Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Mahani Razali

27 Stimulating the Social Interaction Development of Children through Computer Play Activities: The Role of Teachers

Authors: Mahani Razali, Abd Halim Masnan, Nordin Mamat, Seah Siok Peh


This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s social interaction behaviour during computer play activities, teacher’s role and to explore teacher’s beliefs, views and knowledge about computers use in four Malaysian pre-schools.This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children and three teachers as the research sample. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify social interaction behavior among pre-school children through computer play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers on the acquired of social interaction behavior development among the children. A variety of patterns can be seen within the peer interactions indicating that children exhibit a vast range of social interactions at the computer, and they varied each day. The findings of this study guide us to certain conclusions, which have implications in understanding the phenomena of how computers were used and how its relationship to the children’s social interactions emerge in the four Malaysian preschools. This study provides evidence that the children’s social interactions with peers and adults were mediated by the engagement of the children in the computer environments.

Keywords: computer, play, preschool, social interaction

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26 Stimulating Young Children Social Interaction Behaviour through Computer Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat


The purpose of the study is to explore how computer technology is integrated into pre-school activities and its relationship with children’s social interaction behaviour in pre-school classroom. The major question of interest in the present study is to investigate the social interaction behaviour of children when using computers in the Malaysian pre-school classroom. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s social interaction during computer play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s social interaction. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify social interaction behaviour among pre-school children through computer play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired social interaction behaviour among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on social interaction behaviour elements among the pre-school children. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the social interaction behaviour during their computer play. This research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s social interaction behaviour through computer play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of computer play activities as to stimulate social interaction behavior among the pre-school children.

Keywords: early childhood, emotional development, parent support, play

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25 Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat


The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.

Keywords: social emotional, children, play activities, stimulating

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24 Recognition of Cursive Arabic Handwritten Text Using Embedded Training Based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)

Authors: Rabi Mouhcine, Amrouch Mustapha, Mahani Zouhir, Mammass Driss


In this paper, we present a system for offline recognition cursive Arabic handwritten text based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The system is analytical without explicit segmentation used embedded training to perform and enhance the character models. Extraction features preceded by baseline estimation are statistical and geometric to integrate both the peculiarities of the text and the pixel distribution characteristics in the word image. These features are modelled using hidden Markov models and trained by embedded training. The experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database show that the proposed system improves recognition.

Keywords: recognition, handwriting, Arabic text, HMMs, embedded training

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23 Development of Portable Water Jet Cutter Mobile Hand Tool: Analysis of Nozzle Geometries and Materials

Authors: Razali Bin Abidin


This paper presents the development of a portable water jet cutter for soft materials such as meat. Twelve geometries of nozzles were simulated using finite element method. Water pressure was set to 1500 lb/in². Through the simulation, highest average water output speed was 133.04 m/s. The nozzle was fabricated from Al - alloy 5052 with the Factor of Safety~ 3. This indicates that the nozzle made of Al-alloy 5052 is capable of performing the cutting process without any fracture. Preliminary design of mobile water jet hand tool is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: water jet, finite element, Al-alloy 5052, nozzle geometry

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22 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail


Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation

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21 Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders

Authors: T. Zhou, S. F. Mohd Razali, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, L. Cheng


The wake flow behind two yawed side-by-side circular cylinders is investigated using a three-dimensional vorticity probe. Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and two cylinder spacing ratios T* of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T* = 3.0, there exist two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent stream-wise vorticity is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity. With the increase of α, increases whereas decreases. At α = 45°, is about 67% of. For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is detected in the energy spectrum. The span-wise vorticity contours have an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity contours of and for T* = 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those for T* = 3.0. The independence principle (IP) in terms of Strouhal numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.

Keywords: circular cylinder wake, vorticity, vortex shedding, side-by-side

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20 Disaggregating and Forecasting the Total Energy Consumption of a Building: A Case Study of a High Cooling Demand Facility

Authors: Juliana Barcelos Cordeiro, Khashayar Mahani, Farbod Farzan, Mohsen A. Jafari


Energy disaggregation has been focused by many energy companies since energy efficiency can be achieved when the breakdown of energy consumption is known. Companies have been investing in technologies to come up with software and/or hardware solutions that can provide this type of information to the consumer. On the other hand, not all people can afford to have these technologies. Therefore, in this paper, we present a methodology for breaking down the aggregate consumption and identifying the highdemanding end-uses profiles. These energy profiles will be used to build the forecast model for optimal control purpose. A facility with high cooling load is used as an illustrative case study to demonstrate the results of proposed methodology. We apply a high level energy disaggregation through a pattern recognition approach in order to extract the consumption profile of its rooftop packaged units (RTUs) and present a forecast model for the energy consumption.  

Keywords: energy consumption forecasting, energy efficiency, load disaggregation, pattern recognition approach

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19 Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare Monitoring

Authors: Ebrahim Farahmand, Ali Mahani


Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can facilitate continuous monitoring of patients and increase early detection of emergency conditions and diseases. High density WSNs helps us to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. Due to energy capacity limitation of sensors, enhancing the lifetime and the reliability of WSNs are important factors in designing of these networks. The clustering strategies are verified as effective and practical algorithms for reducing energy consumption in WSNs and can tackle WSNs limitations. In this paper, an Energy-efficient weight-based Clustering Protocol (EWCP) is presented. Artificial retina is selected as a case study of WSNs applied in body sensors. Cluster heads’ (CHs) selection is equipped with energy efficient parameters. Moreover, cluster members are selected based on their distance to the selected CHs. Comparing with the other benchmark protocols, the lifetime of EWCP is improved significantly.

Keywords: WSN, healthcare monitoring, weighted based clustering, lifetime

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18 A Novel Model for Saturation Velocity Region of Graphene Nanoribbon Transistor

Authors: Mohsen Khaledian, Razali Ismail, Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry


A semi-analytical model for impact ionization coefficient of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is presented. The model is derived by calculating probability of electrons reaching ionization threshold energy Et and the distance traveled by electron gaining Et. In addition, ionization threshold energy is semi-analytically modeled for GNR. We justify our assumptions using analytic modeling and comparison with simulation results. Gaussian simulator together with analytical modeling is used in order to calculate ionization threshold energy and Kinetic Monte Carlo is employed to calculate ionization coefficient and verify the analytical results. Finally, the profile of ionization is presented using the proposed models and simulation and the results are compared with that of silicon.

Keywords: nanostructures, electronic transport, semiconductor modeling, systems engineering

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17 Survey the Effects of Climate in Traditional and Modern Architecture of Iran

Authors: Yousefali Ziari, Hamidreza Joudaki


Humans have regularly been interacting with their environment, and have a close relation with their environment. House as a shelter which protects us against hot and cold weather and the other climatic occurrences in the environment has a close relation with climate. Before human could have access to the fossil fuels, preparing the comfort for the house was done by adjusting the building according to the climate conditions, and the help of natural resources. However after the man could access the fossil fuel, this way was forgotten, and caused much use of energy for heating & cooling. This research is trying to find some methods for designing suitable building that create comfort fitting with the zone by studying the climate condition of Arak city and as a result to find a way to reduce the use of energy and improving the design. So for the aim of this research we have used the statistics and information such as temperature, rain, wind and the approximate moisture from a period of 40 years from synoptic station of Arak. After specifying the climate of Arak by the use of effective temperature, Ulgi, Guni, Mahani and Ovenz indicator, we investigated the climate comfort conditions and the harmonious architecture with the climate and then some suggestion was given according to the climate situation of each month of the year and quality of human comfort according to this indicators.

Keywords: climate, architecture, traditional and modern architecture, comfort indicator, Arak city

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16 A New Full Adder Cell for High Performance Low Power Applications

Authors: Mahdiar Hosseighadiry, Farnaz Fotovatikhah, Razali Ismail, Mohsen Khaledian, Mehdi Saeidemanesh


In this paper, a new low-power high-performance full adder is presented based on a new design method. The proposed method relies on pass gate design and provides full-swing circuits with minimum number of transistors. The method has been applied on SUM, COUT and XOR-XNOR modules resulting on rail-to-rail intermediate and output signals with no feedback transistors. The presented full adder cell has been simulated in 45 and 32 nm CMOS technologies using HSPICE considering parasitic capacitance and compared to several well-known designs from literature. In addition, the proposed cell has been extensively evaluated with different output loads, supply voltages, temperatures, threshold voltages, and operating frequencies. Results show that it functions properly under all mentioned conditions and exhibits less PDP compared to other design styles.

Keywords: full adders, low-power, high-performance, VLSI design

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15 Constraints Women Academician's Participation at Administrative Positions in Higher Education of Developing Countries

Authors: Bahieh Mohajeri, Mohamad Sharif Mustaf, Mahani Mokhtar


Purpose: This paper attempts to set the stage for the exploration of female participation in administrative positions within non-western countries by reviewing the studies on female in administrative positions within non-western countries and suggesting guidelines for future studies in this area in developing countries. Methodology: The paper is based on a systematic review of papers that have been published in journals. Findings: The review focuses on constraints to female’s participation in higher education of developing countries (e.g. strong family responsibility, low levels of women faculty members, social values and gendered cultural factors). Practical Implications: Further guidelines for future examination of this field of study are suggested (e.g. adopting a different theoretical view).Value: The article is an initial attempt to gather knowledge about constraints of female administrators in higher education of developing countries. The subject has received less attention in studies on administration and gender. In addition, the article provides suggestions for future studies in order to understand women administrators’ experiences in different educational and cultural settings.

Keywords: administrative position, female administrator, developing countries, participation

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14 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir


This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: methodology, flip chip, bump cell, LEF, astro, calibre, SCHEME, TCL

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13 Physical Verification Flow on Multiple Foundries

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Muhammad Al Baqir Zinal Abidin, Md Hanif Md Nasir


This paper will discuss how we optimize our physical verification flow in our IC Design Department having various rule decks from multiple foundries. Our ultimate goal is to achieve faster time to tape-out and avoid schedule delay. Currently the physical verification runtimes and memory usage have drastically increased with the increasing number of design rules, design complexity and the size of the chips to be verified. To manage design violations, we use a number of solutions to reduce the amount of violations needed to be checked by physical verification engineers. The most important functions in physical verifications are DRC (design rule check), LVS (layout vs. schematic) and XRC (extraction). Since we have a multiple number of foundries for our design tape-outs, we need a flow that improve the overall turnaround time and ease of use of the physical verification process. The demand for fast turnaround time is even more critical since the physical design is the last stage before sending the layout to the foundries.

Keywords: physical verification, DRC, LVS, XRC, flow, foundry, runset

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12 The Integration and Automation of EDA Tools in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, M. Hanif M. Nasir


This paper will discuss how EDA tools are integrated and automated in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment. Some of the problems face in our current environment is that users need to configure manually on the library paths, start-up files and project directories. Certain manual processes that happen between the users and applications can be automated but they must be transparent to the users. For example, the users can run the applications directly after login without knowing the library paths and start-up files locations. The solution to these problems is to automate the processes using standard configuration files which will benefit the users and EDA support. This paper will discuss how the implementation is done to automate the process using scripting languages such as Perl, Tcl, Scheme and Shell Script. These scripting tools are great assets for design engineers to build a robust and powerful design flow and this technique is widely used to integrate all the tools together.

Keywords: EDA tools, Integrated Circuits, scripting, integration, automation

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11 Characterization and Detection of Cadmium Ion Using Modification Calixarene with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Amira Shakila Razali, Faridah Lisa Supian, Muhammad Mat Salleh, Suriani Abu Bakar


Water contamination by toxic compound is one of the serious environmental problems today. These toxic compounds mostly originated from industrial effluents, agriculture, natural sources and human waste. These study are focused on modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) with nanoparticle of calixarene and explore the possibility of using this nanocomposites for the remediation of cadmium in water. The nanocomposites were prepared by dissolving calixarene in chloroform solution as solvent, followed by additional multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) then sonication process for 3 hour and fabricated the nanocomposites on substrate by spin coating method. Finally, the nanocomposites were tested on cadmium ion (10 mg/ml). The morphology of nanocomposites was investigated by FESEM showing the formation of calixarene on the outer walls of carbon nanotube and cadmium ion also clearly seen from the micrograph. This formation was supported by using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The presence of cadmium ions in the films, leads to some changes in the surface potential and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).This nanocomposites have potential for development of sensor for pollutant monitoring and nanoelectronics devices applications

Keywords: calixarene, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, cadmium, surface potential

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10 Assessment of Radiological Dose for Th-232 Laboratory Accumulated in Tropical Freshwater Fish

Authors: Zal U’yun Wan Mahmood, Norfaizal Mohamed, Nita Salina Abu Bakar, Yii Mei Wo, Abdul Kadir Ishak, Mohamad Noh Sawon, Mohd Tarmizi Ishak, Khairul Nizam Razali


The study of thorium radiotracer bioaccumulation in the whole body tropical freshwater fish (Anabas testudeneus; climb pearch) was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different Th-232 activity concentration andradiological dose in Anabas testudeneus under the laboratory bioaccumulation condition. Anabas testudeneus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL-1 (control), 50 BqL-1, 100 BqL-1,150 BqL-1and 200 BqL-1for 30 days. Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels were calculated and; total dose rates and risk quotients using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive decrease of Th concentration ratio. Meanwhile, the total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudeneus less than the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 µGyh-1 and the risk quotient less than one. Thus, the findings can be concluded that the radiological dose of Th-232 to Anabas testudeneus is a very low probability and the situation may be considered to be of negligible radiological concern.

Keywords: Anabas testudeneus, bioaccumulation, radiological dose, Th-232

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9 Using Thinking Blocks to Encourage the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Students When Solving Problems on Fractions

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdullah, Nur Liyana Zainal Abidin, Mahani Mokhtar


Problem-solving is an activity which can encourage students to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Learning fractions can be challenging for students since empirical evidence shows that students experience difficulties in solving the fraction problems. However, visual methods can help students to overcome the difficulties since the methods help students to make meaningful visual representations and link abstract concepts in Mathematics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any changes in students’ HOTS at the four highest levels when learning the fractions by using Thinking Blocks. 54 students participated in a quasi-experiment using pre-tests and post-tests. Students were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=32) received a treatment to improve the students’ HOTS and the other group acted as the control group (n=22) which used a traditional method. Data were analysed by using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that during post-test, students who used Thinking Blocks showed significant improvement in their HOTS level (p=0.000). In addition, the results of post-test also showed that the students’ performance improved significantly at the four highest levels of HOTS; namely, application (p=0.001), analyse (p=0.000), evaluate (p=0.000), and create (p=0.000). Therefore, it can be concluded that Thinking Blocks can effectively encourage students to use the four highest levels of HOTS which consequently enable them to solve fractions problems successfully.

Keywords: Thinking Blocks, Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), fractions, problem solving

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8 A Review of Literature on Theories of Construction Accident Causation Models

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Bin Adul Hamid, M. S. Misnan, Taki Eddine Seghier, D. I. Ajayi


Construction sites are characterized with occupational risks. Review of literature on construction accidents reveals that a lot of theories have been propounded over the years by different theorists, coupled with multifarious models developed by different proponents at different times. Accidents are unplanned events that are prominent in construction sites, involving materials, objects and people with attendant damages, loses and injuries. Models were developed to investigate the causations of accident with the aim of preventing its occurrence. Though, some of these theories were criticized, most especially, the Heinrich Domino theory, being mostly faulted for placing much blame on operatives rather than the management. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the significant construction accident causation theories and models for the benefit of understanding of the theories, and consequently enabling construction stakeholders identify the possible potential hazards on construction sites, as all stakeholders have significant roles to play in preventing accident. Accidents are preventable; hence, understanding the risk factors of accident and the causation theories paves way for its prevention. However, findings reveal that still some gaps missing in the existing models, while it is recommended that further research can be made in order to develop more models in order to maintain zero accident on construction sites.

Keywords: domino theory, construction site, site safety, accident causation model

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7 Horizontal-Vertical and Enhanced-Unicast Interconnect Testing Techniques for Network-on-Chip

Authors: Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry, Razali Ismail, F. Fotovati


One of the most important and challenging tasks in testing network-on-chip based system-on-chips (NoC based SoCs) is to verify the communication entity. It is important because of its usage for transferring both data packets and test patterns for intellectual properties (IPs) during normal and test mode. Hence, ensuring of NoC reliability is required for reliable IPs functionality and testing. On the other hand, it is challenging due to the required time to test it and the way of transferring test patterns from the tester to the NoC components. In this paper, two testing techniques for mesh-based NoC interconnections are proposed. The first one is based on one-by-one testing and the second one divides NoC interconnects into three parts, horizontal links of switches in even columns, horizontal links of switches in odd columns and all vertical. A design for testability (DFT) architecture is represented to send test patterns directly to each switch under test and also support the proposed testing techniques by providing a loopback path in each switch. The simulation results shows the second proposed testing mechanism outperforms in terms of test time because this method test all the interconnects in only three phases, independent to the number of existed interconnects in the network, while test time of other methods are highly dependent to the number of switches and interconnects in the NoC.

Keywords: on chip, interconnection testing, horizontal-vertical testing, enhanced unicast

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6 Exploring the Effectiveness and Challenges of Implementing Self-Regulated Learning to Improve Spoken English

Authors: Md. Shaiful Islam, Mahani Bt. Stapa


To help learners overcome their struggle in developing proficiency in spoken English, self-regulated learning strategies seem to be promising. Students in the private universities in Bangladesh are expected to communicate with the teachers, peers, and staff members in English, but most of them suffer from their inadequate oral communicative competence in English. To address this problem, the researchers adopted a qualitative research approach to answer the research questions. They employed the learner diary method to collect data from the first-semester undergraduate students of a reputed private university in Bangladesh who were involved in writing weekly diaries about their use of self-regulated learning strategies to improve speaking in an English speaking course. The learners were provided with prompts for writing the diaries. The thematic analysis method was applied to analyze the entries of the diaries for the identification of themes. Seven strategies related to the effectiveness of SRL for the improvement of spoken English were identified from the data, and they include goal-setting, strategic planning, identifying the sources of self-motivation, help-seeking, environmental restructuring, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation. However, the students reported in their diaries that they faced challenges that impeded their SRL strategy use. Five challenges were identified, and they entail the complex nature of SRL, lack of literacy on SRL, teachers’ preference for controlling the class, learners’ past habit of learning, and students’ addiction to gadgets. The implications the study addresses include revising the syllabus and curriculum, facilitating SRL training for students and teachers, and integrating SRL in the lessons.

Keywords: private university in Bangladesh, proficiency, self-regulated learning, spoken English

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5 To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared

Authors: Tengku Muhammad Rafi Nazmi Bin Tengku Razali, Habsah Alwi


This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.

Keywords: aquilaria subintegra, vacuum far infrared, SOXHLET extractor, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, paracetamol

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4 Modelling the Effect of Physical Environment Factors on Child Pedestrian Severity Collisions in Malaysia: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis

Authors: Muhamad N. Borhan, Nur S. Darus, Siti Z. Ishak, Rozmi Ismail, Siti F. M. Razali


Children are at the greater risk to be involved in road traffic collisions due to the complex interaction of various elements in our transportation system. It encompasses interactions between the elements of children and driver behavior along with physical and social environment factors. The present study examined the effect between the collisions severity and physical environment factors on child pedestrian collisions. The severity of collisions is categorized into four injury outcomes: fatal, serious injury, slight injury, and damage. The sample size comprised of 2487 cases of child pedestrian-vehicle collisions in which children aged 7 to 12 years old was involved in Malaysia for the years 2006-2015. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to establish the effect between severity levels and physical environment factors. The results showed that eight contributing factors influence the probability of an injury road surface material, traffic system, road marking, control type, lighting condition, type of location, land use and road surface condition. Understanding the effect of physical environment factors may contribute to the improvement of physical environment design and decrease the collision involvement.

Keywords: child pedestrian, collisions, primary school, road injuries

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3 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi, Taki Eddine Seghier


Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: construction industry, safety measures, accident, prevention

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2 Gas-Liquid Flow Regimes in Vertical Venturi Downstream of Horizontal Blind-Tee

Authors: Muhammad Alif Bin Razali, Cheng-Gang Xie, Wai Lam Loh


A venturi device is commonly used as an integral part of a multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) in real-time oil-gas production monitoring. For an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flowrate, a gas-liquid flow ideally needs to be well mixed in the venturi measurement section. Partial flow mixing is achieved by installing a venturi vertically downstream of the blind-tee pipework that ‘homogenizes’ the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow. In order to study in-depth the flow-mixing effect of the blind-tee, gas-liquid flows are captured at blind-tee and venturi sections by using a high-speed video camera and a purpose-built transparent test rig, over a wide range of superficial liquid velocities (0.3 to 2.4m/s) and gas volume fractions (10 to 95%). Electrical capacitance sensors are built to measure the instantaneous holdup (of oil-gas flows) at the venturi inlet and throat. Flow regimes and flow (a)symmetry are investigated based on analyzing the statistical features of capacitance sensors’ holdup time-series data and of the high-speed video time-stacked images. The perceived homogenization effect of the blind-tee on the incoming intermittent horizontal flow regimes is found to be relatively small across the tested flow conditions. A horizontal (blind-tee) to vertical (venturi) flow-pattern transition map is proposed based on gas and liquid mass fluxes (weighted by the Baker parameters).

Keywords: blind-tee, flow visualization, gas-liquid two-phase flow, MPFM

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1 Walls against Legal Identity: A Qualitative Study on Children of Refugees without Birth Registration in Malaysia

Authors: Rodziana M. Razali, Tamara J. Duraisingham


Malaysia is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol despite receiving the largest share of refugee inflows in Southeast Asia aside from Thailand. In Peninsular Malaysia, the majority of refugees and asylum seekers are from Myanmar, with Rohingya refugees recording the highest number compared to all other ethnicities. In the eastern state of Sabah, the presence of refugees who have long established themselves in the state is connected to those who escaped military persecution in southern Philippines in the 1970’s and 1980’s. A combination of legal and non-legal factors has created and sustained an adverse atmosphere of deprivation of legal identity for children of migrants including refugees born in Malaysia. This paper aims to qualitatively analyse the barriers to birth registration as the cornerstone of every person’s legal identity for children of refugees born in this country, together with the associated human rights implications. Data obtained through semi-structured interviews with refugees in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and Rohingya refugees in Peninsular Malaysia shall be studied alongside secondary sources. Results show that births out of medical facilities, suspension of birth records, illiteracy, lack of awareness on the importance and procedures of birth registration, inability to meet documentary requirements, as well as fear of immigration enforcement, are the key factors hindering birth registration. These challenges exist against the backdrop of restrictive integration policy to avoid destabilising demographic and racial balance, political sentiment stirring xenophobic prejudices, as well as other economic and national security considerations. With no proof of their legal identity, the affected children grow up in a legal limbo, facing multiple human rights violations across generations. This research concludes that the country’s framework and practice concerning birth registration is in need of serious reform and improvement to reflect equality and universality of access to its birth registration system. Such would contribute significantly towards meeting its commitments to the post-2015 sustainable development agenda that pledges to 'Leave no one behind', as well as its recently announced National Human Rights Action Plan.

Keywords: birth registration, children, Malaysia, refugees

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