Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Nordin Mamat

31 Stimulating the Social Interaction Development of Children through Computer Play Activities: The Role of Teachers

Authors: Mahani Razali, Abd Halim Masnan, Nordin Mamat, Seah Siok Peh

Abstract:

This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s social interaction behaviour during computer play activities, teacher’s role and to explore teacher’s beliefs, views and knowledge about computers use in four Malaysian pre-schools.This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children and three teachers as the research sample. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify social interaction behavior among pre-school children through computer play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers on the acquired of social interaction behavior development among the children. A variety of patterns can be seen within the peer interactions indicating that children exhibit a vast range of social interactions at the computer, and they varied each day. The findings of this study guide us to certain conclusions, which have implications in understanding the phenomena of how computers were used and how its relationship to the children’s social interactions emerge in the four Malaysian preschools. This study provides evidence that the children’s social interactions with peers and adults were mediated by the engagement of the children in the computer environments.

Keywords: computer, play, preschool, social interaction

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30 Bahasa Melayu Hand Coded and Malaysian Sign Language Acquisition of Hearing Impaired Students at Early Intervention

Authors: Abdul Rahim Razalli, Nordin Mamat, Lee Kean Low

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The objective of the study is to examine the acquisition of Bahasa Melayu hand coded and Malaysian Sign Language of hearing impaired children and the factors that influencing the acquisition of Malay language at early intervention. A qualitative research design was chosen to answer two research questions. Two sets of instruments have been used to obtain information of proficiency and factors that influence it. Five children with hearing problems, four teachers and three parents were selected as the respondents through purposive sampling technique. The findings show that pupils with hearing problems who mastered Bahasa Melayu hand coded have better acquisition of Bahasa Melayu as compared to those who acquired Malaysian Sign Language. The study also found that the parents, pupils, teachers and environmental factors have an impact on the acquisition of Bahasa Melayu hand coded. The implications of this study show that early intervention of Bahasa Melayu hand coded and the parents, pupils, teachers and environmental factors do help in the language proficiency of children with hearing problems. A more comprehensive study should be undertaken at a higher level to see the impact on an early intervention program for Malay language acquisition of hearing impaired children.

Keywords: Bahasa Melayu hand coded, Malaysian sign Language, hearing impaired children, early intervention

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29 The Quality of Multi-Ethnic Preschool Environment and Human Resources: Teachers' Satisfaction on Their Career Development

Authors: Nordin Mamat, Abdul Rahim Razalli, Loy Chee Luen, Abdul Talib Hashim

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This study was designed to investigate preschool environment in multi-ethnic preschool in Malaysia. The objectives are to identify the quality of work environment in multi-ethnic preschools; to investigate the practices of teachers’ role and responsibility; and to identify the quality of human resources. The study involved 2004 respondents who are the staff of multi-ethnic preschool from the government agency who provide preschool service. This study was conducted using a mixed method in which questionnaires and interviews were used to obtain data from respondents. The findings were analysed using mean and used Likert scale to determine the three-stage level such as the high, moderate and low. Findings indicated that the work environment at a moderate level, but the facilities provided insufficient to carry out educational activities with children. The result based on ranking of duties and responsibilities of teachers in multi-ethnic preschool shows the teachers practice daily record of children's development is very little, that only 65 persons are recording the child's development. The poor ratio of teachers and child in multi-ethnic preschool is between 25 to 35 children per class which means the children need a lot of attention. Meanwhile, the work environment is moderate with a mean score of 3.65 and overall mean score for level of staff career development 3.66 also moderate. The findings indicate the facilities provided in their workplace and staff career development requires improvements. Overall, the level of work environment is moderate, and it needs an improvement in term of facilities.

Keywords: environment, human resources, multi-ethnic preschool, quality teacher

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28 Stimulating Young Children Social Interaction Behaviour through Computer Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore how computer technology is integrated into pre-school activities and its relationship with children’s social interaction behaviour in pre-school classroom. The major question of interest in the present study is to investigate the social interaction behaviour of children when using computers in the Malaysian pre-school classroom. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s social interaction during computer play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s social interaction. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify social interaction behaviour among pre-school children through computer play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired social interaction behaviour among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on social interaction behaviour elements among the pre-school children. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the social interaction behaviour during their computer play. This research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s social interaction behaviour through computer play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of computer play activities as to stimulate social interaction behavior among the pre-school children.

Keywords: early childhood, emotional development, parent support, play

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27 Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.

Keywords: social emotional, children, play activities, stimulating

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26 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

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Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well-known formulas.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence

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25 Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab Magaji Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

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The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.

Keywords: validation, verification, formal, theorem prover

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24 Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator for RF Applications in 0.18 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Zainal Abidin Nordin, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz

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A compact and power efficient high performance Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a must in analog and digital circuits especially in the communication system, but the best trade-off among the performance parameters is a challenge for researchers. In this paper, a design of a compact 3-stage differential voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCRO) with low phase noise, low power and higher tuning bandwidth is proposed in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The VCRO is designed with symmetric load and positive feedback techniques to achieve higher gain and minimum delay. The proposed VCRO can operate at tuning range of 3.9-5.0 GHz at 1.6 V supply voltage. The circuit consumes only 1.0757 mW of power and produces -129 dbc/Hz. The total active area of the proposed VCRO is only 11.74 x 37.73 µm2. Such a VCO can be the best choice for compact and low-power RF applications.

Keywords: CMOS, VCO, VCRO, oscillator

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23 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, M. M. Noor, I. M. Yusri

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Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, combustion characteristics, engine emissions, alternative fuel

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22 Influencers of E-Learning Readiness among Palestinian Secondary School Teachers: An Explorative Study

Authors: Fuad A. A. Trayek, Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad, Mohamad Sahari Nordin, Mohammed AM Dwikat

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This paper reports on the results of an exploratory factor analysis procedure applied on the e-learning readiness data obtained from a survey of four hundred and seventy-nine (N = 479) teachers from secondary schools in Nablus, Palestine. The data were drawn from a 23-item Likert questionnaire measuring e-learning readiness based on Chapnick's conception of the construct. Principal axis factoring (PAF) with Promax rotation applied on the data extracted four distinct factors supporting four of Chapnick's e-learning readiness dimensions, namely technological readiness, psychological readiness, infrastructure readiness and equipment readiness. Together these four dimensions explained 56% of the variance. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the items and for the existence of these four factors that measure e-learning readiness.

Keywords: e-learning, e-learning readiness, technological readiness, psychological readiness, principal axis factoring

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21 An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

Authors: Lim Kar Sing, Siti Nur Afifah Azraai, Norhazilan Md Noor, Nordin Yahaya

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Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.

Keywords: composite materials, pipeline, repair technique, polymers

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20 Telomere Length Genetics: Biomarker of Early Age Metabolic Activities and Oxidative Impact in Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

Authors: Kazeem Ajasa Badmus, Zulkifli Idrus, Goh Yong Meng, Kamalludin Mamat-Hamidi

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This study was aimed at evaluating the roles played by early age in performance, organs weights, meat quality traits, and telomere length integrity. One hundred male Cobb 500® broiler chickens were grouped into ten replicates of ten chickens each. Growth performance, measurement of telomere length, weights of organs, and meat quality traits were determined on days 14, 28, and 42 of the experiment. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences obtained in the chicken growth performance across ages. Telomere length of blood, muscle, liver, and heart on day 14 were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter than telomere length obtained on days 28 and 42 of the age. Weights of organs on day 14 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those obtained on days 28 and 42. In this study, birds slaughtered on day 14 presented the highest (p < 0.05) pH, drip loss, redness, and yellowness. They, however, showed lower (p < 0.05) cooking loss, shear force, and lightness. There was a significant association between age, telomere length, and meat quality traits. It is therefore concluded that telomere length attrition is associated with early age metabolic activities and could be used to measure chicks' welfare.

Keywords: age, telomere length, organ weights, meat quality

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19 Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Modified Epoxy Resin for Pipeline Repair

Authors: Siti Nur Afifah Azraai, Lim Kar Sing, Nordin Yahaya, Norhazilan Md Noor

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This experimental study consists of a characterization of epoxy grout where an amount of 2% of graphene nanoplatelets particles were added to commercial epoxy resin to evaluate their behavior regarding neat epoxy resin. Compressive tests, tensile tests and flexural tests were conducted to study the effect of graphene nanoplatelets on neat epoxy resin. By comparing graphene-based and neat epoxy grout, there is no significant increase of strength due to weak interface in the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites. From this experiment, the tension and flexural strength of graphene-based epoxy grouts is slightly lower than ones of neat epoxy grout. Nevertheless, the addition of graphene has produced more consistent results according to a smaller standard deviation of strength. Furthermore, the graphene has also improved the ductility of the grout, hence reducing its brittle behaviour. This shows that the performance of graphene-based grout is reliably predictable and able to minimize sudden rupture. This is important since repair design of damaged pipeline is of deterministic nature.

Keywords: composite, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelets, pipeline

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18 Roles of Governmental and Non-governmental Bodies on Chain Remand Complaints in Malaysia

Authors: Ifa Sirrhu Samsudin, Ramalinggam Rajamanickam, Rohaida Nordin

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The practice of chain remand would cause human rights violations if the application was granted without reasonable cause and reason. This chain remand problem was tried to be addressed in 2007, which was amongst the factors that led to the amendment of the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) at that time due to the defilement of human liberty. In Malaysia, there are governmental and non-governmental bodies that are active in ensuring that the human rights of the entire community are protected from being violated. The issue of wrongful detention involving chain remand during an investigation is not a new issue. This issue is constantly highlighted and efforts to address it are often raised by the responsible parties. This study aims to analyse the roles of these bodies in dealing with chain remand complaints in Malaysia using a qualitative research approach by way of in-depth interviews, roundtable discussions and documents analysis. The study discovered that these bodies were able to investigate the complaints but did not have a role in taking any actions. Their role is only to provide recommendations to the complainants to take action. Therefore, this study suggested the function should be given to certain bodies to curb the problem based on solid evidence.

Keywords: liberty, complaints, chain remand, government

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17 Identification and Force Control of a Two Chambers Pneumatic Soft Actuator

Authors: Najib K. Dankadai, Ahmad 'Athif Mohd Faudzi, Khairuddin Osman, Muhammad Rusydi Muhammad Razif, IIi Najaa Aimi Mohd Nordin

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Researches in soft actuators are now growing rapidly because of their adequacy to be applied in sectors like medical, agriculture, biological and welfare. This paper presents system identification (SI) and control of the force generated by a two chambers pneumatic soft actuator (PSA). A force mathematical model for the actuator was identified experimentally using data acquisition card and MATLAB SI toolbox. Two control techniques; a predictive functional control (PFC) and conventional proportional integral and derivative (PID) schemes are proposed and compared based on the identified model for the soft actuator flexible mechanism. Results of this study showed that both of the proposed controllers ensure accurate tracking when the closed loop system was tested with the step, sinusoidal and multi step reference input through MATLAB simulation although the PFC provides a better response than the PID.

Keywords: predictive functional control (PFC), proportional integral and derivative (PID), soft actuator, system identification

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16 Dry Matter, Moisture, Ash and Crude Fibre Content in Distinct Segments of ‘Durian Kampung’ Husk

Authors: Norhanim Nordin, Rosnah Shamsudin, Azrina Azlan, Mohammad Effendy Ya’acob

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An environmental friendly approach for disposal of voluminous durian husk waste could be implemented by substituting them into various valuable commodities, such as healthcare and biofuel products. Thus, the study of composition value in each segment of durian husk was very crucial to determine the suitable proportions of nutrients that need to be added and mixed in the product. A total of 12 ‘Durian Kampung’ fruits from Sg Ruan, Pahang were selected and each fruit husk was divided into four segments and labelled as P-L (thin neck area of white inner husk), P-B (thick bottom area of white inner husk), H (green and thorny outer husk) and W (whole combination of P-B and H). Four experiments have been carried out to determine the dry matter, moisture, ash and crude fibre content. The results show that the H segment has the highest dry matter content (30.47%), while the P-B segment has the highest percentage in moisture (81.83%) and ash (6.95%) content. It was calculated that the ash content of the P-B segment has a higher rate of moisture level which causes the ash content to increase about 2.89% from the P-L segment. These data have proven that each segment of durian husk has a significant difference in terms of composition value, which might be useful information to fully utilize every part of the durian husk in the future.

Keywords: durian husk, crude fibre content, dry matter content, moisture content

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15 Mapping of Arenga Pinnata Tree Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Zulkiflee Abd Latif, Sitinor Atikah Nordin, Alawi Sulaiman

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Different tree species possess different and various benefits. Arenga Pinnata tree species own several potential uses that is valuable for the economy and the country. Mapping vegetation using remote sensing technique involves various process, techniques and consideration. Using satellite imagery, this method enables the access of inaccessible area and with the availability of near infra-red band; it is useful in vegetation analysis, especially in identifying tree species. Pixel-based and object-based classification technique is used as a method in this study. Pixel-based classification technique used in this study divided into unsupervised and supervised classification. Object based classification technique becomes more popular another alternative method in classification process. Using spectral, texture, color and other information, to classify the target make object-based classification is a promising technique for classification. Classification of Arenga Pinnata trees is overlaid with elevation, slope and aspect, soil and river data and several other data to give information regarding the tree character and living environment. This paper will present the utilization of remote sensing technique in order to map Arenga Pinnata tree species

Keywords: Arenga Pinnata, pixel-based classification, object-based classification, remote sensing

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14 A Prenylflavanoid, HME5 with Antiproliferative Activity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

Authors: Mashitoh Abd Rahman, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Faiqah Ramli, Syam Mohan, Noraziah Nordin, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali

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Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancies. HME5, a prenylflavanoid has been isolated from local medicinal plant. This compound has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer property. However, the potential of HME5 as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on an ovarian cancer cells has not yet been investigated. In this present study, we examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of HME5 on Caov-3 (Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma) cell line by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-y]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Acridine orange and propidium Iodide (AOPi) and cell cycle analysis study. HME5 has shown to inhibit Caov-3 in a time-dependent manner with the IC50 values of 5µg/ml, 2µg/ml and 1µg/ml after 24h, 48h and 72h treatment, respectively. Morphological study from AOPi analysis showed that HME5 induced apoptosis after 24 and 48h post-treatment. Nevertheless, HME5 exhibited cell cycle arrest at G1 phase as indicated in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling. In conclusion, HME5 inhibited proliferation of Caov-3 through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase.

Keywords: apoptosis, prenylflavanoid, ovarian cancer, HME5

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13 Formal Specification of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Services of Library Information System

Authors: Magaji Zainab Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh

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This paper discusses the formal specification of web services applications for digital reference services (WSDRS). Digital reference service involves a user requesting for help from a reference librarian and a reference librarian responding to the request of a user all by electronic means. In most cases users do not get satisfied while using digital reference service due to delay of response of the librarians. Another may be due to no response or due to librarian giving an irrelevant solution to the problem submitted by the user. WDSRS is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ need in the reference section of libraries. But informal model is in natural language which is inconsistent and ambiguous that may cause difficulties to the developers of the system. In order to solve this problem we decided to convert the informal specifications into formal specifications. This is supposed to reduce the overall development time and cost. Formal specification can be used to provide an unambiguous and precise supplement to natural language descriptions. It can be rigorously validated and verified leading to the early detection of specification errors. We use Z language to develop the formal model and verify it with Z/EVES theorem prover tool.

Keywords: formal, specifications, web services, digital reference services

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12 Poverty Eradication Program in Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Mamat, Wan Mohd Zaifurin Wan Nawang

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Malaysia's poverty eradication program is a long-term plan that was initially implemented by the government after the riots of the races on May 13, 1969. The incident broke out due to the huge economic gap between the majority of Malaysians,Malays and non-Malays minorities. As a result of the event, the government drafted the New Economic Policy(NEP) in 1970 to reduce the differences in economic status among races in Malaysia. At the end of this policy period (NEP) in 1990, the incidence of poverty in Malaysia was around 6.5 per cent. The incidence of poverty in Malaysia continued to decline to 0.6 per cent (2014) through some other policy after the NEP. The decline in poverty has been the result of the government's efforts to implement the New Economic Policy (1970-1990), National Development Policy (1991-2000), NationalVision Policy (2001-2010), and National Transformation Policy (2011-2020).This article also explains the meaning, concepts and measurements of poverty in order to identify the Poverty Level and measure the Poverty Index using various dimensions. This explanation is very important for a country like Malaysia who has some people living below the poverty line. In such a context, an effective poverty eradication policy can benefit the poor.Consequently, this article examines the continuing involvement of the government and non-governmental organizations through the empowerment program of the hardcore poor to change their lifestyle and culture as well as the vicious circle of poverty is indispensable to ensure that poverty eradication programs are in line with current economic and social changes. In addition, the involvement of non-governmental organizations and the State Islamic Religious Council to provide assistance to the poor is appropriate as the institution has its own distinctive interpretation of poverty to determine the type of assistance, criteria and so on to enable the rights of the poor to be ensured and protected.

Keywords: economic policy, poor, poverty eradication, poverty program

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11 A Weighted Sum Particle Swarm Approach (WPSO) Combined with a Novel Feasibility-Based Ranking Strategy for Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

Authors: Milad Yousefi, Moslem Yousefi, Ricarpo Poley, Amer Nordin Darus

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Design optimization of heat exchangers is a very complicated task that has been traditionally carried out based on a trial-and-error procedure. To overcome the difficulties of the conventional design approaches especially when a large number of variables, constraints and objectives are involved, a new method based on a well-stablished evolutionary algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), weighted sum approach and a novel constraint handling strategy is presented in this study. Since, the conventional constraint handling strategies are not effective and easy-to-implement in multi-objective algorithms, a novel feasibility-based ranking strategy is introduced which is both extremely user-friendly and effective. A case study from industry has been investigated to illustrate the performance of the presented approach. The results show that the proposed algorithm can find the near pareto-optimal with higher accuracy when it is compared to conventional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Moreover, the difficulties of a trial-and-error process for setting the penalty parameters is solved in this algorithm.

Keywords: Heat exchanger, Multi-objective optimization, Particle swarm optimization, NSGA-II Constraints handling.

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10 Potential Application of Artocarpus odoratisimmus Seed Flour in Bread Production

Authors: Hasmadi Mamat, Noorfarahzilah Masri

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The search for lesser known and underutilized crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal foods has been the focus of research in recent years. Tarap (Artocarpus odoratisimmus) is one of the most delicious tropical fruit and can be found extensively in Borneo, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak. This study was conducted in order to determine the proximate composition, mineral contents as well as to study the effect of the seed flour on the quality of bread produced. Tarap seed powder (TSP) was incorporated (up to 20%) with wheat flour and used to produce bread. The moisture content, ash, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber were measured using AOAC methods while the mineral content was determined using AAS. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with Tarap seed flour on the quality of dough and bread was investigated using various techniques. Farinograph tests were applied to determine the effect of seaweed powder on the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, while texture profile analysis (TPA) was used to measure the textural properties of the final product. Besides that sensory evaluations were also conducted. On a dry weight basis, the TSP was composed of 12.50% moisture, 8.78% protein, 15.60% fat, 1.17% ash, 49.65% carbohydrate and 12.30% of crude fiber. The highest mineral found were Mg, followed by K, Ca, Fe and Na respectively. Farinograh results found that as TSP percentage increased, dough consistency, water absorption capacity and development time of dough decreased. Sensory analysis results showed that bread with 10% of TSP was the most accepted by panelists where the highest acceptability score were found for aroma, taste, colour, crumb texture as well as overall acceptance. The breads with more than 10% of TSP obtained lower acceptability score in most of attributes tested.

Keywords: tarap seed, proximate analysis, bread, sensory evaluation

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9 Vocational Teaching Method: A Conceptual Model in Teaching Automotive Practical Work

Authors: Adnan Ahmad, Yusri Kamin, Asnol Dahar Minghat, Mohd. Khir Nordin, Dayana Farzeha, Ahmad Nabil

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The purpose of this study is to identify the teaching method practices of the practical work subject in Vocational Secondary School. This study examined the practice of Vocational Teaching Method in Automotive Practical Work. The quantitative method used the sets of the questionnaire. 283 students and 63 teachers involved from ten VSS involved in this research. Research finding showed in conducting the introduction session teachers prefer used the demonstration method and questioning technique. While in deliver the content of practical task, teachers applied group monitoring and problem-solving approach. To conclude the task of automotive practical work, teachers choose re-explain and report writing to make sure students really understand all the process of teaching. VTM-APW also involved the competency-based concept to embed in the model. Derived from factors investigated, research produced the combination of elements in teaching skills and vocational skills which could be used as the best teaching method in automotive practical work for school level. As conclusion this study has concluded that the VTM-APW model is able to apply in teaching to make an improvement with current practices in Vocational Secondary School. Hence, teachers are suggested to use this method to enhance student's knowledge in Automotive and teachers will deliver skills to the current and future workforce relevant with the required competency skilled in workplace.

Keywords: vocational teaching method, practical task, teacher preferences, student preferences

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8 Induction of Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (CAOV-3) by an Isoquinoline Alkaloid Isolated from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden

Authors: Noraziah Nordin, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Nazia Abdul Majid, Mashitoh Abdul Rahman, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Enicosanthellum pulchrum belongs to family Annonaceae is also known as family of 'mempisang' in Malaysia. Liriodenine was isolated by prep-HPLC method. This method was first technique used for the isolation of this compound. The structure of the liriodenine was elucidated by 1D and 2D spectroscopy techniques. Liriodenine was tested on ovarian cancer cells line (CAOV-3) for MTT, AO/PI and cytotoxicity 3 assays. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity effect of lirodenine on CAOV-3 cells. The morphological changes on CAOV-3 cells were observed by AO/PI assay for the early and late stage of apoptosis, as well as necrosis. Meanwhile, the measurement of cell loss, nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria were detected through cytotoxicity 3 assay. The IC50 results showed liriodenine inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells after 24 h of treatment at 10.25 ± 1.06 µg/mL. After 48 and 72 h of treatments, the IC50 values were decreased to 7.65 ± 0:07 and 6.35 ± 1.62 µg/mL, respectively. The morphology changes can be seen on CAOV-3 with a production of cell membrane blebbing, cromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies with increasing time of treatment from 24 to 72 h. Evaluation of cytotoxicity 3 on CAOV-3 cells after treated with liriodenine, resulting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The results demonstrated the capability of liriodenine as a promising anticancer agent, particularly on human ovarian cancer.

Keywords: Enicosanthellum pulchrum, ovarian cancer, apoptosis, cytotoxicity

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7 Neighbor Caring Environment System (NCE) Using Parallel Replication Mechanism

Authors: Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Emma Ahmad Sirajudin, Rabiei Mamat

Abstract:

Pertaining to a particular Marine interest, the process of data sampling could take years before a study can be concluded. Therefore, the need for a robust backup system for the data is invariably implicit. In recent advancement of Marine applications, more functionalities and tools are integrated to assist the work of the researchers. It is anticipated that this modality will continue as research scope widens and intensifies and at the same to follow suit with current technologies and lifestyles. The convenience to collect and share information these days also applies to the work in Marine research. Therefore, Marine system designers should be aware that high availability is a necessary attribute in Marine repository applications as well as a robust backup system for the data. In this paper, the approach to high availability is related both to hardware and software but the focus is more on software. We consider a NABTIC repository system that is primitively built on a single server and does not have replicated components. First, the system is decomposed into separate modules. The modules are placed on multiple servers to create a distributed system. Redundancy is added by placing the copies of the modules on different servers using Neighbor Caring Environment System(NCES) technique. NCER is utilizing parallel replication components mechanism. A background monitoring is established to check servers’ heartbeats to confirm their aliveness. At the same time, a critical adaptive threshold is maintained to make sure a failure is timely detected using Adaptive Fault Detection (AFD). A confirmed failure will set the recovery mode where a selection process will be done before a fail-over server is instructed. In effect, the Marine repository service is continued as the fail-over masks a recent failure. The performance of the new prototype is tested and is confirmed to be more highly available. Furthermore, the downtime is not noticeable as service is immediately restored automatically. The Marine repository system is said to have achieved fault tolerance.

Keywords: availability, fault detection, replication, fault tolerance, marine application

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6 Shoulder-Arm Mobility and Upper and Lower Extremity Muscle Function are Impaired in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: F. Bringby, A. Nordin, L. Björnådal, E. Svenungsson, C. Boström, H Alexanderson

Abstract:

Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have reduced hand function and self-reported limitations in daily activities. Few studies have explored limitations in shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function, or if there are differences in physical function between diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) and limited cutaneous (lcSSc) SSc. The purpose of this study was to describe objectively assessed shoulder-arm mobility, lower extremity muscle function and muscle endurance in SSc and evaluate possible differences between lcSSc and dcSSc. 121 patients with SSc were included in this cross sectional study. Shoulder-arm mobility were examined using the Shoulder Function Assessment Scale (SFA) including 5 tasks ,lower extremity muscle function was measured by Timed stands test (TST) and muscle endurance in shoulder- and hip flexors were assessed by the Functional Index 2 (FI-2). Patients with dcSSc had median SFA hand to back score 5 (4-6) and median “hand to seat” score of 5 (4-6) compared to patients with lcSSc with corresponding median values of 6 (4-6) and 6 (5-6) respectively (p<0.01-p<0.05). 50% of both patientsgroups had lower muscle function assessed by the TST compared to age- and gender matched reference values but there were no differences in TST between the two patient groups. There was no difference in FI-2 scores between dcSSc and lcSSc. The whole group had 40 (28-83) % and 38 (32-72) % of maximal FI-2 shoulder flexion score on the right and left sides, and 40 (23-63) % and 37 (23-62) % of maximal FI-2 hip flexion score on the right and left sides. Reference values for the FI-2 indicate that healthy individuals perform in mean 100 % of maximal score. Patients with dcSSc were more limited than patients with lcSSc. Patients with SSc have reduced muscle function compared to reference values. These results highlights the importance of assessing shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function as well as a need for further research to identify exercise interventions to target these limitations.

Keywords: diffuse, limited, mobility, muscle function, physical therapy, systemic sclerosis

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5 Exploring Relationship of National Talent Retention and National Value Proposition

Authors: Dzul Fahmi Md. Nordin, Rosmini Omar

Abstract:

This conceptual paper aims to explore the concept of National Talent Retention for a nation by extending the works on Talent Retention in organizations to the scope of nations. The objective of this paper is to explore the relationship of National Talent Retention as the dependent variable with the three explored value propositions namely Firm Value Proposition, Higher Education and Training Value Proposition and National Attractiveness Value Proposition as the independent variables. Life Satisfaction is introduced in this study as a moderating variable to explore possibilities of Life Satisfaction as a mediator for the relationship between National Value Proposition and National Talent Retention. Theories such as Migration, Value Propositions, Life Satisfaction, Human Resource Management and Resource Based View are referred to in order to understand and explore the concept of National Talent Retention. Malaysia is chosen as the background of this study since Malaysia represents a developing nation with progressive economic, education and national policy which presents an interesting background for this exploratory paper. Surprisingly, Malaysia is still facing the phenomenon of Brain Drain which if not handled properly will hinder its Vision 2020 to progress a fully developed nation by year 2020. Mixed methodology analysis is proposed in this paper to include both qualitative face-to-face interview as well as quantitative survey questionnaire to study on the value proposition factors explored. Target respondents are strictly confined to Malaysia’s local high skilled talents either residing in Malaysia or migrated abroad since this paper is mainly interested to study on the concept of National Talent Retention and how successful Malaysia is projecting its value propositions from the perception of high skilled talent Malaysians. It is hoped that this paper could contribute towards understanding National Talent Retention concept where, the model could be replicated to identify influential factors specific to other nations.

Keywords: national talent retention, national value proposition, life satisfaction, high skilled talents

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4 Satureja bachtiarica Bunge Induce Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Hamed Karimian, Noraziah Nordin, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Syam Mohan, Mahboubeh Razavi, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Happipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Satureja bachtiarica Bunge is a perennial medicinal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family and endemic species in Iran. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge with the local name of Marzeh koohi is edible vegetable use as flavoring agent, anti-bacterial and to relieve cough and indigestion. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge on the MDA-MB-231 cell line as an Breast cancer cell model has been analyzed for the first time. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge was extracted using different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. Cytotoxicity activity of hexane extract of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge (SBHE) was observed using MTT assay. Acridine orange/Propidium iodide staining was used to detect early apoptosis; Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS), with Annexin-Vserving as a marker for apoptotic cells. Caspase 3/7, 8 and-9 assays showed significantly activation of caspase-9 where lead intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Bcl-2/Bax expressions and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. SBHE had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 Cell line compare to other cell lines. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed by fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with SBHE encouraged apoptosis, by down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax, which lead the activation of caspase 9. Moreover, SBHE treatment significantly arrested MDA-MB-231 cells in the G1 phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that SBHE inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was confirmed to be through the mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, MDA-MB-231, apoptosis, annexin-V, cell cycle

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3 Identifying the Determinants of the Shariah Non-Compliance Risk via Principal Axis Factoring

Authors: Muhammad Arzim Naim, Saiful Azhar Rosly, Mohamad Sahari Nordin

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the rise of Shariah non-compliance risk that can bring Islamic banks to succumb to monetary loss. Prior literatures have never analyzed such risk in details despite lots of it arguing on the validity of some Shariah compliance products. The Shariah non-compliance risk in this context is looking to the potentially failure of the facility to stand from the court test say that if the banks bring it to the court for compensation from the defaulted clients. The risk may also arise if the customers refuse to make the financing payments on the grounds of the validity of the contracts, for example, when relinquishing critical requirement of Islamic contract such as ownership, the risk that may lead the banks to suffer loss when the customer invalidate the contract through the court. The impact of Shariah non-compliance risk to Islamic banks is similar to that of legal risks faced by the conventional banks. Both resulted into monetary losses to the banks respectively. In conventional banking environment, losses can be in the forms of summons paid to the customers if they won the case. In banking environment, this normally can be in very huge amount. However, it is right to mention that for Islamic banks, the subsequent impact to them can be rigorously big because it will affect their reputation. If the customers do not perceive them to be Shariah compliant, they will take their money and bank it in other places. This paper provides new insights of risks faced by credit intensive Islamic banks by providing a new extension of knowledge with regards to the Shariah non-compliance risk by identifying its individual components that directly affecting the risk together with empirical evidences. Not limited to the Islamic banking fraternities, the regulators and policy makers should be able to use findings in this paper to evaluate the components of the Shariah non-compliance risk and make the necessary actions. The paper is written based on Malaysia’s Islamic banking practices which may not directly related to other jurisdictions. Even though the focuses of this study is directly towards to the Bay Bithaman Ajil or popularly known as BBA (i.e. sale with deferred payments) financing modality, the result from this study may be applicable to other Islamic financing vehicles.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Shariah Non-compliance risk, Bay Bithaman Ajil (BBA), principal axis factoring

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2 Effect of 12 Weeks Pedometer-Based Workplace Program on Inflammation and Arterial Stiffness in Young Men with Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Norsuhana Omar, Amilia Aminuddina Zaiton Zakaria, Raifana Rosa Mohamad Sattar, Kalaivani Chellappan, Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali, Norizam Salamt, Zanariyah Asmawi, Norliza Saari, Aini Farzana Zulkefli, Nor Anita Megat Mohd. Nordin

Abstract:

Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction leading to arterial stiffness. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AS), as tools for the assessment of vascular damages are widely used and have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation. Several studies noted that regular exercise is associated with reduced arterial stiffness. The lack of exercise among Malaysians and the increasing CVD morbidity and mortality among young men are of concern. In Malaysia data on the workplace exercise intervention is scarce. A programme was designed to enable subjects to increase their level of walking as part of their daily work routine and self-monitored by using pedometers. The aim of this study to evaluate the reducing of inflammation by measuring CRP and improvement arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral PWV (PWVCF) and AI. A total of 70 young men (20 - 40 years) who were sedentary, achieving less than 5,000 steps/day in casual walking with 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors were recruited in Institute of Vocational Skills for Youth (IKBN Hulu Langat). Subjects were randomly assigned to a control (CG) (n=34; no change in walking) and pedometer group (PG) (n=36; minimum target: 8,000 steps/day). The CRP was measured by using immunological method while PWVCF and AI were measured using Vicorder. All parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Data for analysis was conducted using Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). At post intervention, the CG step counts were similar (4983 ± 366vs 5697 ± 407steps/day). The PG increased step count from 4996 ± 805 to 10,128 ±511 steps/day (P<0.001). The PG showed significant improvement in anthropometric variables and lipid (time and group effect p<0.001). For vascular assessment, the PG showed significantly decreased for time and effect (p<0.001) for PWV (7.21± 0.83 to 6.42 ± 0.89) m/s; AI (11.88± 6.25 to 8.83 ± 3.7) % and CRP (pre= 2.28 ± 3.09, post=1.08± 1.37mg/L). However, no changes were seen in CG. As a conclusion, a pedometer-based walking programme may be an effective strategy for promoting increased daily physical activity which reduces cardiovascular risk markers and thus improve cardiovascular health in terms of inflammation and arterial stiffness. The community intervention for health maintenance has potential to adopt walking as an exercise and adopting vascular fitness index as the performance measuring tools.

Keywords: arterial stiffness, exercise, inflammation, pedometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 281