Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1640

Search results for: psychological contract

1640 Psychological Contract Violation and Occupational Stressors amongst UK Police Officers

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Psychological contract refers to the perceptions of an employee and their employer regarding their mutual obligations towards each other. The rationale for applying the psychological contract theory in UK policing was to investigate its impact on their wellbeing because the psychological contract is a useful tool in identifying factors having a negative effect on the wellbeing of employees. The paper will report on a study, which examined how occupational stressors and psychological contract violation may influence the wellbeing (e.g. Physical Stress and General Health) of a sample of police officers (N=127). The design of the study was cross-sectional and based on data collected through a self-report survey. The results of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation model, suggest that occupational stressors and psychological contract violation play a critical role in both physical and psychological health. The implications of these findings and the utility of considering the psychological contract will be discussed.

Keywords: police officers, psychological contract, occupational stressors, wellbeing

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1639 The Psychological Contract and the Readiness to Verbalize It in Financial Institutions in Poland

Authors: Anna Rogozińska-Pawełczyk

Abstract:

A psychological contract is an agreement between the employer and an employee that covers the parties’ informal and frequently non-verbalized obligations and expectations towards each other. The contract is a cognitive pattern-governing employee’s behaviour in the organization. A gap between employee’s expectations and the organizational reality may lead to difficult-to-solve conflicts or cause the employee to modify their behaviour towards organizational values and goals, if they are willing and ready to verbalize their expectations. The article discusses psychological contracts in the financial institutions in Poland. Its theoretical part outlines the types of psychological contracts in organizations (relational, transactional, and balanced) and shows the process of their verbalization. The purpose of the article is to present how the type of the psychological contract relates to employee’s readiness to verbalize it. The article ends with conclusions arising from the study.

Keywords: customer contact staff in banks, employee expectations, financial institutions, mutual expectations, psychological contract, verbalization of the psychological contract

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1638 Psycholgical Contract Violation and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction Level: A Study on Subordinate Employees in Enterprises of Hanoi, Vietnam

Authors: Quangyen Tran, YeZhuang Tian, Chengfeng Li

Abstract:

Psychological contract violations may lead to damaging an organization through losing its potential employees; it is a very significant concept in understanding the employment relationships. The authors selected contents of psychological contract violation scale based on the nine areas of violation most relevant to managerial samples (High pay, training, job security, career development, pay based on performance, promotion, feedback, expertise and quality of co-workers and support with personal problems), using regression analysis, the degree of psychological contract violations was measured by an adaptation of a multiplicative scale with Cronbach’s alpha as a measure of reliability. Through the regression analysis, psychological contract violations was found have a positive impact on employees’ job satisfaction, the frequency of psychological contract violations was more intense among male employees particularly in terms of training, job security and pay based on performance. Job dissatisfaction will lead to a lowering of employee commitment in the job, enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam should therefore offer lucrative jobs in terms of salary and other emoluments to their employees.

Keywords: psychological contract, psychological contract violation, job satisfaction, subordinate employees, employers’ obligation

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1637 Moderating Role of Psychological Contract in Relationship between Moral Disengagement and Counterproductive Work Behavior

Authors: Afsheen Masood, Sumaira Rashid, Nadia Ijaz, Shama Mazahir

Abstract:

The current study examined the relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that there is likely to be a significant relationship between moral disengagement, psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that moral disengagement is likely to significantly predict counterproductive work behavior. It is hypothesized that psychological contract is likely to moderate the relationship between moral disengagement, and counterproductive work behavior. Cross-sectional survey research design was used for the study. The sample consisted of 500 middle managers, age ranging between 30-45 years working in private and public sector. The measures used were Moral Disengagement Scale, Psychological Contract Scale, and Counterproductive Work Behavior. Series of Correlation analyses, Regression analysis, moderation analysis and t-test was run in order to execute descriptive and inferential analyses. The findings revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. Psychological contract significantly mediated the relationship between moral disengagement and counterproductive work behaviors. There were significant gender differences reported in psychological contract and counterproductive work behaviors. The insightful findings carry significant implication for organizational psychologists and organizational stakeholders.

Keywords: psychological contract, moral disengagement, counterproductive work behaviors, mediation analysis

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1636 Psychological Contract Breach and Violation Relationships with Stress and Wellbeing

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Negative emotions resulting from the breach of perceived obligations by an employer is called the psychological contract violation. Employees perceiving breach and feelings of negative emotions result in adverse outcomes for both the employee and employer. This paper aims to identify the relationships between contract breach, violation, stress and wellbeing and investigate whether fairness and self-efficacy mediate the relationships. A mixed method approach was used to analyze the online-surveys and semi-structured interviews with the police officers. It was identified that the psychological contract violation predicts stress and job-related well-being. Fairness and self-efficacy were identified as significant mediators to understand the underlying mechanisms of association. Whilst, in the interviews social support was identified as a popular mediator. Practical implications for employers are discussed.

Keywords: psychological contract violation and breach, stressors, depression, anxiety

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1635 Work that Matters: Positioning a Method to Design Experience-Based People Practices

Authors: Dieter Veldsman, Marna van der Merwe

Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic, rise of remote work and the “great resignation” has revealed the limitations of current people practices. Employees seeking more meaningful work has led to a re-evaluation of the psychological contract and its role within the employment relationship. The alignment between employer brand, employee value proposition and the employee experience is essential to deliver on psychological contract expectations. However, in practice, these efforts still leave a lot to be desired. The study proposes a practice-informed theoretical framework for designing human-centric experiences, through the lens of the psychological contract. The study aimed to: Identify factors that influence the psychological contract. Highlight differences and intersections between the employee experience, employer brand, employee value proposition and psychological contract. Define the implications of this on people practice design. The study utilised an action research approach and multiple case study design. The first phase focused on conceptualising a theoretical framework. The second phase focused on the framework application to three use cases, in a multi-national insurance organization (n = 16 332), over an 18-month period. The following insights were yielded: The psychological contract is key to balancing expectations between employee and organisation and should be a foundational consideration in people practice design. The intersect between the employer brand and employee experience provides guidance on defining the practices most important to creating compelling experiences. The intersect of the employer brand and employee value proposition provides insight into the end user, forming the basis of human-centred practice design.The intersect of the employee value proposition and the employee experience guides how the practice should be authentically delivered. The integration of these elements collectively contributes towards the management of psychological contract expectations The study explored the application of an experience-based design methodology to balance the psychological contract expectations with the employer brand, employee value proposition and lived experiences. This contributes towards the current literature on these constructs, through the lens of the psychological contract. It also defines a replicable design methodology that contributes to sustainable people practices, by delivering on psychological contract expectations.

Keywords: employee experience, employee value proposition, organizational behavior, employer brand

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1634 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

Abstract:

Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support, psychological contract, turnover intention

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1633 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, shariah compliance, profi t and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract

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1632 Formal Verification for Ethereum Smart Contract Using Coq

Authors: Xia Yang, Zheng Yang, Haiyong Sun, Yan Fang, Jingyu Liu, Jia Song

Abstract:

The smart contract in Ethereum is a unique program deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to help manage cryptocurrency. The security of this smart contract is critical to Ethereum’s operation and highly sensitive. In this paper, we present a formal model for smart contract, using the separated term-obligation (STO) strategy to formalize and verify the smart contract. We use the IBM smart sponsor contract (SSC) as an example to elaborate the detail of the formalizing process. We also propose a formal smart sponsor contract model (FSSCM) and verify SSC’s security properties with an interactive theorem prover Coq. We found the 'Unchecked-Send' vulnerability in the SSC, using our formal model and verification method. Finally, we demonstrate how we can formalize and verify other smart contracts with this approach, and our work indicates that this formal verification can effectively verify the correctness and security of smart contracts.

Keywords: smart contract, formal verification, Ethereum, Coq

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1631 Waad Bil Mourabaha Pricing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

In this work, we will modelize Waad Bil Mourabaha contract. This islamic contract provides the right to buy goods at a future date with a Mourabaha. Waad is a promise of sale or purchase of goods, declared in a unilateral way. In spite of the divergence between some schools of Islamic law about the Waad, this contract will allow us to study sophisticated and interesting contract: Waad Bil Mourabaha that can be used for hedging. In order to price Waad Bil Mourabaha contract, we will use an adapted Black and Scholes model using the Shariah compliant assumptions.

Keywords: Islamic finance, Black-Scholes model, call option, risks, hedging

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1630 Psychological Contract and Job Embeddedness Perspectives to Understand Cynicism as a Behavioural Response to Pressures in the Workplace

Authors: Merkouche Wassila, Marchand Alain, Renaud Stéphane

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Organizations are facing competitive pressures constraining them to modify their practices and change initial work conditions of employees, however, these modifications have to sustain initial quality of work and engagements toward the workforce. We focus on the importance of promises in the perspective of psychological contract. According to this perspective, employees perceiving a breach of the expected obligations from the employer may become unsatisfied at work and develop organizational withdrawal behaviors. These are negative counterproductive behaviours aiming to damage the organisation according to the principle of reciprocity and social exchange. We present an integrative model of the determinants and manifestations of organizational withdrawal (OW), a set of behaviors allowing the employee to leave his job or avoid his assigned work. OW contains two main components often studied in silos: work withdrawal (delays, absenteeism and other adverse behaviors) and job withdrawal (turnover). We use the systemic micro, meso and macro sociological approach designing the individual at the heart of a system containing individual, organizational, and environmental determinants. Under the influence of these different factors, the individual assesses the type of behavior to adopt. We provide better lighting for understanding OW using both psychological contract approach through the perception of its respect by the organization and job embeddedness approach which explains why the employee does not leave the organization and then remains in his post while practicing negative and counterproductive behaviors such as OW. We study specifically cynicism as a type of OW as it is a dimension of burnout. We focus on the antecedents of cynicism to try to prevent it in the workplace.

Keywords: burnout, cynicism, job embeddedness, organizational withdrawal, psychological contract

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1629 The Contract for Educational Services: Civil and Administrative Aspects

Authors: Yuliya Leonidovna Kiva-Khamzina

Abstract:

The legal nature of the contract for educational services causes a lot of controversies. In particular, it raises the question about industry sector relationships, which require making a contract for educational services. The article describes the different types of contracts classifications for services provision from the perspective of civil law, deals with the specifics of the contract on rendering educational services; the author makes the conclusion that the contract for the provision of educational services is a complex institution that includes elements of the civil and administrative law. The following methods were used to conduct the study: dialectical method of cognition, the historical method, systemic analysis, classification.

Keywords: administrative aspect, civil aspect, educational service, industry, legal nature, services provision

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1628 A Survey on the Blockchain Smart Contract System: Security Strengths and Weaknesses

Authors: Malaw Ndiaye, Karim Konate

Abstract:

Smart contracts are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, and execute the negotiation or execution of a contract, or that render a contractual term unnecessary. Blockchain and smart contracts can be used to facilitate almost any financial transaction. Thanks to these smart contracts, the settlement of dividends and coupons could be automated. Smart contracts have become lucrative and profitable targets for attackers because they can hold a great amount of money. Smart contracts, although widely used in blockchain technology, are far from perfect due to security concerns. Since there are recent studies on smart contract security, none of them systematically study the strengths and weaknesses of smart contract security. Some have focused on an analysis of program-related vulnerabilities by providing a taxonomy of vulnerabilities. Other studies are responsible for listing the series of attacks linked to smart contracts. Although a series of attacks are listed, there is a lack of discussions and proposals on improving security. This survey takes stock of smart contract security from a more comprehensive perspective by correlating the level of vulnerability and systematic review of security levels in smart contracts.

Keywords: blockchain, Bitcoin, smart contract, criminal smart contract, security

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1627 An Application of Bidirectional Option Contract to Coordinate a Dyadic Fashion Apparel Supply Chain

Authors: Arnab Adhikari, Arnab Bisi

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Since the inception, the fashion apparel supply chain is facing the problem of high demand uncertainty. Often the demand volatility compels the corresponding supply chain member to incur substantial holding cost and opportunity cost in case of the overproduction and the underproduction scenario, respectively. It leads to an uncoordinated fashion apparel supply chain. There exist several scholarly works to achieve coordination in the fashion apparel supply chain by employing the different contracts such as the buyback contract, the revenue sharing contract, the option contract, and so on. Specially, the application of option contract in the apparel industry becomes prevalent with the changing global scenario. Exploration of existing literature related to the option contract reveals that most of the research works concentrate on the one direction demand adjustment i.e. either to match the demand upwards or downwards. Here, we present a holistic approach to coordinate a dyadic fashion apparel supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer with the help of bidirectional option contract. We show a combination of wholesale price contract and bidirectional option contract can coordinate the under expanded supply chain. We also propose a framework that captures the variation of the apparel retailer’s order quantity and the apparel manufacturer’s production quantity with the changing exercise price for the different ranges of the option price. We analytically explore that corresponding cost parameters of the supply chain members along with the nature of demand distribution play an instrumental role in the coordination as well as the retailer’s ordering decision.

Keywords: fashion apparel supply chain, supply chain coordination, wholesale price contract, bidirectional option contract

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1626 Recovery of Damages by General Cargo Interest under Bill of Lading Carriage Contract

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale

Abstract:

Cargo claims are brought by cargo interests against carriers when the goods are not delivered or delivered short or mis-delivered or delivered damaged. The objective of the cargo claimant is to seek recovery for the loss suffered through the award of damages against the carrier by a court of competent jurisdiction. Moreover, whether the vessel on which the goods were carried is or is not under charter, the bill of lading plays a central role in the cargo claim. Since the bill of lading is an important international transport document, this paper examines, by chronicling the progress of a cargo claim as governed by the English law of contract. It finds that other than by contract, there are other modes of recovery available to a consignee or endorsee of a bill of lading to obtain a remedy under the sui generis contract of carriage contained in or evidenced by a bill of lading.

Keywords: bill of lading, cargo interests, carriage contract, transfer of right of suit

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1625 'Pacta Sunt Servanda': Which Form of Contract to Use in the Construction Industry

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes

Abstract:

The contract in its simplest definition is an agreement involving parties with a number of documents which may be as little as a marriage contract involving two parties or as big as a contract of construction and operation of a nuclear power plant involving companies and stakeholders with hundreds or even thousands of documents. All parties in the construction industry, not only the contract experts, agree that the success of a project is linked primarily to the form of contract regulating the relationship between stakeholders of the project. Therefore it is essential for the construction industry to study, analyze and improve its contracts forms continuously. However, it should be mentioned that different contract forms are developed to suit the construction evolution in term of its machinery, materials and construction process. There exist some similarities in some clauses and variations in many of these forms depending upon the type of project, the kind of clients and more importantly the laws and regulations governing the transaction in the country where the project is carried out. This paper will discuss the most important forms of construction contracts starting from national level, intended to the contract form in Germany and moving on to the international level introducing FIDIC contracts and its different forms, some newly developed contracts forms namely the integrated form of agreement, the new engineering contract and the project alliance agreement. The result of the study shows that many of the contract’s paragraphs are similar and the main difference comes in the approach of the relationship between the parties. Is it based on co-operation and mutual trust, or in some cases a load of responsibility for a particular party which increases the problems and disputes that affects the success of the project negatively. Thus we can say that the form of the contract, that plays an essential role in the approach of the project management, which is ultimately the key factor for the success of the project. So we advise to use a form of contract, which enhance the mutual trust between the project parties, contribute to support the cooperation between them, distribute responsibility and risks on an equitable basis and build on the principle “win-win". In additional to the conventional role of the contract it should integrate all parties into one team to achieve the target value of the project.

Keywords: contract, FIDIC, integrated form of agreement, new engineering contract, project alliance agreemen

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1624 Insecurity, Instability and Lack of Benefits: Factors Reasonable for Poor Performance among “Contract Workers” in South Africa

Authors: Charmaine Devinee Pillay

Abstract:

Employees in both public and private sectors are expected to contribute significantly to the growth and development of the organization that employs them. Good working conditions are directly linked to the optimum output emanating from the workforce’s excellent performance. Insecurity, instability and lack of benefits negatively impact on the employees’ commitment to their job. This is a qualitative case study that comprised 40 “Contract Employees” (Academic and Supporting staff) in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Questionnaire, as instrument of data collection, was used to obtain qualitative data. Data collected were categorized in themes and sub-themes for analyses and discussion. Findings showed that “contract Employees” are highly demoralized due to job insecurity and non-benefits, among other factors, which directly affect their overall output in discharging their duties. The case study at Walter Sisulu University typifies the generalized challenges faced by workers on contract basis in South Africa. It is therefore, recommended that employers hire their workforce on permanent basis or, where “Contract Employment “is inevitable, similar conditions that go with permanent employment should be incorporated in the contract terms of “Contract Employees”. This serves as impetus for optimum performance.

Keywords: contract employee, insecurity, instability, risk factors

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1623 Striking a Balance between Certainty and Flexibility: The Role of Ubuntu in South African Contract Law

Authors: Yeukai Mupangavanhu

Abstract:

The paper examines the concept of ubuntu and the extent to which it can play a role in ensuring fairness and justice in contractual relationships. Courts are expected to balance sanctity of contract and fairness. Public policy is currently a mechanism which is used by courts when balancing the above two competing interests. It, however, generally favours the freedom and sanctity of contract. The question which is addressed in this paper is whether the concept of ubuntu is an alternative mechanism that may be used to mitigate the sometimes harsh and unfair consequences of the doctrine of freedom and sanctity of contract. A comparative study and case analysis is the methodology that is used in this article. Unfairness in contracts is generally related to the problem of inequality in bargaining power underscored by deeply entrenched social and economic inequalities that are a consequence of apartheid and patriarchy. The transformative nature of the constitution demands the inclusion of African legal ideas and values in the legal order. There is a need for the harmonisation of western ideals which are based on the classical model of law of contract with relevant African principles. In order to attain a transformative legal order that promotes a societal transformation and enhances the lives of everyone courts cannot continue to frown upon African values. Ubuntu has the potential of steering the law of contract in a more equitable direction. The substantive rules of contract law undoubtedly need to be infused with the notion of ubuntu. The reconciliation of Western and African values is at the heart of legal transformation.

Keywords: fairness, sanctity of contract, contractual justice, transformative constitutionalism

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1622 Overview on Effectiveness of Learning Contract in Architecture Design Studios

Authors: Badiossadat Hassanpour, Reza Sirjani, Nangkuala Utaberta

Abstract:

The avant-garde educational systems are striving to find a life long learning methods. Different fields and majors have test variety of proposed models, and found their difficulties and strengths. Architecture as a critical stage of education due to its characteristics which are learning by doing and critique based education and evaluation is out of this study procedure. Learning contracts is a new alternative form of evaluation of students’ achievements, while it acts as agreement about learning goals. Obtained results from studies in different fields which confirm its positive impact on students' learning in those fields and positively affected students' motivation and confidence in meeting their own learning needs, prompted us to implement this model in architecture design studio. In this implemented contract to the studio, students were asked to use the existing possibility of contract to have self assessment and examine their professional development to identify whether they are deficient or they would like to develop more expertise. The evidences of this research as well indicate that students feel positive about the learning contract and see it accommodating their individual learning needs.

Keywords: contract (LC), architecture design studio, education, student-centered learning

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1621 Measuring the Level of Knowledge of Construction Contracts Procedures: A Case Study of Botswana

Authors: Babulayi B. Wilson

Abstract:

Unsatisfactory performance of construction projects in both the industrialised and developing countries indicate that there could be several defects in construction projects phases. Notwithstanding the fact that some project defects are often conceived at the initiation phase of construction projects, insufficient knowledge of contract procedures has been identified as one of the major sources of construction disputes. Contract procedures are a set of rules that outlines the primary obligations and liabilities of parties involved in the implementation of a construction project. Engineering professional bodies often codify contract procedures into standard forms of contract such as the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE, UK) and Association of Consulting Engineers (ACE, UK) and keep them under constant review by updating any clause to reflect any change in case law or relevant piece of legislation. Even so, it is the responsibility of a professional body or conditions of contract draftsperson to introduce contract-specific clauses that may be necessary for business efficacy but not covered in the chosen standard conditions of contract. In Botswana, the use of clients’ drafted and/or un-adapted for environment of use international forms of contract in conjunction with client-drafted pricing schedules is common. The product of the latter often impact negatively upon contractors’ claims and payments, in that, tender rates and prices can only be deemed to be sufficient if the chosen conditions of contract compliment the pricing schedule (use of standardised procurement documents). In addition, client drafted and the use of borrowed forms of contract such as FIDIC often conflict with domicile law resulting in costly disputes on the part of the client. It is upon the preceding text that the object of the research is to measure the level of knowledge of contract procedures amongst key stakeholders in the Botswana construction industry by requesting a representative sample from the industry and academia to respond to tutorial questions prepared from two commonly used forms of contract for civil works, that is, FIDIC (International Form of Contract) and ICE (UK). The questions were prepared under the following captions: (a) preparation of tender documents (b) obligations of the parties (c) contract administration; and (d) claims, variations, and valuation of variations. After ascertaining that the level of knowledge of contract procedures is insufficient among most practitioners in the Botswana construction industry, major procurement entities, and engineering institutions of learning; a guide to drafting a condition of a construction contract was developed and then validated through seminars and workshops. In the present, the effectiveness of the guide is not yet measured but feedback from seminars and workshops conducted indicates an appreciation of the guide by the majority of major construction industry stakeholders.

Keywords: contract procedures, conditions of contract, professional practice, construction law, forms of contract

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1620 Identifying Reforms Required in Construction Contracts from Resolved Disputed Cases

Authors: K. C. Iyer, Yogita Manan Bindal, Sumit Kumar Bakshi

Abstract:

The construction industry is plagued with disputes and litigation in India with many stalled projects seeking dispute resolution. This has an adverse effect on the performance and overall project delivery and impacts future investments within the industry. While construction industry is the major driver of growth, there has not been major reforms in the government construction contracts. The study is aimed at identifying the proactive means of dispute avoidance, focusing on reforms required within the construction contracts, by studying 49 arbitration awards of construction disputes. The claims presented in the awards are aggregated to study the causes linked to the contract document and are referred against the prospective recommendation and practices as surveyed from literature review of research papers. Within contract administration, record keeping has been a major concern as they are required by the parties to substantiate the claims or the counterclaims and therefore are essential in any dispute redressal process. The study also observes that the right judgment is inhibited when the record keeping is improper and due to lack of coherence between documents, the dispute resolution period is also prolonged. The finding of the research will be relevant to industry practitioners in contract drafting with a view to avoid disputes.

Keywords: construction contract, contract administration, contract management, dispute avoidance

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1619 Transfer of Contractual Right of Suit Evidenced in Carriage Contract of Bill of Lading in Nigeria

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale

Abstract:

Prior to bill of lading (BOL), merchants travelled along with their goods; then recorded the goods in the ship’s mates’ register; and finally started selling the goods while in transit by way of BOL, indicative that BOL is negotiable. Common law doctrine of privity of contract did not allow the transfer of right to sue to a non-party to the contract. This created hardship to cargo owners, which made many jurisdictions enact laws in this regard. Bill of Lading Act 1855 (BLA) was enacted in the United Kingdom, which applied as statute of general application under section 375 Merchant Shipping Act 1990 (MSA) in Nigeria; and conferred contractual rights of the suit on consignees and endorsees, but on the passing of ownership upon or by reason of such consignment or endorsement on the shipment of the goods simultaneously. The repeal of section 375 MSA by section 439 MSA 2007 created a lacuna, and the doctrine of privity of contract is the extant law in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to evaluate laws governing the transfer of the contractual right of suit to a third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to ascertain: (i) whether the extant law of common law doctrine of privity of the contract covers the transfer of the right of suit to the third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; (ii) impediment(s) of the common law to transfer such right in Nigeria in the absence of any legislation; (iii) the level of applicability of the doctrine of privity of contract as it relates to transfer of the contractual right of suit to third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; and (iv) whether to proffer possible suggestion on how to fill the lacuna left by the repeal of Merchant Shipping Act 1990. This work adopted a doctrinal approach with reliance on primary and secondary source materials. It finds that the common law doctrine of privity of contract in Nigeria is retrogressive. This work recommends for amendment of the relevant statute to cure this defect/lacuna like other commonwealth nations for best international practices.

Keywords: contract of carriage by sea, doctrine of privity of contract, lawful holder of bill of lading, third party right of suit

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1618 The Effects of Cost-Sharing Contracts on the Costs and Operations of E-Commerce Supply Chains

Authors: Sahani Rathnasiri, Pritee Ray, Sardar M. N. Isalm, Carlos A. Vega-Mejia

Abstract:

This study develops a cooperative game theory-based cost-sharing contract model for a business to consumer (B2C) e-commerce supply chain to minimize the overall supply chain costs and the individual costs within an information asymmetry scenario. The objective of this study is to address the issues of strategic interactions among the key players of the e-commerce supply chain operation, which impedes the optimal operational outcomes. Game theory has been included in the field of supply chain management to resolve strategic decision-making issues; however, most of the studies are limited only to two-echelons of the supply chains. Multi-echelon supply chain optimizations based on game-theoretic models are less explored in the previous literature. This study adopts a cooperative game model to focus on the common payoff of operations and addresses the issues of information asymmetry and coordination of a three-echelon e-commerce supply chain. The cost-sharing contract model integrates operational features such as production, inventory management and distribution with the contract related constraints. The outcomes of the model highlight the importance of maintaining lower operational costs by all players to obtain benefits from the cost-sharing contract. Further, the cost-sharing contract ensures true cost revelation, and hence eliminates the information asymmetry issues among the players. Comparing the results of the contract model with the de-centralized e-commerce supply chain operation further emphasizes that the cost-sharing contract derives Pareto-improved outcomes and minimizes the costs of overall e-commerce supply chain operation.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, cost-sharing contract, e-commerce supply chain, information asymmetry

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1617 Flexible Development and Calculation of Contract Logistics Services

Authors: T. Spiegel, J. Siegmann, C. F. Durach

Abstract:

Challenges resulting from an international and dynamic business environment are increasingly being passed on from manufacturing companies to external service providers. Especially providers of complex, customer-specific industry services have to cope with continuously changing requirements. This is particularly true for contract logistics service providers. They are forced to develop efficient and highly flexible structures and strategies to meet their customer’s needs. One core element they have to focus on is the reorganization of their service development and sales process. Based on an action research approach, this study develops and tests a concept to streamline tender management for contract logistics service providers. The concept of modularized service architecture is deployed in order to derive a practice-oriented approach for the modularization of complex service portfolios and the design of customized quotes. These findings are evaluated regarding their applicability in other service sectors and practical recommendations are given.

Keywords: contract logistics, modularization, service development, tender management

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1616 Application of Forward Contract and Crop Insurance as Risk Management Tools of Agriculture: A Case Study in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Bokhtiar Hasan, M. Delowar Hossain, Abu N. M. Wahid

Abstract:

The principal aim of the study is to find out a way to effectively manage the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather risks, and fund shortage. To hedge price volatility, farmers sometimes make contracts with agro-traders but fail to protect themselves effectively due to not having legal framework for such contracts. The study extensively reviews existing literature and find evidence that the majority studies either deal with price volatility or weather risks. If we could address these risks through a single model, it would be more useful to both the farmers and traders. Intrinsically, the authors endeavor in this regard, and the key contribution of this study basically lies in it. Initially, we conduct a small survey aspiring to identify the shortcomings of existing contracts. Later, we propose a model encompassing forward and insurance contracts together where forward contract will be used to hedge price volatility and insurance contract will be used to protect weather risks. Contribution/Originality: The study adds to the existing literature through proposing an integrated model comprising of forward contract and crop insurance which will support both farmers and traders to cope with the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather hazards, and fund shortage. JEL Classifications: O13, Q13

Keywords: agriculture, forward contract, insurance contract, risk management, model

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1615 Quantitative Method of Measurement for the Rights and Obligations of Contracting Parties in Standard Forms of Contract in Malaysia: A Case Study

Authors: Sim Nee Ting, Lan Eng Ng

Abstract:

Standard forms of contract in Malaysia are pre-written, printed contractual documents drafted by recognised authoritative bodies in order to describe the rights and obligations of the contracting parties in all construction projects in Malaysia. Studies and form revisions are usually conducted in a relatively random and qualitative manner, but the search of contractual documents idealization remains. It is not clear how these qualitative findings could be helpful for contractual documents improvements and re-drafting. This study aims to quantitatively and systematically analyse and evaluate the rights and obligations of the contracting parties as stated in the standard forms of contract. The Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) published a new standard form of contract in 2012 with a total of 63 classes but the improvements and changes in the newly revised form that are yet to be analysed. IEM form will be used as the case study for this study. Every clause in this said form were interpreted and analysed according to the involved parties including contractor, engineer and employer. Modified from Matrix Method and Likert Scale, the result analysis were conducted based on a scale from 0 to 1 with five ratings namely “Very Unbalance”, “Unbalance”, “Balance”, “Good Balance” and “Very Good Balance”. It is hoped that quantitative method of form study can be used for future form revisions and any new forms drafting so to reduce on any subjectivity in standard forms of contract studies.

Keywords: contracting parties, Malaysia, obligations, quantitative measurement, rights, standard form of contract

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1614 A Rule Adumbrated: Bailment on Terms

Authors: David Gibbs-Kneller

Abstract:

Only parties to a contract can enforce it. This is the privity of the contract. Carriage contracts frequently involve intermediated relationships. While the carrier and cargo-owner will agree on a contract for carriage, there is no privity or consideration between the cargo-owner and third parties. To overcome this, the contract utilizes ‘bailment on terms’ or the rule in Morris. Morris v C W Martin & Sons Ltd is authority for the following: A sub-bailee and bailor may rely on terms of a bailment where the bailor has consented to sub-bailment “on terms”. Bailment on terms can play a significant part in making litigation decisions and determining liability. It is used in standard form contracts and courts have also strived to find consent to bailment on terms in agreements so as to avoid the consequences of privity of contract. However, what this paper exposes is the false legal basis for this model. Lord Denning gave an account adumbrated of the law of bailments to justify the rule in Morris. What Lord Denning was really doing was objecting to the doctrine of privity. To do so, he wrongly asserted there was a lacuna in law that meant third parties could not avail themselves upon terms of a contract. Next, he provided a false analogy between purely contractual rights and possessory liens. Finally, he gave accounts of authorities to say they supported the rule in Morris when they did not. Surprisingly, subsequent case law on the point has not properly engaged with this reasoning. The Pioneer Container held that since the rule in Morris lay in bailments, the decision is not dependent on the doctrine of privity. Yet the basis for this statement was Morris. Once these reasons have been discounted, all bailment on terms rests on is the claim that the law of bailments is an independent source of law. Bailment on terms should not be retained, for it is contrary to established principles in the law of property, tort, and contract. That undermines the certainty of those principles by risking their collapse because there is nothing that keeps bailment on terms within the confines of bailments only. As such, bailment on terms is not good law and should not be used in standard form contracts or by the courts as a means of determining liability. If bailment on terms is a pragmatic rule to retain, it is recommended that rules governing carriage contracts should be amended.

Keywords: bailment, carriage of goods, contract law, privity

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1613 Renegotiating International Contract Clauses: The Case of Investment Environment Changes in Egypt

Authors: Marwa Zein

Abstract:

The long-term of the contract is one of the major features that distinguish international trade and investment contracts from other internal contracts. This is due to the nature of the contract and the huge works required to be performed from one hand or the desire of the parties to achieve stability in their transactions. However, long-term contracts might expose them to certain events and circumstances that impact the capability of the parties to execute their obligations pursuant to these contracts. During the year 2016, the Egyptian government has taken series of economic decisions which greatly impacted the economic and investment environment. Consequently, many contracts have encountered many problems in their execution due to such changes that greatly influence the performance of their obligation, a matter that necessitated the renegotiation of the conditions of these contracts on the basis of the unpredicted changes that could be listed under the Force Majeure Clause. The principle of fair and equitable treatment in investment placed on an obligation on the Egyptian government to consider the renegotiation of contract clauses based on the new conditions. This paper will discuss the idea of renegotiating international trade and investment contracts in Egypt with reference to the changes the economic environment has witnessed lately.

Keywords: change of circumstances, international contracts, investment contracts, renegotiation

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1612 Islamic Financial Instrument, Standard Parallel Salam as an Alternative to Conventional Derivatives

Authors: Alireza Naserpoor

Abstract:

Derivatives are the most important innovation which has happened in the past decades. When it comes to financial markets, it has changed the whole way of operations of stock, commodities and currency market. Beside a lot of advantages, Conventional derivatives contracts have some disadvantages too. Some problems have been caused by derivatives contain raising Volatility, increasing Bankruptcies and causing financial crises. Standard Parallel Salam contract as an Islamic financial product meanwhile is a financing instrument can be used for risk management by investors. Standard Parallel Salam is a Shari’ah-Compliant contract. Furthermore, it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. Despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries, This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. In this paper after introducing parallel Salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel Salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument and practical experience in Iran Mercantile Exchange about this instrument. Afterwards, we make a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivative. Standard parallel salam contract as an Islamic financial product, can be used for risk management by investors. SPS is a Shariah-Compliant contract. Furthermore it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries. In this article after introducing parallel salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument containing two main approaches in SPS using, And practical experience in IME about this instrument Afterwards, a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivatives.

Keywords: futures contracts, hedging, shari’ah compliant instruments, standard parallel salam

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1611 The Efficacy of Contractual Governance on Task and Relationship Conflict in Construction Projects

Authors: Jingya You, Yongqiang Chen, Yuanyuan Hua, Wenqian Wang

Abstract:

Conflict is commonplace in construction projects, and construction projects always involve designing contracts between the owner and the contractor. However, how the contract affects the level of conflict between the owner and the contractor has not been elaborated. The purpose of this paper is to explain the effects of contractual complexity on the level of conflict, including task conflict and relationship conflict, and then to demonstrate the moderating role played by the interdependence between the owner and the contractor. Using data from owners and general contractors in the Chinese construction industry, this research reveals that contractual control will reduce relationship conflict. Contractual coordination will also reduce relationship conflict by the mediating effect of task conflict. Besides, under high joint interdependence, the positive relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict is strengthened, while high interdependence asymmetry has effects on weakening the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict. The findings provide guidance for contract designers to draft suitable contracts in order to effectively deal with conflict. Additionally, this research implies that project managers should highlight the importance of contract in conflict management.

Keywords: construction projects, contract governance, interdependence, relationship conflict, task conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 115