Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16685

Search results for: dual phase lag model

16685 Study of Heat Transfer in the Absorber Plates of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector Using Dual-Phase-Lag Model

Authors: Yu-Ching Yang, Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang


The present work numerically analyzes the transient heat transfer in the absorber plates of a flat-plate solar collector based on the dual-phase-lag (DPL) heat conduction model. An efficient numerical scheme involving the hybrid application of the Laplace transform and control volume methods is used to solve the linear hyperbolic heat conduction equation. This work also examines the effect of different medium parameters on the behavior of heat transfer. Results show that, while the heat-flux phase lag induces thermal waves in the medium, the temperature-gradient phase lag smoothens the thermal waves by promoting non-Fourier diffusion-like conduction into the medium.

Keywords: absorber plates, dual-phase-lag, non-Fourier, solar collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
16684 Effect of Martensite Content and Its Morphology on Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Dual Phase Steel

Authors: M. K. Manoj, V. Pancholi, S. K. Nath


Microalloyed dual phase steels have been prepared by intercritical austenitisation (ICA) treatment of normalized steel at different temperature and time. Water quenching wad carried to obtain different martensite volume fraction (MVF) in DP steels. DP steels and normalized steels have been characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and tensile properties determination. The effect of MVF and martensite morphology on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of microalloyed dual phase steels have been explained in the present work.

Keywords: dual phase steel, martensite morphology, hardness, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
16683 Dual-Network Memory Model for Temporal Sequences

Authors: Motonobu Hattori


In neural networks, when new patters are learned by a network, they radically interfere with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting. We have already proposed a biologically inspired dual-network memory model which can much reduce this forgetting for static patterns. In this model, information is first stored in the hippocampal network, and thereafter, it is transferred to the neocortical network using pseudo patterns. Because, temporal sequence learning is more important than static pattern learning in the real world, in this study, we improve our conventional dual-network memory model so that it can deal with temporal sequences without catastrophic forgetting. The computer simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed dual-network memory model.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, dual-network, temporal sequences, hippocampal

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16682 A Short-Baseline Dual-Antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU Integrated Navigation System

Authors: Tijing Cai, Qimeng Xu, Daijin Zhou


This paper puts forward a short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation, constructs the carrier phase double difference model of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), and presents a 2-position initial orientation method on BDS. The Extended Kalman-filter has been introduced for the integrated navigation system. The differences between MEMS-IMU and BDS position, velocity and carrier phase indications are used as measurements. To show the performance of the short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation system, the experiment results show that the position error is less than 1m, the pitch angle error and roll angle error are less than 0.1°, and the heading angle error is about 1°.

Keywords: MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit), BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), dual-antenna, integrated navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
16681 Single Phase PV Inverter Applying a Dual Boost Technology

Authors: Sudha Bhutada, S. R. Nigam


In this paper, a single-phase PV inverter applying a dual boost converter circuit inverter is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) generation system and PV grid connected system. This system is designed to improve integration of a Single phase inverter with Photovoltaic panel. The DC 24V is converted into to 86V DC and then 86V DC to 312V DC. The 312 V DC is then successfully inverted to AC 220V. Hence, solar energy is powerfully converted into electrical energy for fulfilling the necessities of the home load, or to link with the grid. Matlab Simulation software was used for simulation of the circuit and outcome are presented in this paper.

Keywords: H bridge inverter, dual boost converter, PWM, SPWM

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16680 Effect of Retained Austenite Stability in Corrosion Mechanism of Dual Phase High Carbon Steel

Authors: W. Handoko, F. Pahlevani, V. Sahajwalla


Dual-phase high carbon steels (DHCS) are commonly known for their improved strength, hardness, and abrasive resistance properties due to co-presence of retained austenite and martensite at the same time. Retained austenite is a meta-stable phase at room temperature, and stability of this phase governs the response of DHCS at different conditions. This research paper studies the effect of RA stability on corrosion behaviour of high carbon steels after they have been immersed into 1.0 M NaCl solution for various times. For this purpose, two different steels with different RA stabilities have been investigated. The surface morphology of the samples before and after corrosion attack was observed by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), along with the weight loss and Vickers hardness analysis. Microstructural investigations proved the preferential attack to retained austenite phase during corrosion. Hence, increase in the stability of retained austenite in dual-phase steels led to decreasing the weight loss rate.

Keywords: high carbon steel, austenite stability, atomic force microscopy, corrosion

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16679 Genesis of Entrepreneur Business Models in New Ventures

Authors: Arash Najmaei, Jo Rhodes, Peter Lok, Zahra Sadeghinejad


In this article, we endeavor to explore how a new business model comes into existence in the Australian cloud-computing eco-system. Findings from multiple case study methodology reveal that to develop a business model new ventures adopt a three-phase approach. In the first phase, labelled as business model ideation (BMID) various ideas for a viable business model are generated from both internal and external networks of the entrepreneurial team and the most viable one is chosen. Strategic consensus and commitment are generated in the second phase. This phase is a business modelling strategic action phase. We labelled this phase as business model strategic commitment (BMSC) because through commitment and the subsequent actions of executives resources are pooled, coordinated and allocated to the business model. Three complementary sets of resources shape the business model: managerial (MnRs), marketing (MRs) and technological resources (TRs). The third phase is the market-test phase where the business model is reified through the delivery of the intended value to customers and conversion of revenue into profit. We labelled this phase business model actualization (BMAC). Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings will be discussed and several directions for future research will be illuminated.

Keywords: entrepreneur business model, high-tech venture, resources, conversion of revenue

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16678 Effect of Carbon Amount of Dual-Phase Steels on Deformation Behavior Using Acoustic Emission

Authors: Ramin Khamedi, Isa Ahmadi


In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).

Keywords: acoustic emission, dual phase steels, deformation, failure, fracture

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16677 Microscopic and Mesoscopic Deformation Behaviors of Mg-2Gd Alloy with or without Li Addition

Authors: Jing Li, Li Jin, Fulin Wang, Jie Dong, Wenjiang Ding


Mg-Li dual-phase alloy exhibits better combination of yield strength and elongation than the Mg single-phase alloy. To exploit its deformation behavior, the deformation mechanisms of Mg-2Gd alloy with or without Li addition, i.e., Mg-6Li-2Gd and Mg-2Gd alloy, have been studied at both microscale and mesoscale. EBSD-assisted slip trace, twin trace, and texture evolution analysis show that the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy exhibits different microscopic deformation mechanisms with the Mg-2Gd alloy, i.e., mainly prismatic slip in the former one, while basal slip, prismatic slip and extension twin in the latter one. Further Schmid factor analysis results attribute this different intra-phase deformation mechanisms to the higher critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) value of extension twin and lower ratio of CRSSprismatic /CRSSbasal in the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy. Additionally, Li addition can induce dual-phase microstructure in the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy, leading to the formation of hetero-deformation induced (HDI) stress at the mesoscale. This can be evidenced by the hysteresis loops appearing during the loading-unloading-reloading (LUR) tensile tests and the activation of multiple slip activity in the α-Mg phase neighboring β-Li phase. The Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows higher yield strength is due to the harder α-Mg phase arising from solid solution hardening of Li addition, as well asthe strengthening of soft β-Li phase by the HDI stress during yield stage. Since the strain hardening rate of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy is lower than that of Mg-2Gd alloy after ~2% strain, which is partly due to the weak contribution of HDI stress, Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows no obvious increase of uniform elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.But since the β-Li phase is effective in blunting the crack tips, the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows ununiform elongation, which, thus, leads to the higher total elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.

Keywords: Mg-Li-Gd dual-phase alloy, phase boundary, HDI stress, dislocation slip activity, mechanical properties

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16676 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Laser Irradiated Biological Samplebased on Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Conduction Model Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Shashank Patidar, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Suneet Singh


Present work is concerned with the numerical investigation of thermal response of biological tissues during laser-based photo-thermal therapy for destroying cancerous/abnormal cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal cells. Light propagation through the biological sample is mathematically modelled by transient radiative transfer equation. In the present work, application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method is extended to analyze transport of short-pulse radiation in a participating medium.In order to determine the two-dimensional temperature distribution inside the tissue medium, the RTE has been coupled with Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation based on Fourier’s law by several researchers in last few years.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, transient radiation transfer equation, dual phase lag model

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
16675 Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar


This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize TPI with the power electric grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a three leg voltage source inverter (VSI). Operational model of VSI is used to synthesize sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation and results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: model predictive control, three phase voltage source inverter, PV system, Matlab/simulink

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16674 MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar


This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regulators to tune and carrier and modulating waves are required to produce switching sequence. Instead, the operational model of VSI is used to synthesize sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a three kW PV system at the input of UI-SPI in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: phase locked loop, voltage source inverter, single phase inverter, model predictive control, Matlab/Simulink

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16673 Dual-Phase High Entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅) BxCy Ceramics Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Ana-Carolina Feltrin, Daniel Hedman, Farid Akhtar


High entropy ceramic (HEC) materials are characterized by their compositional disorder due to different metallic element atoms occupying the cation position and non-metal elements occupying the anion position. Several studies have focused on the processing and characterization of high entropy carbides and high entropy borides, as these HECs present interesting mechanical and chemical properties. A few studies have been published on HECs containing two non-metallic elements in the composition. Dual-phase high entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)BxCy ceramics with different amounts of x and y, (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrC + 0.25 VC + 0.25 TiB₂), (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrC + 0.25 VB2 + 0.25 TiB₂) and (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrB2 + 0.25 VB2 + 0.25 TiB₂) were sintered from boride and carbide precursor powders using SPS at 2000°C with holding time of 10 min, uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa and under Ar atmosphere. The sintered specimens formed two HEC phases: a Zr-Hf rich FCC phase and a Ti-V HCP phase, and both phases contained all the metallic elements from 5-50 at%. Phase quantification analysis of XRD data revealed that the molar amount of hexagonal phase increased with increased mole fraction of borides in the starting powders, whereas cubic FCC phase increased with increased carbide in the starting powders. SPS consolidated (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)BC0.5 and (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)B1.5C0.25 had respectively 94.74% and 88.56% relative density. (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)B0.5C0.75 presented the highest relative density of 95.99%, with Vickers hardness of 26.58±1.2 GPa for the borides phase and 18.29±0.8 GPa for the carbides phase, which exceeded the reported hardness values reported in the literature for high entropy ceramics. The SPS sintered specimens containing lower boron and higher carbon presented superior properties even though the metallic composition in each phase was similar to other compositions investigated. Dual-phase high entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅H₀.₂₅)BxCy ceramics were successfully fabricated in a boride-carbide solid solution and the amount of boron and carbon was shown to influence the phase fraction, hardness of phases, and density of the consolidated HECs. The microstructure and phase formation was highly dependent on the amount of non-metallic elements in the composition and not only the molar ratio between metals when producing high entropy ceramics with more than one anion in the sublattice. These findings show the importance of further studies about the optimization of the ratio between C and B for further improvements in the properties of dual-phase high entropy ceramics.

Keywords: high-entropy ceramics, borides, carbides, dual-phase

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16672 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi


The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

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16671 Existence and Construction of Maximal Rectangular Duals

Authors: Krishnendra Shekhawat


Given a graph G = (V, E), a rectangular dual of G represents the vertices of G by a set of interior-disjoint rectangles such that two rectangles touch if and only if there is an edge between the two corresponding vertices in G. Rectangular duals do not exist for every graph, so we can define maximal rectangular duals. A maximal rectangular dual is a rectangular dual of a graph G such that there exists no graph G ′ with a rectangular dual where G is a subgraph of G ′. In this paper, we enumerate all maximal rectangular duals (or, to be precise, the corresponding planar graphs) up to six nodes and presents a necessary condition for the existence of a rectangular dual. This work allegedly has applications in integrated circuit design and architectural floor plans.

Keywords: adjacency, degree sequence, dual graph, rectangular dual

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16670 An Implementation of a Dual-Spin Spacecraft Attitude Reorientation Using Properties of Its Chaotic Motion

Authors: Anton V. Doroshin


This article contains a description of main ideas for the attitude reorientation of spacecraft (small dual-spin spacecraft, nanosatellites) using properties of its chaotic attitude motion under the action of internal perturbations. The considering method based on intentional initiations of chaotic modes of attitude motion with big amplitudes of the nutation oscillations, and also on the redistributions of the angular momentum between coaxial bodies of the dual-spin spacecraft (DSSC), which perform in the purpose of system’s phase space changing.

Keywords: spacecraft, attitude dynamics, control, chaos

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
16669 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang


In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
16668 Short and Long Crack Growth Behavior in Ferrite Bainite Dual Phase Steels

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Shiv Brat Singh, Kalyan Kumar Ray


There is growing awareness to design steels against fatigue damage Ferrite martensite dual-phase steels are known to exhibit favourable mechanical properties like good strength, ductility, toughness, continuous yielding, and high work hardening rate. However, dual-phase steels containing bainite as second phase are potential alternatives for ferrite martensite steels for certain applications where good fatigue property is required. Fatigue properties of dual phase steels are popularly assessed by the nature of variation of crack growth rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (∆K), and the magnitude of fatigue threshold (∆Kth) for long cracks. There exists an increased emphasis to understand not only the long crack fatigue behavior but also short crack growth behavior of ferrite bainite dual phase steels. The major objective of this report is to examine the influence of microstructures on the short and long crack growth behavior of a series of developed dual-phase steels with varying amounts of bainite and. Three low carbon steels containing Nb, Cr and Mo as microalloying elements steels were selected for making ferrite-bainite dual-phase microstructures by suitable heat treatments. The heat treatment consisted of austenitizing the steel at 1100°C for 20 min, cooling at different rates in air prior to soaking these in a salt bath at 500°C for one hour, and finally quenching in water. Tensile tests were carried out on 25 mm gauge length specimens with 5 mm diameter using nominal strain rate 0.6x10⁻³ s⁻¹ at room temperature. Fatigue crack growth studies were made on a recently developed specimen configuration using a rotating bending machine. The crack growth was monitored by interrupting the test and observing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to an Image analyzer. The estimated crack lengths (a) at varying number of cycles (N) in different fatigue experiments were analyzed to obtain log da/dN vs. log °∆K curves for determining ∆Kthsc. The microstructural features of these steels have been characterized and their influence on the near threshold crack growth has been examined. This investigation, in brief, involves (i) the estimation of ∆Kthsc and (ii) the examination of the influence of microstructure on short and long crack fatigue threshold. The maximum fatigue threshold values obtained from short crack growth experiments on various specimens of dual-phase steels containing different amounts of bainite are found to increase with increasing bainite content in all the investigated steels. The variations of fatigue behavior of the selected steel samples have been explained with the consideration of varying amounts of the constituent phases and their interactions with the generated microstructures during cyclic loading. Quantitative estimation of the different types of fatigue crack paths indicates that the propensity of a crack to pass through the interfaces depends on the relative amount of the microstructural constituents. The fatigue crack path is found to be predominantly intra-granular except for the ones containing > 70% bainite in which it is predominantly inter-granular.

Keywords: bainite, dual phase steel, fatigue crack growth rate, long crack fatigue threshold, short crack fatigue threshold

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16667 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev


Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillation

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16666 Leveraging the Power of Dual Spatial-Temporal Data Scheme for Traffic Prediction

Authors: Yang Zhou, Heli Sun, Jianbin Huang, Jizhong Zhao, Shaojie Qiao


Traffic prediction is a fundamental problem in urban environment, facilitating the smart management of various businesses, such as taxi dispatching, bike relocation, and stampede alert. Most earlier methods rely on identifying the intrinsic spatial-temporal correlation to forecast. However, the complex nature of this problem entails a more sophisticated solution that can simultaneously capture the mutual influence of both adjacent and far-flung areas, with the information of time-dimension also incorporated seamlessly. To tackle this difficulty, we propose a new multi-phase architecture, DSTDS (Dual Spatial-Temporal Data Scheme for traffic prediction), that aims to reveal the underlying relationship that determines future traffic trend. First, a graph-based neural network with an attention mechanism is devised to obtain the static features of the road network. Then, a multi-granularity recurrent neural network is built in conjunction with the knowledge from a grid-based model. Subsequently, the preceding output is fed into a spatial-temporal super-resolution module. With this 3-phase structure, we carry out extensive experiments on several real-world datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, which surpasses several state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: traffic prediction, spatial-temporal, recurrent neural network, dual data scheme

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16665 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel

Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen


The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.

Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamics

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16664 Mathematical Model for Progressive Phase Distribution of Ku-band Reflectarray Antennas

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam, A. F. M. Zain, N. Misran


Progressive phase distribution is an important consideration in reflect array antenna design which is required to form a planar wave in front of the reflect array aperture. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model in order to determine the required reflection phase values from individual element of a reflect array designed in Ku-band frequency range. The proposed technique of obtaining reflection phase can be applied for any geometrical design of elements and is independent of number of array elements. Moreover the model also deals with the solution of reflect array antenna design with both centre and off-set feed configurations. The theoretical modeling has also been implemented for reflect arrays constructed on 0.508 mm thickness of different dielectric substrates. The results show an increase in the slope of the phase curve from 4.61°/mm to 22.35°/mm by varying the material properties.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, progressive phase distribution, reflect array antenna, reflection phase

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16663 A Model-Reference Sliding Mode for Dual-Stage Actuator Servo Control in HDD

Authors: S. Sonkham, U. Pinsopon, W. Chatlatanagulchai


This paper presents a method of sliding mode control (SMC) designing and developing for the servo system in a dual-stage actuator (DSA) hard disk drive. Mathematical modelling of hard disk drive actuators is obtained, extracted from measuring frequency response of the voice-coil motor (VCM) and PZT micro-actuator separately. Matlab software tools are used for mathematical model estimation and also for controller design and simulation. A model-reference approach for tracking requirement is selected as a proposed technique. The simulation results show that performance of a model-reference SMC controller design in DSA servo control can be satisfied in the tracking error, as well as keeping the positioning of the head within the boundary of +/-5% of track width under the presence of internal and external disturbance. The overall results of model-reference SMC design in DSA are met per requirement specifications and significant reduction in %off track is found when compared to the single-state actuator (SSA).

Keywords: hard disk drive, dual-stage actuator, track following, hdd servo control, sliding mode control, model-reference, tracking control

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16662 Turbulent Forced Convection of Cu-Water Nanofluid: CFD Models Comparison

Authors: I. Behroyan, P. Ganesan, S. He, S. Sivasankaran


This study compares the predictions of five types of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, including two single-phase models (i.e. Newtonian and non-Newtonian) and three two-phase models (Eulerian-Eulerian, mixture and Eulerian-Lagrangian), to investigate turbulent forced convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a tube with a constant heat flux on the tube wall. The Reynolds (Re) number of the flow is between 10,000 and 25,000, while the volume fraction of Cu particles used is in the range of 0 to 2%. The commercial CFD package of ANSYS-Fluent is used. The results from the CFD models are compared with results from experimental investigations from literature. According to the results of this study, non-Newtonian single-phase model, in general, does not show a good agreement with Xuan and Li correlation in prediction of Nu number. Eulerian-Eulerian model gives inaccurate results expect for φ=0.5%. Mixture model gives a maximum error of 15%. Newtonian single-phase model and Eulerian-Lagrangian model, in overall, are the recommended models. This work can be used as a reference for selecting an appreciate model for future investigation. The study also gives a proper insight about the important factors such as Brownian motion, fluid behavior parameters and effective nanoparticle conductivity which should be considered or changed by the each model.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, single-phase models, two-phase models

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16661 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh


In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: phase transition, volume collapse, elastic constants, three body interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
16660 Neurophysiology of Domain Specific Execution Costs of Grasping in Working Memory Phases

Authors: Rumeysa Gunduz, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack


Previous behavioral studies have shown that working memory (WM) and manual actions share limited capacity cognitive resources, which in turn results in execution costs of manual actions in WM. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs. The current study aims to fill this research gap investigating the neurophysiology of execution costs of grasping in WM phases (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) considering verbal and visuospatial domains of WM. A WM-grasping dual task paradigm was implemented to examine execution costs. Baseline single task required performing verbal or visuospatial version of a WM task. Dual task required performing the WM task embedded in a high precision grasp to place task. 30 participants were tested in a 2 (single vs. dual task) x 2 (visuo-spatial vs. verbal WM) within subject design. Event related potentials (ERPs) were extracted for each WM phase separately in the single and dual tasks. Memory performance for visuospatial WM, but not for verbal WM, was significantly lower in the dual task compared to the single task. Encoding related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral anterior sites and right posterior site. In the dual task, bilateral anterior difference disappeared due to bilaterally increased anterior negativities for visuospatial WM. Maintenance related ERPs in the dual task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. There was also anterior negativity for visuospatial WM. Retrieval related ERPs in the single task revealed different ERPs of verbal WM and visuospatial WM at bilateral posterior sites. In the dual task, there was no difference between verbal WM and visuospatial WM. Behavioral and ERP findings suggest that execution of grasping shares cognitive resources only with visuospatial WM, which in turn results in domain specific execution costs. Moreover, ERP findings suggest unique patterns of costs in each WM phase, which supports the idea that each WM phase reflects a separate cognitive process. This study not only contributes to the understanding of cognitive principles of manual action control, but also contributes to the understanding of WM as an entity consisting of separate modalities and cognitive processes.

Keywords: dual task, grasping execution, neurophysiology, working memory domains, working memory phases

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16659 Novel Hybrid Ceramic Nanocomposites Fabricated by Rapid Sintering Technology

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Abulhakim Almajid


Alumina (Al2O3) is an attractive structural ceramic however; brittleness turns Al2O3 down for advanced applications. Development of multi-phase phase ceramics systems is promising to curtail the brittleness and the incorporation of strong/elastic graphene, as third phase, into dual phase (Al2O3-SiC) is striking for mechanical upgrading purpose. Thin graphene nanosheets (GNS) were prepared by thermal exfoliation process and reinforced into dual phase ceramic system. The hybrid nanocomposite was consolidated by novel HF-IH (high-frequency induction heating) sintering furnace at 1500 °C under 50 MPa in vacuum conditions. Structural features and grain size of the resulting nanocomposite were analyzed by SEM and TEM whilst the mechanical properties were assessed by microhardness and nanoindentation techniques. The fracture toughness of the hybrid nanocomposites was appraised by direct crack measurement method. Electron microscopic investigations confirmed the preparation of thin (< 10 nm) graphene nanosheets (GNS). HF-IH sintering route condensed the three-phase (GNS-Al2O3-SiC) hybrid nanocomposite system to > 99% relative densities. SEM of the hybrid nanocomposites fractured surfaces revealed even distribution of the nanocomposite constituents and changed in fracture-mode. Structurally, 88% grain reduction into hybrid nanocomposite was also obtained. Mechanically, enhanced fracture toughness (50%) and hardness (53%) were also achieved for hybrid nanocomposites were attained against bench marked monolithic Al2O3.

Keywords: alumina, graphene, hybrid nanocomposites, rapid sintering

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16658 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng


A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: microwave photonics, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift, conversion efficiency

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16657 Exact Phase Diagram of High-TC Superconductors

Authors: Abid Boudiar


We propose a simple model to obtain an exact expression of Tc/(Tc,max) for the temperature-doping phase diagram of superconducting cuprates. We showed that our model predicted most phase diagram scenario. We found the exact special doping points p(opt), p(qcp) and an accurate E(g,max). Some other properties such as the stripes length 100.1°A and the energy gap in cuprates chain 6meV can also be calculated exactly. Another interesting consequence of this simple picture is the new magic numbers and the ability to express everything using a (Tc,p) diagram via the golden ratio.

Keywords: superconducting cuprates, phase, pseudogap, hole doping, strips, golden ratio, soliton

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16656 Ground State Phases in Two-Mode Quantum Rabi Models

Authors: Suren Chilingaryan


We study two models describing a single two-level system coupled to two boson field modes in either a parallel or orthogonal setup. Both models may be feasible for experimental realization through Raman adiabatic driving in cavity QED. We study their ground state configurations; that is, we find the quantum precursors of the corresponding semi-classical phase transitions. We found that the ground state configurations of both models present the same critical coupling as the quantum Rabi model. Around this critical coupling, the ground state goes from the so-called normal configuration with no excitation, the qubit in the ground state and the fields in the quantum vacuum state, to a ground state with excitations, the qubit in a superposition of ground and excited state, while the fields are not in the vacuum anymore, for the first model. The second model shows a more complex ground state configuration landscape where we find the normal configuration mentioned above, two single-mode configurations, where just one of the fields and the qubit are excited, and a dual-mode configuration, where both fields and the qubit are excited.

Keywords: quantum optics, quantum phase transition, cavity QED, circuit QED

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