly and accurately and to overcome the constraints associated with the traditional methods of VUF evaluation. Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) power system is considered to study the system performance under unbalanced conditions. The results show that both the complexity of calculations and the time required to evaluate VUF are reduced significantly.

Keywords: power quality, space vector, unbalance evaluation, three-phase power system

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3407 Vector Quantization Based on Vector Difference Scheme for Image Enhancement

Authors: Biji Jacob


Vector quantization algorithm which uses minimum distance calculation for codebook generation, a time consuming calculation performed on each pixel values leads to computation complexity. The codebook is updated by comparing the distance of each vector to their centroid vector and measure for their closeness. In this paper vector quantization is modified based on vector difference algorithm for image enhancement purpose. In the proposed scheme, vector differences between the vectors are considered as the new generation vectors or new codebook vectors. The codebook is updated by comparing the new generation vector with a threshold value having minimum error with the parent vector. The minimum error decides the fitness of each newly generated vector. Thus the codebook is generated in an adaptive manner and the fitness value is determined for the suppression of the degraded portion of the image and thereby leads to the enhancement of the image through the adaptive searching capability of the vector quantization through vector difference algorithm. Experimental results shows that the vector difference scheme efficiently modifies the vector quantization algorithm for enhancing the image with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), Euclidean distance (E_dist) as the performance parameters.

Keywords: codebook, image enhancement, vector difference, vector quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
3406 Design and Simulation of a Double-Stator Linear Induction Machine with Short Squirrel-Cage Mover

Authors: David Rafetseder, Walter Bauer, Florian Poltschak, Wolfgang Amrhein


A flat double-stator linear induction machine (DSLIM) with a short squirrel-cage mover is designed for high thrust force at moderate speed < 5m/s. The performance and motor parameters are determined on the basis of a 2D time-transient simulation with the finite element (FE) software Maxwell 2015. Design guidelines and transformation rules for space vector theory of the LIM are presented. Resulting thrust calculated by flux and current vectors is compared with the FE results showing good coherence and reduced noise. The parameters of the equivalent circuit model are obtained.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, finite element model, linear induction motor, space vector theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
3405 Q-Efficient Solutions of Vector Optimization via Algebraic Concepts

Authors: Elham Kiyani


In this paper, we first introduce the concept of Q-efficient solutions in a real linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology, where Q is some nonempty (not necessarily convex) set. We also used the scalarization technique including the Gerstewitz function generated by a nonconvex set to characterize these Q-efficient solutions. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since topological interior is equal to algebraic interior for a convex cone. So, we use the algebraic concepts of interior and closure to define Q-weak efficient solutions and Q-Henig proper efficient solutions of set-valued optimization problems, where Q is not a convex cone. Optimization problems with set-valued maps have a wide range of applications, so it is expected that there will be a useful analytical tool in optimization theory for set-valued maps. These kind of optimization problems are closely related to stochastic programming, control theory, and economic theory. The paper focus on nonconvex problems, the results are obtained by assuming generalized non-convexity assumptions on the data of the problem. In convex problems, main mathematical tools are convex separation theorems, alternative theorems, and algebraic counterparts of some usual topological concepts, while in nonconvex problems, we need a nonconvex separation function. Thus, we consider the Gerstewitz function generated by a general set in a real linear space and re-examine its properties in the more general setting. A useful approach for solving a vector problem is to reduce it to a scalar problem. In general, scalarization means the replacement of a vector optimization problem by a suitable scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real valued objective function. The Gerstewitz function is well known and widely used in optimization as the basis of the scalarization. The essential properties of the Gerstewitz function, which are well known in the topological framework, are studied by using algebraic counterparts rather than the topological concepts of interior and closure. Therefore, properties of the Gerstewitz function, when it takes values just in a real linear space are studied, and we use it to characterize Q-efficient solutions of vector problems whose image space is not endowed with any particular topology. Therefore, we deal with a constrained vector optimization problem in a real linear space without assuming any topology, and also Q-weak efficient and Q-proper efficient solutions in the senses of Henig are defined. Moreover, by means of the Gerstewitz function, we provide some necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for set-valued vector optimization problems.

Keywords: algebraic interior, Gerstewitz function, vector closure, vector optimization

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3404 Imprecise Vector: The Case of Subnormality

Authors: Dhruba Das


In this article, the author has put forward the actual mathematical explanation of subnormal imprecise vector. Every subnormal imprecise vector has to be defined with reference to a membership surface. The membership surface of normal imprecise vector has already defined based on Randomness-Impreciseness Consistency Principle. The Randomness- Impreciseness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of impreciseness using two different laws of randomness. A normal imprecise vector is a special case of subnormal imprecise vector. Nothing however is available in the literature about the membership surface when a subnormal imprecise vector is defined. The author has shown here how to construct the membership surface of a subnormal imprecise vector.

Keywords: imprecise vector, membership surface, subnormal imprecise number, subnormal imprecise vector

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3403 Functional Gene Expression in Human Cells Using Linear Vectors Derived from Bacteriophage N15 Processing

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Pei-Sheng Liew


This paper adapts the bacteriophage N15 protelomerase enzyme to assemble linear chromosomes as vectors for gene expression in human cells. Phage N15 has the unique ability to replicate as a linear plasmid with telomeres in E. coli during its prophage stage of life-cycle. The virus-encoded protelomerase enzyme cuts its circular genome and caps its ends to form hairpin telomeres, resulting in a linear human-chromosome-like structure in E. coli. In mammalian cells, however, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show for the first-time transfer of the protelomerase from phage into human and mouse cells and demonstrate recapitulation of its activity in these hosts. The function of this enzyme is assayed by demonstrating cleavage of its target DNA, followed by detecting telomere formation based on its resistance to recBCD enzyme digestion. We show protelomerase expression persists for at least 60 days, which indicates limited silencing of its expression. Next, we show that an intact human β-globin gene delivered on this linear chromosome accurately retains its expression in the human cellular environment for at least 60 hours, demonstrating its stability and potential as a vector. These results demonstrate that the N15 protelomerse is able to function in mammalian cells to cut and heal DNA to create telomeres, which provides a new tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts.

Keywords: chromosome, beta-globin, DNA, gene expression, linear vector

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3402 Parallel Computation of the Covariance-Matrix

Authors: Claude Tadonki


We address the issues related to the computation of the covariance matrix. This matrix is likely to be ill conditioned following its canonical expression, thus consequently raises serious numerical issues. The underlying linear system, which therefore should be solved by means of iterative approaches, becomes computationally challenging. A huge number of iterations is expected in order to reach an acceptable level of convergence, necessary to meet the required accuracy of the computation. In addition, this linear system needs to be solved at each iteration following the general form of the covariance matrix. Putting all together, its comes that we need to compute as fast as possible the associated matrix-vector product. This is our purpose in the work, where we consider and discuss skillful formulations of the problem, then propose a parallel implementation of the matrix-vector product involved. Numerical and performance oriented discussions are provided based on experimental evaluations.

Keywords: covariance-matrix, multicore, numerical computing, parallel computing

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3401 Modeling Aeration of Sharp Crested Weirs by Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Arun Goel


The present paper attempts to investigate the prediction of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency of a free over-fall jets issuing from a triangular sharp crested weir by using regression based modelling. The empirical equations, support vector machine (polynomial and radial basis function) models and the linear regression techniques were applied on the triangular sharp crested weirs relating the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency to the input parameters namely drop height, discharge, and vertex angle. It was observed that there exists a good agreement between the measured values and the values obtained using empirical equations, support vector machine (Polynomial and rbf) models, and the linear regression techniques. The test results demonstrated that the SVM based (Poly & rbf) model also provided acceptable prediction of the measured values with reasonable accuracy along with empirical equations and linear regression techniques in modelling the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency of a free over-fall jets issuing from triangular sharp crested weir. Further sensitivity analysis has also been performed to study the impact of input parameter on the output in terms of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency.

Keywords: air entrainment rate, dissolved oxygen, weir, SVM, regression

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3400 Comparative Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods for Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: Rafik Djemili, Hocine Bourouba, M. C. Amara Korba


In this paper, we present a method in order to classify EEG signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). EEG signals are first processed by means of spectral estimation methods to derive reliable features before classification step. Spectral estimation methods used are standard periodogram and the periodogram calculated by the Welch method; both methods are compared with Logarithm of Band Power (logBP) features. In the method proposed, we apply Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) followed by Support Vector Machine (SVM). Classification accuracy reached could be as high as 85%, which proves the effectiveness of classification of EEG signals based BCI using spectral methods.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, motor imagery, electroencephalogram, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine

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3399 Intracellular Strategies for Gene Delivery into Mammalian Cells Using Bacteria as a Vector

Authors: Kumaran Narayanan, Andrew N. Osahor


E. coli has been engineered by our group and by others as a vector to deliver DNA into cultured human and animal cells. However, so far conditions to improve gene delivery using this vector have not been investigated, resulting in a major gap in our understanding of the requirements for this vector to function optimally. Our group recently published novel data showing that simple addition of the DNA transfection reagent Lipofectamine increased the efficiency of the E. coli vector by almost 3-fold, providing the first strong evidence that further optimization of bactofection is possible. This presentation will discuss advances that demonstrate the effects of several intracellular strategies that improve the efficiency of this vector. Conditions that promote endosomal escape of internalized bacteria to evade lysosomal destruction after entry in the cell, a known obstacle limiting this vector, are elucidated. Further, treatments that increase bacterial lysis so that the vector can release its transgene into the mammalian environment for expression will be discussed. These experiments will provide valuable new insight to advance this E. coli system as an important class of vector technology for genetic correction of human disease models in cells and whole animals.

Keywords: DNA, E. coli, gene expression, vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
3398 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis


In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
3397 Pharmaceutical Applications of Newton's Second Law and Disc Inertia

Authors: Nicholas Jensen


As the effort to create new drugs to treat rare conditions cost-effectively intensifies, there is a need to ensure maximum efficiency in the manufacturing process. This includes the creation of ultracompact treatment forms, which can best be achieved via applications of fundamental laws of physics. This paper reports an experiment exploring the relationship between the forms of Newton's 2ⁿᵈ Law appropriate to linear motion and to transversal architraves. The moment of inertia of three discs was determined by experiments and compared with previous data derived from a theoretical relationship. The method used was to attach the discs to a moment arm. Comparing the results with those obtained from previous experiments, it is found to be consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. It was further found that Newton's 2ⁿᵈ law violates the second law of thermodynamics. The purpose of this experiment was to explore the relationship between the forms of Newton's 2nd Law appropriate to linear motion and to apply torque to a twisting force, which is determined by position vector r and force vector F. Substituting equation alpha in place of beta; angular acceleration is a linear acceleration divided by radius r of the moment arm. The nevrological analogy of Newton's 2nd Law states that these findings can contribute to a fuller understanding of thermodynamics in relation to viscosity. Implications for the pharmaceutical industry will be seen to be fruitful from these findings.

Keywords: Newtonian physics, inertia, viscosity, pharmaceutical applications

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3396 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee


This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, antenna array, linearly constrained minimum variance, robustness, steering vector

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3395 Efficiency of Robust Heuristic Gradient Based Enumerative and Tunneling Algorithms for Constrained Integer Programming Problems

Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello


This paper presents performance of two robust gradient-based heuristic optimization procedures based on 3n enumeration and tunneling approach to seek global optimum of constrained integer problems. Both these procedures consist of two distinct phases for locating the global optimum of integer problems with a linear or non-linear objective function subject to linear or non-linear constraints. In both procedures, in the first phase, a local minimum of the function is found using the gradient approach coupled with hemstitching moves when a constraint is violated in order to return the search to the feasible region. In the second phase, in one optimization procedure, the second sub-procedure examines 3n integer combinations on the boundary and within hypercube volume encompassing the result neighboring the result from the first phase and in the second optimization procedure a tunneling function is constructed at the local minimum of the first phase so as to find another point on the other side of the barrier where the function value is approximately the same. In the next cycle, the search for the global optimum commences in both optimization procedures again using this new-found point as the starting vector. The search continues and repeated for various step sizes along the function gradient as well as that along the vector normal to the violated constraints until no improvement in optimum value is found. The results from both these proposed optimization methods are presented and compared with one provided by popular MS Excel solver that is provided within MS Office suite and other published results.

Keywords: constrained integer problems, enumerative search algorithm, Heuristic algorithm, Tunneling algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3394 Parallel Vector Processing Using Multi Level Orbital DATA

Authors: Nagi Mekhiel


Many applications use vector operations by applying single instruction to multiple data that map to different locations in conventional memory. Transferring data from memory is limited by access latency and bandwidth affecting the performance gain of vector processing. We present a memory system that makes all of its content available to processors in time so that processors need not to access the memory, we force each location to be available to all processors at a specific time. The data move in different orbits to become available to other processors in higher orbits at different time. We use this memory to apply parallel vector operations to data streams at first orbit level. Data processed in the first level move to upper orbit one data element at a time, allowing a processor in that orbit to apply another vector operation to deal with serial code limitations inherited in all parallel applications and interleaved it with lower level vector operations.

Keywords: Memory Organization, Parallel Processors, Serial Code, Vector Processing

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3393 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Vector Modulator for Beamforming System

Authors: J. S. Kim


This paper presents a 0.13-µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) vector modulator for beamforming system. The vector modulator features a 360° phase and gain range of -10 dB to 10 dB with a root mean square phase and amplitude error of only 2.2° and 0.45 dB, respectively. These features make it a suitable for wireless backhaul system in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. It draws a current of 20.4 mA from a 1.2 V supply. The total chip size is 1.87x1.34 mm².

Keywords: CMOS, vector modulator, beamforming, 802.11ac

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3392 Using Support Vector Machines for Measuring Democracy

Authors: Tommy Krieger, Klaus Gruendler


We present a novel approach for measuring democracy, which enables a very detailed and sensitive index. This method is based on Support Vector Machines, a mathematical algorithm for pattern recognition. Our implementation evaluates 188 countries in the period between 1981 and 2011. The Support Vector Machines Democracy Index (SVMDI) is continuously on the 0-1-Interval and robust to variations in the numerical process parameters. The algorithm introduced here can be used for every concept of democracy without additional adjustments, and due to its flexibility it is also a valuable tool for comparison studies.

Keywords: democracy, democracy index, machine learning, support vector machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
3391 Parallel Pipelined Conjugate Gradient Algorithm on Heterogeneous Platforms

Authors: Sergey Kopysov, Nikita Nedozhogin, Leonid Tonkov


The article presents a parallel iterative solver for large sparse linear systems which can be used on a heterogeneous platform. Traditionally, the problem of solving linear systems does not scale well on multi-CPU/multi-GPUs clusters. For example, most of the attempts to implement the classical conjugate gradient method were at best counted in the same amount of time as the problem was enlarged. The paper proposes the pipelined variant of the conjugate gradient method (PCG), a formulation that is potentially better suited for hybrid CPU/GPU computing since it requires only one synchronization point per one iteration instead of two for standard CG. The standard and pipelined CG methods need the vector entries generated by the current GPU and other GPUs for matrix-vector products. So the communication between GPUs becomes a major performance bottleneck on multi GPU cluster. The article presents an approach to minimize the communications between parallel parts of algorithms. Additionally, computation and communication can be overlapped to reduce the impact of data exchange. Using the pipelined version of the CG method with one synchronization point, the possibility of asynchronous calculations and communications, load balancing between the CPU and GPU for solving the large linear systems allows for scalability. The algorithm is implemented with the combined use of technologies: MPI, OpenMP, and CUDA. We show that almost optimum speed up on 8-CPU/2GPU may be reached (relatively to a one GPU execution). The parallelized solver achieves a speedup of up to 5.49 times on 16 NVIDIA Tesla GPUs, as compared to one GPU.

Keywords: conjugate gradient, GPU, parallel programming, pipelined algorithm

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3390 A Hierarchical Method for Multi-Class Probabilistic Classification Vector Machines

Authors: P. Byrnes, F. A. DiazDelaO


The Support Vector Machine (SVM) has become widely recognised as one of the leading algorithms in machine learning for both regression and binary classification. It expresses predictions in terms of a linear combination of kernel functions, referred to as support vectors. Despite its popularity amongst practitioners, SVM has some limitations, with the most significant being the generation of point prediction as opposed to predictive distributions. Stemming from this issue, a probabilistic model namely, Probabilistic Classification Vector Machines (PCVM), has been proposed which respects the original functional form of SVM whilst also providing a predictive distribution. As physical system designs become more complex, an increasing number of classification tasks involving industrial applications consist of more than two classes. Consequently, this research proposes a framework which allows for the extension of PCVM to a multi class setting. Additionally, the original PCVM framework relies on the use of type II maximum likelihood to provide estimates for both the kernel hyperparameters and model evidence. In a high dimensional multi class setting, however, this approach has been shown to be ineffective due to bad scaling as the number of classes increases. Accordingly, we propose the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based methods to provide a posterior distribution over both parameters and hyperparameters. The proposed framework will be validated against current multi class classifiers through synthetic and real life implementations.

Keywords: probabilistic classification vector machines, multi class classification, MCMC, support vector machines

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3389 Comparison of Different Data Acquisition Techniques for Shape Optimization Problems

Authors: Attila Vámosi, Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó


Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. Rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. The shape optimization problem of rubber parts led to the study of FEM based calculation processes. This type of problems was posed and investigated by several authors. In this paper the time demand of certain calculation methods are studied and the possibilities of time reduction is presented.

Keywords: rubber bumper, data acquisition, finite element analysis, support vector regression

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3388 On the Construction of Some Optimal Binary Linear Codes

Authors: Skezeer John B. Paz, Ederlina G. Nocon


Finding an optimal binary linear code is a central problem in coding theory. A binary linear code C = [n, k, d] is called optimal if there is no linear code with higher minimum distance d given the length n and the dimension k. There are bounds giving limits for the minimum distance d of a linear code of fixed length n and dimension k. The lower bound which can be taken by construction process tells that there is a known linear code having this minimum distance. The upper bound is given by theoretic results such as Griesmer bound. One way to find an optimal binary linear code is to make the lower bound of d equal to its higher bound. That is, to construct a binary linear code which achieves the highest possible value of its minimum distance d, given n and k. Some optimal binary linear codes were presented by Andries Brouwer in his published table on bounds of the minimum distance d of binary linear codes for 1 ≤ n ≤ 256 and k ≤ n. This was further improved by Markus Grassl by giving a detailed construction process for each code exhibiting the lower bound. In this paper, we construct new optimal binary linear codes by using some construction processes on existing binary linear codes. Particularly, we developed an algorithm applied to the codes already constructed to extend the list of optimal binary linear codes up to 257 ≤ n ≤ 300 for k ≤ 7.

Keywords: bounds of linear codes, Griesmer bound, construction of linear codes, optimal binary linear codes

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3387 Core Loss Influence on MTPA Current Vector Variation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu, Tae Chul Jeong, Ju Lee


The aim of this study was to develop an electric circuit method (ECM) to ascertain the core loss influence on a Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) in the condition of the maximum torque per ampere (MTPA). SynRM for fan usually operates on the constant torque region, at synchronous speed the MTPA control is adopted due to current vector. However, finite element analysis (FEA) program is not sufficient exactly to reflect how the core loss influenced on the current vector. This paper proposed a method to calculate the current vector with consideration of core loss. The precision of current vector by ECM is useful for MTPA control. The result shows that ECM analysis is closer to the actual motor’s characteristics by testing with a 7.5kW SynRM drive System.

Keywords: core loss, SynRM, current vector, magnetic saturation, maximum torque per ampere (MTPA)

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