Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Sudha Bhutada

18 Single Phase PV Inverter Applying a Dual Boost Technology

Authors: Sudha Bhutada, S. R. Nigam


In this paper, a single-phase PV inverter applying a dual boost converter circuit inverter is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) generation system and PV grid connected system. This system is designed to improve integration of a Single phase inverter with Photovoltaic panel. The DC 24V is converted into to 86V DC and then 86V DC to 312V DC. The 312 V DC is then successfully inverted to AC 220V. Hence, solar energy is powerfully converted into electrical energy for fulfilling the necessities of the home load, or to link with the grid. Matlab Simulation software was used for simulation of the circuit and outcome are presented in this paper.

Keywords: H bridge inverter, dual boost converter, PWM, SPWM

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17 Anaesthetic Management of Retropharyngeal Abscess in a Child

Authors: Sudha Puhal, Dr Rajmala Jaiswal


Retropharyngeal abscess occurs most commonly in children following acute upper respiratory tract and ear infection. Airway management in retropharyngeal abscess is an anesthetic challenge due to distortion of airway anatomy and the possibility of spontaneous rupture of abscess leading to aspiration or stridor due to laryngeal edema.. In this report we present a case of retropharyngeal abscess in a child, which was drained under general anaesthesia successfully without any complications.

Keywords: abscess, airway, difficult, retropharyngeal

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16 Using Augmented Reality to Enhance Doctor Patient Communication

Authors: Rutusha Bhutada, Gaurav Chavan, Sarvesh Kasat, Varsha Mujumdar


This software system will be an Augmented Reality application designed to maximize the doctor’s productivity by providing tools to assist in automating the patient recognition and updating patient’s records using face and voice recognition features, which would otherwise have to be performed manually. By maximizing the doctor’s work efficiency and production, the application will meet the doctor’s needs while remaining easy to understand and use. More specifically, this application is designed to allow a doctor to manage his productive time in handling the patient without losing eye-contact with him and communicate with a group of other doctors for consultation, for in-place treatments through video streaming, as a video study. The system also contains a relational database containing a list of doctor, patient and display techniques.

Keywords: augmented reality, hand-held devices, head-mounted devices, marker based systems, speech recognition, face detection

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15 Efficacy of Some Plant Extract against Larvae and Pupae of American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) including the Effect on Peritropme Membrane

Authors: Deepali Lal, Sudha Summerwar, Jyoutsna Pandey


The resistance of pesticide by the pest is an important matter of concern.The pesticide of plant origin having nontoxic biodegradable and environmentally friendly qualities. The frequent spraying of toxic chemicals is developing resistance to the pesticide. Leaf powder of the plants like Argimone mexicana and Calotropis procera is prepared, Different doses of these plant extracts are given to the Fourth in star stages of Helicoverpa armigera through feeding methods, to find their efficacy the experimental findings will be put under analysis using various parameters. The effect on paritrophic membrane is also studied.

Keywords: distillation plant, acetone, alcohol, pipette, castor leaves, grams pods, larvae of helicoverpa armigera, plant extract, vails, jars, cotton

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14 Synthesis of Epoxidized Castor Oil Using a Sulphonated Polystyrene Type Cation Exchange Resin and Its Blend Preparation with Epoxy Resin

Authors: G. S. Sudha, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak


Epoxidized oils can replace petroleum derived materials in numerous industrial applications, because of their respectable oxirane oxygen content and high reactivity of oxirane ring. Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) has synthesized in the presence of a sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin. The formation of the oxirane ring was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The epoxidation reaction was evaluated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies. ECO is used as a toughening phase to increase the toughness of petroleum-based epoxy resin.

Keywords: epoxy resin, epoxidized castor oil, sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin, petroleum derived materials

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13 Study the Action of Malathion Induced Enzymatic Changes in the Target Organ of Fish Labeo Rohita

Authors: Sudha Summarwar, Jyotsana Pandey, Deepali Lall


The Malathion compound has the great tendency to be accumulated in the organs of the fishes both if it is present in traces or in higher amount in the aquatic environment. It has the tendency to be accumulated more in quantity in the organs directly exposed to it. The accumulation was found to be time and concentration dependent. The accumulation of malathion was maximum in gills and is the minimum in the brain. Effect of different sub-lethal concentrations (l/5th, l/l0th, l/15th, l/20th, and 1/25th fractions of 96 hr. LC50) of malathion compound on acid phosphatase (AcPase), alkaline phosphatase (AlPase), serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glucose-6-Phosphatase (S-G-6-Pase), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) in blood of Labeo rohita exposed for the period of 15. 30, 45, and 60 days, have been studied in present investigations. In general the alterations were concentrations and duration dependent.

Keywords: AcPase, AlPase, Labeo rohita, malathion, S-G-6-Pase, SGOT, SGPT

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12 Wireless Transmission of Big Data Using Novel Secure Algorithm

Authors: K. Thiagarajan, K. Saranya, A. Veeraiah, B. Sudha


This paper presents a novel algorithm for secure, reliable and flexible transmission of big data in two hop wireless networks using cooperative jamming scheme. Two hop wireless networks consist of source, relay and destination nodes. Big data has to transmit from source to relay and from relay to destination by deploying security in physical layer. Cooperative jamming scheme determines transmission of big data in more secure manner by protecting it from eavesdroppers and malicious nodes of unknown location. The novel algorithm that ensures secure and energy balance transmission of big data, includes selection of data transmitting region, segmenting the selected region, determining probability ratio for each node (capture node, non-capture and eavesdropper node) in every segment, evaluating the probability using binary based evaluation. If it is secure transmission resume with the two- hop transmission of big data, otherwise prevent the attackers by cooperative jamming scheme and transmit the data in two-hop transmission.

Keywords: big data, two-hop transmission, physical layer wireless security, cooperative jamming, energy balance

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11 Optical and Luminescence Studies on Dy³+ Singly Doped and Dy³+/Ce³+ Co-doped Alumina Borosilicate Glasses for Photonics Device Application

Authors: M. Monisha, Sudha D. Kamath


We investigate the optical and photoluminescence properties from Dy³+ singly doped and Dy³+ co-doped with Ce³+alumino borosilicate glasses prepared using high temperature melt-quenching technique. The glass composition formula is 25SiO₂-(40-x-y)B2O₃-10Al₂O₃-15NaF-10ZnO-xDy₂O₃ yCe₂O₃ where, x = 0.5 mol% and y = 0, 0.1, and 0.5 mol%. The XRD study reveals the amorphous nature of both singly doped and co-doped glasses. Absorption study on Dy3+ singly doped glass shows nearly twelve absorption peaks arising from the ground level of Dy³+ ions (⁶H₁₅/₂) to various upper levels, and for Dy³+/Ce³+ co-doped glasses, few of the transitions in the visible region are suppressed. The absorption band edge is shifted towards the higher wavelength region on increasing Ce3+concentration. The decrease in indirect energy bandgap and increase in Urbach energy of the prepared glasses is observed due to codoping with Ce3+ ions. The photoluminescence studies on singly doped glass under 350 nm excitation showed three peaks at the blue (482 nm), yellow (575 nm), and red (663 nm) region. For codoped glasses, the emission peak at 403 nm is raised due to the 4d to 5f transition of Ce3+ ions. Lifetime values (ms) of co-doped glass is found to be higher than singly doped glass. Under 350 nm excitation, CIE coordinates of the co-doped glasses moved towards the bright white light region. The correlated color temperature (CCT) values were obtained in the range 4500 – 4700 K. Thus, the prepared glasses can be used for photonics device applications.

Keywords: absorption spectra, borosilicate glasses, Ce³+, Dy³+, photoluminescence

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10 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha


Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

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9 Efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics and Diclofenac Spray in Attenuating Intravenous Cannulation Pain- Paeallel Randomized Trial

Authors: Anju Rani, Geeta, Sudha Rani, Choudhary, Puhal


Method- A total of 300 patients were studied, with 100 patients in each group. Patients aged 16-60 years, ASA grade I and II undergoing elective general surgical, urology and orthopedic procedures were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to any of the three groups by Using Sealed envelopes. 1. Group A: EMLA (eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine with 2.5% prilocaine) - Patients receiving eutectic Lidocaine/ Prilocaine cream (2gm/10cm2) of Prilox cream), for 60- 70 min under occlusive dressing. 2. Group B - Patients receiving topical diclofenac 4 % spray gel for 60- 70 min, covering an absorption area of 50 cm2 3. Group C: control – Direct cannulation was done without any intervention. Results - Group B showed significantly least number of patients complaining pain on IV cannulation in comparison to group A and group C. The Mean VAS scores were found to be maximum in GROUP C: control-8.76 ± 4.14, then in GROUP A: EMLA- 2.54 ± 4.21.and least in GROUP B: Diclofenac 4% spray-1.13 ± 3.05. Erythema, induration and edema were significantly reported to be higher for the control group. Also group A patients reported adverse skin reactions more than patients in group B. Conclusion - It can be concluded that diclofenac spray 4 % and EMLA cream are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of venous cannulation pain as compared to the control group. However, a higher incidence of skin blanching, erythema, and oedema associated with EMLA cream and a lower incidence of these adverse effects favours the use of diclofenac spray 4%. They are promising agents for the treatment of venous cannulation pain.

Keywords: diclofenac spray, EMLA, intravenous, pain

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8 Identification of High-Rise Buildings Using Object Based Classification and Shadow Extraction Techniques

Authors: Subham Kharel, Sudha Ravindranath, A. Vidya, B. Chandrasekaran, K. Ganesha Raj, T. Shesadri


Digitization of urban features is a tedious and time-consuming process when done manually. In addition to this problem, Indian cities have complex habitat patterns and convoluted clustering patterns, which make it even more difficult to map features. This paper makes an attempt to classify urban objects in the satellite image using object-oriented classification techniques in which various classes such as vegetation, water bodies, buildings, and shadows adjacent to the buildings were mapped semi-automatically. Building layer obtained as a result of object-oriented classification along with already available building layers was used. The main focus, however, lay in the extraction of high-rise buildings using spatial technology, digital image processing, and modeling, which would otherwise be a very difficult task to carry out manually. Results indicated a considerable rise in the total number of buildings in the city. High-rise buildings were successfully mapped using satellite imagery, spatial technology along with logical reasoning and mathematical considerations. The results clearly depict the ability of Remote Sensing and GIS to solve complex problems in urban scenarios like studying urban sprawl and identification of more complex features in an urban area like high-rise buildings and multi-dwelling units. Object-Oriented Technique has been proven to be effective and has yielded an overall efficiency of 80 percent in the classification of high-rise buildings.

Keywords: object oriented classification, shadow extraction, high-rise buildings, satellite imagery, spatial technology

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7 Appraisal of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Non Descript Goat from Arid Tracts in India

Authors: Sudha Summarwar, Sudesh Agarwal, Deepali Lall, Nalini Kataria, Jyotsana Pandey


Assessment of antioxidant status is an effective tool to appraise the presence of oxidative stress. A combination of assays can be used to evaluate the antioxidant status like serum catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). In human medicine pregnancy is known to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress produces harmful effects to the developing foetus. Several metabolic changes occur in the maternal body to meet the demand of energy of developing foetus. Due to these changes susceptibility of maternal body increases to oxidative stress. There is paucity of research work on this aspect in nondescript goats. Therefore, the present study was intended to appraise the oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant non-descript goat. Blood samples were collected for serum separation in otherwise healthy pregnant and non-pregnant nondescript goats. Mean values of serum CAT, SOD and MAO were found on a higher side (p≤0.05) with serum SOD values showing a rise of 2.5 times higher than the control healthy value. Correlations among all the three parameters were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01) especially greatest in youngest group of pregnant animals. Illustration of result enlightened the veracity of bumped up production of free radicals in pregnant animals. Technical savoir-faire of oxidative stress supervision is essential for upholding of health status of foetus. The upshot of present study undoubtedly implied the development of oxidative stress in pregnant goats on the basis of altered antioxidant status. These findings conclude that initially the oxidative stress due to pregnancy is critically combated by the intricate defensive mechanism of natural antioxidant system of the body. It appears that this imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant must be checked in time to prevent cellular damage by regularly appraising the antioxidant status through laboratory methods.

Keywords: antioxidant, oxidative stress, pregnancy, serum catalase

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6 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Mycelial Polysaccharides from Calocybe indica in Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

Authors: Govindan Sudha, Mathumitha Subramaniam, Alamelu Govindasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran


The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypsizygus ulmarius polysaccharides (HUP) on reducing oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice. Mice were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (150 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks and were administered HUP simultaneously. Aged mice receiving vitamin E (100 mg/kg) served as positive control. Chronic administration of D-galactose significantly impaired cognitive performance oxidative defence and mitochondrial enzymes activities as compared to control group. The results showed that HUP (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved the learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. Biochemical examination revealed that HUP significantly increased the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial enzymes-NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ATPase activities, elevated the lowered total anti-oxidation capability (TAOC), glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and decreased the raised acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide (HPO), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels in brain of aging mice induced by D-gal in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, present study highlights the potential role of HUP against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. In vitro studies on the effect of HUP on scavenging DPPH, ABTS, DMPD, OH radicals, reducing power, B-carotene bleaching and lipid peroxidation inhibition confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of HUP. The results suggest that HUP possesses anti-aging efficacy and may have potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: aging, antioxidants, mushroom, neurotoxicity

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5 Effect of Dose-Dependent Gamma Irradiation on the Fatty Acid Profile of Mud Crab, Scylla Serrata: A GC-FID Study

Authors: Keethadath Arshad, Kappalli Sudha


Mud crab, Scylla Serrata, a commercially important shellfish with high global demand appears to be the rich source of dietary fatty acids. Its increased production through aquaculture and highly perishable nature would necessitate improved techniques for their proper preservation. Optimized irradiation has been identified as an effective method to facilitate safety and extended shelf life for a broad range of the perishable food items including finfishes and shellfishes. The present study analyzed the effects of dose-dependent gamma irradiation on the fatty acid profile of the muscle derived from the candidate species (S. serrata) at both qualitative and quantitative levels. Wild grown, average sized, intermolt male S. Serrata were gamma irradiated (^60C, 3.8kGy/ hour) at the dosage of 0.5kGy, 1.0kGy and 2.0kGy using gamma chamber. Total lipid extracted by Folch method, after methylation, were analyzed for the presence fatty acids adopting Gas Chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector by comparing with the authentic FAME reference standards. The tissue from non-irradiated S. serrata showed the presence of 12 SFA, 6 MUFA, 8PUFA and 2 TF; PUFA includes medicinally important ω-3 FA such as C18:3, C20:5 and C22:6 and ω-6 FA such as γ- C18:3 and C20:2. Dose-dependent gamma irradiation reduced the number of detectable fatty acids (10, 8 and 8 SFA, 6, 6 and 5MUFA, 7, 7, and 6 PUFA and 1, 1, and 0 TF in 0.5kGy, 1.0kGy and 2kGy irradiated samples respectively). Major fatty acids detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated samples were as follows: SFA- C16:0, C18:0, C22:0 and C14:0; MUFA - C18:1 and C16:1and PUFA- C18:2, C20:5, C20:2 and C22:6. Irradiation doses ranging from 1-2kGy substantially reduced the ω-6 C18:3 and ω-3 C18:3. However, the omega fatty acids such as C20:5, C22:6 and C20:2 could survive even after 2kGy irradiation. Significantly, trans fat like C18:2T and C18:1T were completely disappeared upon 2kGy irradiation. From the overall observations made from the present study, it is suggested that irradiation dose up to 1kGy is optimum to maintain the fatty acid profile and eradicate the trans fat of the muscle derived from S. serrata.

Keywords: fatty acid profile, food preservation, gamma irradiation, scylla serrata

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4 Analyzing Social Media Discourses of Domestic Violence in Promoting Awareness and Support Seeking: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Sudha Subramani, Hua Wang


Domestic Violence (DV) against women is now recognized to be a serious and widespread problem worldwide. There is a growing concern that violence against women has a global public health impact, as well as a violation of human rights. From the existing statistical surveys, it is revealed that there exists a strong relationship between DV and health issues of women like bruising, lacerations, depression, anxiety, flashbacks, sleep disturbances, hyper-arousal, emotional distress, sexually transmitted diseases and so on. This social problem is still considered as behind the closed doors issue and stigmatized topic. Women conceal their sufferings from family and friends, as they experience a lack of trust in others, feelings of shame and embarrassment among the society. Hence, women survivors of DV experience some barriers in seeking the support of specialized services such as health care access, crisis support, and legal guidance. Fortunately, with the popularity of social media like Facebook and Twitter, people share their opinions and emotional feelings to seek the social and emotional support, for sympathetic encouragement, to show compassion and empathy among the public. Considering the DV, social media plays a predominant role in creating the awareness and promoting the support services to the public, as we live in the golden era of social media. The various professional people like the public health researchers, clinicians, psychologists, social workers, national family health organizations, lawyers, and victims or their family and friends share the unprecedentedly valuable information (personal opinions and experiences) in a single platform to improve the social welfare of the community. Though each tweet or post contains a less informational value, the consolidation of millions of messages can generate actionable knowledge and provide valuable insights about the public opinion in general. Hence, this paper reports on an exploratory analysis of the effectiveness of social media for unobtrusive assessment of attitudes and awareness towards DV. In this paper, mixed methods such as qualitative analysis and text mining approaches are used to understand the social media disclosures of DV through the lenses of opinion sharing, anonymity, and support seeking. The results of this study could be helpful to avoid the cost of wide scale surveys, while still maintaining appropriate research conditions is to leverage the abundance of data publicly available on the web. Also, this analysis with data enrichment and consolidation would be useful in assisting advocacy and national family health organizations to provide information about resources and support, raise awareness and counter common stigmatizing attitudes about DV.

Keywords: domestic violence, social media, social stigma and support, women health

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3 Measuring Organizational Resiliency for Flood Response in Thailand

Authors: Sudha Arlikatti, Laura Siebeneck, Simon A. Andrew


The objective of this research is to measure organizational resiliency through five attributes namely, rapidity, redundancy, resourcefulness, and robustness and to provide recommendations for resiliency building in flood risk communities. The research was conducted in Thailand following the severe floods of 2011 triggered by Tropical Storm Nock-ten. The floods lasted over eight months starting in June 2011 affecting 65 of the country’s 76 provinces and over 12 million people. Funding from a US National Science Foundation grant was used to collect ephemeral data in rural (Ayutthaya), suburban (Pathum Thani), and urban (Bangkok) provinces of Thailand. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in Thai with 44 contacts from public, private, and non-profit organizations including universities, schools, automobile companies, vendors, tourist agencies, monks from temples, faith based organizations, and government agencies. Multiple triangulations were used to analyze the data by identifying selective themes from the qualitative data, validated with quantitative data and news media reports. This helped to obtain a more comprehensive view of how organizations in different geographic settings varied in their understanding of what enhanced or hindered their resilience and consequently their speed and capacities to respond. The findings suggest that the urban province of Bangkok scored highest in resourcefulness, rapidity of response, robustness, and ability to rebound. This is not surprising considering that it is the country’s capital and the seat of government, economic, military and tourism sectors. However, contrary to expectations all 44 respondents noted that the rural province of Ayutthaya was the fastest to recover amongst the three. Its organizations scored high on redundancy and rapidity of response due to the strength of social networks, a flood disaster sub-culture due to annual flooding, and the help provided by monks from and faith based organizations. Organizations in the suburban community of Pathum Thani scored lowest on rapidity of response and resourcefulness due to limited and ambiguous warnings, lack of prior flood experience and controversies that government flood protection works like sandbagging favored the capital city of Bangkok over them. Such a micro-level examination of organizational resilience in rural, suburban and urban areas in a country through mixed methods studies has its merits in getting a nuanced understanding of the importance of disaster subcultures and religious norms for resilience. This can help refocus attention on the strengths of social networks and social capital, for flood mitigation.

Keywords: disaster subculture, flood response, organizational resilience, Thailand floods, religious beliefs and response, social capital and disasters

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2 Carbohydrate Intake and Physical Activity Levels Modify the Association between FTO Gene Variants and Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: First Nutrigenetics Study in an Asian Indian Population

Authors: K. S. Vimal, D. Bodhini, K. Ramya, N. Lakshmipriya, R. M. Anjana, V. Sudha, J. A. Lovegrove, V. Mohan, V. Radha


Gene-lifestyle interaction studies have been carried out in various populations. However, to date there are no studies in an Asian Indian population. Hence, we examined whether lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity modify the association between fat mass and obesity–associated (FTO) gene variants and obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an Asian Indian population. We studied 734 unrelated T2D and 884 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) participants randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) in Southern India. Obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization Asia Pacific Guidelines (non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2; obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene (rs9940128, rs7193144, rs8050136, rs918031, rs1588413 and rs11076023) identified from recent genome-wide association studies for T2D were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated food frequency questionnaire and physical activity was based upon the self-report. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction terms in the model. A joint likelihood ratio test of the main SNP effects and the SNP-diet/physical activity interaction effects was used in the linear regression analyses to maximize statistical power. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 13. There was a significant interaction between FTO SNP rs8050136 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.04) on obesity, where the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 2.46 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=3.0x10-5) among individuals in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage. Furthermore, among those who had lower levels of physical activity, the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 1.89 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=4.0x10-5). We also found a borderline interaction between SNP rs11076023 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.08) on T2D, where the ‘A’ allele carriers in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage, had 1.57 times higher risk of T2D than those with ‘TT’ genotype (P=0.002). There was also a significant interaction between SNP rs11076023 and physical activity (Pinteraction=0.03) on T2D. No further significant interactions between SNPs and macronutrient intake or physical activity on obesity and T2D were observed. In conclusion, this is the first study to provide evidence for a gene-diet and gene-physical activity interaction on obesity and T2D in an Asian Indian population. These findings suggest that the association between FTO gene variants and obesity and T2D is influenced by carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels. Greater understanding of how FTO gene influences obesity and T2D through dietary and exercise interventions will advance the development of behavioral intervention and personalised lifestyle strategies predicted to reduce the development of metabolic diseases in ‘A’ allele carriers of both SNPs in this Asian Indian population.

Keywords: dietary intake, FTO, obesity, physical activity, type 2 diabetes, Asian Indian.

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1 Environmental Impacts of Point and Non-Point Source Pollution in Krishnagiri Reservoir: A Case Study in South India

Authors: N. K. Ambujam, V. Sudha


Reservoirs are being contaminated all around the world with point source and Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution. The most common NPS pollutants are sediments and nutrients. Krishnagiri Reservoir (KR) has been chosen for the present case study, which is located in the tropical semi-arid climatic zone of Tamil Nadu, South India. It is the main source of surface water in Krishnagiri district to meet the freshwater demands. The reservoir has lost about 40% of its water holding capacity due to sedimentation over the period of 50 years. Hence, from the research and management perspective, there is a need for a sound knowledge on the spatial and seasonal variations of KR water quality. The present study encompasses the specific objectives as (i) to investigate the longitudinal heterogeneity and seasonal variations of physicochemical parameters, nutrients and biological characteristics of KR water and (ii) to examine the extent of degradation of water quality in KR. 15 sampling points were identified by uniform stratified method and a systematic monthly sampling strategy was selected due to high dynamic nature in its hydrological characteristics. The physicochemical parameters, major ions, nutrients and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) were analysed. Trophic status of KR was classified by using Carlson's Trophic State Index (TSI). All statistical analyses were performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences programme, version-16.0. Spatial maps were prepared for Chl a using Arc GIS. Observations in KR pointed out that electrical conductivity and major ions are highly variable factors as it receives inflow from the catchment with different land use activities. The study of major ions in KR exhibited different trends in their values and it could be concluded that as the monsoon progresses the major ions in the water decreases or water quality stabilizes. The inflow point of KR showed comparatively higher concentration of nutrients including nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphors (TP), total suspended phosphorus (TSP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) during monsoon seasons. This evidently showed the input of significant amount of nutrients from the catchment side through agricultural runoff. High concentration of TDP and TSP at the lacustrine zone of the reservoir during summer season evidently revealed that there was a significant release of phosphorus from the bottom sediments. Carlson’s TSI of KR ranged between 81 and 92 during northeast monsoon and summer seasons. High and permanent Cyanobacterial bloom in KR could be mainly due to the internal loading of phosphorus from the bottom sediments. According to Carlson’s TSI classification Krishnagiri reservoir was ranked in the hyper-eutrophic category. This study provides necessary basic data on the spatio-temporal variations of water quality in KR and also proves the impact of point and NPS pollution from the catchment area. High TSI warrants a greater threat for the recovery of internal P loading and hyper-eutrophic condition of KR. Several expensive internal measures for the reduction of internal loading of P were introduced by many scientists. However, the outcome of the present research suggests for the innovative algae harvesting technique for the removal of sediment nutrients.

Keywords: NPS pollution, nutrients, hyper-eutrophication, krishnagiri reservoir

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