Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Jung-In Baik

18 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating According to Temperature and Curvature

Authors: Hyunwoo Song, Jeong-Min Lee, Yongseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


To avoid the damage of gas turbine blade from high-temperature, thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied on the blade. However, it is damaged by thermal fatigue during the operation of gas turbine, and this damage lead to delamination of TBC between top coat and bond coat. The blade can be damaged after the failure of TBC, so durability evaluation of TBC should be performed. The durability of thermal barrier coating was decreased according to the increase of temperature, because thermal stress according to increase of temperature. Also, the curvature can be affect to durability of TBC, because the stress is determined by the shape of the TBC. Therefore, the effect of temperature and curvature on the stress should be evaluated. In this study, finite element analysis according to temperature and curvature were performed in the same condition of Kim et al. Finally, the stress was evaluated from the finite element analysis results according to temperature and curvature.

Keywords: curvature, finite element analysis, thermal barrier coating, thermal fatigue, temperature

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17 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Applied to the Gas Turbine Blade According to the Thermal Gradient

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Yonseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


The Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) prevents heat directly transferring from the high-temperature flame to the substrate. Top coat and bond coat compose the TBC and top coat consists of a ceramic and bond coat increases adhesion between the top coat and the substrate. The TBC technology drops the substrate surface temperature by about 150~200°C. In addition, the TBC system has a cooling system to lower the blade temperature by the air flow inside the blade. Then, as a result, the thermal gradient occurs inside the blade by cooling. Also, the internal stress occurs due to the difference in thermal expansion. In this paper, the finite element analyses (FEA) were performed and stress changes were derived according to the thermal gradient of the TBC system. The stress was increased due to the cooling, but difference of the stress between the top coat and bond coat was decreased. So, delamination in the interface between top coat and bond coat.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), thermal gradient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

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16 An Efficient Strategy for Relay Selection in Multi-Hop Communication

Authors: Jung-In Baik, Seung-Jun Yu, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes an efficient relaying algorithm to obtain diversity for improving the reliability of a signal. The algorithm achieves time or space diversity gain by multiple versions of the same signal through two routes. Relays are separated between a source and destination. The routes between the source and destination are set adaptive in order to deal with different channels and noises. The routes consist of one or more relays and the source transmits its signal to the destination through the routes. The signals from the relays are combined and detected at the destination. The proposed algorithm provides a better performance than the conventional algorithms in bit error rate (BER).

Keywords: multi-hop, OFDM, relay, relaying selection

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15 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay

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14 A Study on Prediction Model for Thermally Grown Oxide Layer in Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Yongseok Kim, Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


Thermal barrier coating(TBC) is applied for gas turbine components to protect the components from extremely high temperature condition. Since metallic substrate cannot endure such severe condition of gas turbines, delamination of TBC can cause failure of the system. Thus, delamination life of TBC is one of the most important issues for designing the components operating at high temperature condition. Thermal stress caused by thermally grown oxide(TGO) layer is known as one of the major failure mechanisms of TBC. Thermal stress by TGO mainly occurs at the interface between TGO layer and ceramic top coat layer, and it is strongly influenced by the thickness and shape of TGO layer. In this study, Isothermal oxidation is conducted on coin-type TBC specimens prepared by APS(air plasma spray) method. After the isothermal oxidation at various temperature and time condition, the thickness and shape(rumpling shape) of the TGO is investigated, and the test data is processed by numerical analysis. Finally, the test data is arranged into a mathematical prediction model with two variables(temperature and exposure time) which can predict the thickness and rumpling shape of TGO.

Keywords: thermal barrier coating, thermally grown oxide, thermal stress, isothermal oxidation, numerical analysis

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13 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang


Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: energy storage system, heat pump, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics

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12 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik


Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

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11 Studies of Reduction Metal Impurity in Residual Melt by Czochralski Method

Authors: Jaemin Kim, Ilsun Pang, Yongrae Cho, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik


Manufacturing cost reduction is becoming more important due to excessive oversupply of Single crystalline ingot in recent solar market. Many companies are carrying out extensive research to grow more than one Single crystalline ingot in one batch to reduce manufacturing cost. However what most companies are finding difficult in this process is the effect on ingot due to increasing levels of impurities. Every ingot leaves a certain amount of melt after it is fully grown. This is the impurity that lowers the ingot quality. This impurity increase in the batch after second, third and more are grown subsequently in one batch. In order to solve this problem, the experiment to remove the residual melt in high temperature of hot zone was performed and succeeded. Theoretical average metal concentration of second ingot by new method was calculated and compared to it by conventional method.

Keywords: single crystal, solar cell, metal impurity, Ingot

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10 Polarization Dependent Flexible GaN Film Nanogenerators and Electroluminescence Properties

Authors: Jeong Min Baik


We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties and electrical output power of flexible N-face p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by strain-induced piezo-potential generated across the metal-semiconductor-metal structures. Under different staining conditions (convex and concave bending modes), the transport properties of the GaN films can be changed due to the spontaneous polarization of the films. The I-V characteristics with the bending modes show that the convex bending can increase the current across the films by the decrease in the barrier height at the metal-semiconductor contact, increasing the EL intensity of the P-N junction. At convex bending, it is also shown that the flexible p-type GaN films can generate an output voltage of up to 1.0 V, while at concave bending, 0.4 V. The change of the band bending with the crystal polarity of GaN films was investigated using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices and nanogenerators under a working environment.

Keywords: GaN, flexible, laser lift-off, nanogenerator

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9 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han


For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: algorithm, ground motion, response history analysis, selection

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8 Development of Functional Dandelion (Tarazacum officinale) Beverage Using Lactobacillus acidophilus F46 with Cinnamoyl Esterase Activity

Authors: Yong Geun Yun, Jong Hui kim, Sang Ho Baik


This study was carried out to develop a fermented dandelion (Tarazacum officinale) beverage using lactic acid bacteria with cinnamoyl esterase (CE) activity isolated from human feces. Lactic acid bacteria were screened based on bacterial survival ability in dandelion extract and CE activity. Dandelion extract fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus F-46 (LA-F46) maintained approximately 105-106 log CFU/mL over an 8 days period. After fermented dandelion beverage (FDB) with LA-46 for 8 days at 37oC the pH was decreased from pH 7.0 to 3.5. Antioxidant activity by using DPPH radical scavenging activity of the prepared FDB was significantly increased compared to that of non-fermented dandelion beverage (NFDB). Moreover, CE activity was significantly enhanced during fermentation and showed the approximately 4.3 times increased concentration of caffeic acid up to 9.91 mg/100 mL after 8 days of incubation compared to NFDB. Therefore, it concluded that dandelion can be a good source for preparing a functional beverage and fermentation by LA-F46 enhanced the food functionality with enhanced caffeic acids.

Keywords: cinnamoyl esterase, dandelion, fermented beverage, lactic acid bacteria

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7 Development of the Manufacturing Process of Low Salt-Fermented Soy Sauce

Authors: Young-Ran Song, Byeong-Uk Lim, Sang-Ho Baik


This study was initiated in order to develop a method for soy sauce fermentation at low salt concentrations without decreasing quality. Soy sauce was fermented with the fermentation starter (meju) and different salt contents (8-14%, w/v) by inoculating two strains or not, in which Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii strains having different abilities to induce sterilizing effects or enhance flavor production were used. As the results, there were microbial and biochemical differences among prepared soy sauce. First, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. in addition to Bacillus genus that is the most important bacteria in Korean fermented soy product were detected by salt reduction. However, application of yeast starters can inhibit the undesirable bacterial growth. Moreover, PCA bi-plots of major principal components on various biochemical parameters (final pH, total acidity, soluble sugar, reducing sugar, ethanol and 32 volatile flavor compounds) were drawn to demonstrate the physicochemical differences and similarities among the samples. It was confirmed that the soy sauce samples produced with different salt concentrations were clearly different since salt reduction induced low contents of acids, alcohols and esters with higher acidity. However despite low salt concentration, combining two different yeasts appeared to have similar characteristics to the high salt-fermented soy sauce with elevated concentrations of ethanol, some alcohols, and most ketones, hence resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with a flavor profile pattern identical to that of high-salt.

Keywords: Soy sauce, low salt, fermentation, yeast.

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6 Screening of High-Alcohol Producing Yeasts for Manufacturing Process of Whisky

Authors: Byeong-Uk Lim, Young-Ran Song, Sang-Ho Baik


This study aimed to develop yeast starters for scientific alcohol production and systematic quality control of whisky. A total of 389 yeast strains were isolated from traditional Korean fermentation starter (nuruk) and rice wine (makgeolli), and ten strains were finally selected for their high alcohol productivities, in which their alcohol productions were above 17.3% (v/v) during 10 days under two steps of glucose feeding condition (30% and then 15%, w/v). By 18s rDNA sequence analysis, all strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), and they can grow well under 50% (w/v) glucose and 10% (v/v) ethanol conditions. Furthermore, the capability of ten different SC strains to ferment rice wine for whisky was studied. Rice wine was fermented with only steamed rice, water, and two types of enzymes (glucoamylase and α-amylase) during 14 days at 25 °C, and then their oenological properties have been determined. As the results, the fermented rice wines indicated the final pH range of 4.24-4.38 and acidity range of 0.12-0.18. The highest ethanol production of 20.2% (v/v) was found in the fermentation with a SC-156 strain, whereas SC-92 (16.8%) and SC-119 (16.4%) showed significantly lowest ethanol productions. In addition, the residual sugar contents showed negative correlation with alcohol contents. Moreover, this study focused on nucleotide polymorphisms in the MSN2 and MSN4 genes to investigate the cause of the defective stress responses in yeast. Consequently, it was also confirmed that the deletion of the N termini of Msn4p from identified point mutations in SC-63, SC-95, SC-156, SC-158, and SC-160 strains.

Keywords: yeast, high-alcohol, whisky, rice wine

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5 Structural Analysis of Hole-Type Plate for Weight Lightening of Road Sign

Authors: Joon-Yeop Na, Sang-Keun Baik, Kyu-Soo Chong


Road sign sizes are related to their support and foundation, and the large-scale support that is generally installed at roadsides can cause inconvenience to pedestrians and damage the urban landscape. The most influential factor in determining the support and foundation of road signs is the wind load. In this study, we introduce a hole-type road sign to analyze its effects on reducing wind load. A hole-type road sign reduces the drag coefficient that is applied when considering the air and fluid resistance of a plate when the wind pressure is calculated, thus serving as an effective option for lightening the weights of road sign structures. A hole-type road sign is punctured with a perforator. Furthermore, the size of the holes and their distance is determined considering the damage to characters, the poor performance of reflective sheets, and legibility. For the calculation of the optimal specification of a hole-type road sign, we undertook a theoretical examination for reducing the wind loads on hole-type road signs, and analyzed the bending and reflectivity of sample road sign plates. The analytic results confirmed that a hole-type road sign sample that contains holes of 6 mm in diameter with a distance of 18 mm between the holes shows reflectivity closest to that of existing road signs; moreover, the average bending moment resulted in a reduction of 4.24%, and the support’s diameter is reduced by 40.2%.

Keywords: hole type, road sign, weight lightening, wind load

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4 Fuzzy Inference-Assisted Saliency-Aware Convolution Neural Networks for Multi-View Summarization

Authors: Tanveer Hussain, Khan Muhammad, Amin Ullah, Mi Young Lee, Sung Wook Baik


The Big Data generated from distributed vision sensors installed on large scale in smart cities create hurdles in its efficient and beneficial exploration for browsing, retrieval, and indexing. This paper presents a three-folded framework for effective video summarization of such data and provide a compact and representative format of Big Video Data. In the first fold, the paper acquires input video data from the installed cameras and collect clues such as type and count of objects and clarity of the view from a chunk of pre-defined number of frames of each view. The decision of representative view selection for a particular interval is based on fuzzy inference system, acquiring a precise and human resembling decision, reinforced by the known clues as a part of the second fold. In the third fold, the paper forwards the selected view frames to the summary generation mechanism that is supported by a saliency-aware convolution neural network (CNN) model. The new trend of fuzzy rules for view selection followed by CNN architecture for saliency computation makes the multi-view video summarization (MVS) framework a suitable candidate for real-world practice in smart cities.

Keywords: big video data analysis, fuzzy logic, multi-view video summarization, saliency detection

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3 Evaluation of Microbial Community, Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Korean Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Vinegar Manufacturing Process

Authors: Nho-Eul Song, Sang-Ho Baik


Fermentation characteristics of black raspberry vinegar by using static cultures without any additives were has been investigated to establish of vinegar manufacturing conditions and improve the quality of vinegar by optimization the vinegar manufacturing process. The two vinegar manufacturing conditions were prepared; one-step fermentation condition only using mother vinegar that prepared naturally occurring black raspberry vinegar without starter yeast for alcohol fermentation (traditional method) and two-step fermentation condition using commercial wine yeast and mother vinegar for acetic acid fermentation. Approximately 12% ethanol was produced after 35 days fermentation with log 7.6 CFU/mL of yeast population in one-step fermentation, resulting sugar reduction from 14 to 6oBrix whereas in two-step fermentation, ethanol concentration was reached up to 8% after 27 days with continuous increasing yeast until log 7.0 CFU/mL. In addition, yeast and ethanol were decreased after day 60 accompanied with proliferation of acetic acid bacteria (log 5.8 CFU/mL) and titratable acidity; 4.4% in traditional method and 6% in two-step fermentation method. DGGE analysis showed that S. cerevisiae was detected until 77 days of traditional fermentation and gradually changed to AAB, Acetobacter pasteurianus, as dominant species and Komagataeibacter xylinus at the end of the fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus was dominant in two-step fermentation process. The prepared two-step fermentation showed enhanced total polyphenol and flavonoid content significantly resulting in higher radical scavenging activity. Our studies firstly revealed the microbial community change with chemical change and demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for black raspberry vinegar by the static surface method.

Keywords: bacteria, black raspberry, vinegar fermentation, yeast

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2 Fluorescing Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle Complex for the Sensitive Detection of Bisphenol A

Authors: Eunsong Lee, Gae Baik Kim, Young Pil Kim


Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine disruptors (EDCs), which have been suspected to be associated with reproductive dysfunction and physiological abnormality in human. Since the BPA has been widely used to make plastics and epoxy resins, the leach of BPA from the lining of plastic products has been of major concern, due to its environmental or human exposure issues. The simple detection of BPA based on the self-assembly of aptamer-mediated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been reported elsewhere, yet the detection sensitivity still remains challenging. Here we demonstrate an improved AuNP-based sensor of BPA by using fluorescence-combined AuNP colorimetry in order to overcome the drawback of traditional AuNP sensors. While the anti-BPA aptamer (full length or truncated ssDNA) triggered the self-assembly of unmodified AuNP (citrate-stabilized AuNP) in the presence of BPA at high salt concentrations, no fluorescence signal was observed by the subsequent addition of SYBR Green, due to a small amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. In contrast, the absence of BPA did not cause the self-assembly of AuNPs (no color change by salt-bridged surface stabilization) and high fluorescence signal by SYBP Green, which was due to a large amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. As a result, the quantitative analysis of BPA was achieved using the combination of absorption of AuNP with fluorescence intensity of SYBR green as a function of BPA concentration, which represented more improved detection sensitivity (as low as 1 ppb) than did in the AuNP colorimetric analysis. This method also enabled to detect high BPA in water-soluble extracts from thermal papers with high specificity against BPS and BPF. We suggest that this approach will be alternative for traditional AuNP colorimetric assays in the field of aptamer-based molecular diagnosis.

Keywords: bisphenol A, colorimetric, fluoroscence, gold-aptamer nanobiosensor

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1 Fabrication of Coatable Polarizer by Guest-Host System for Flexible Display Applications

Authors: Rui He, Seung-Eun Baik, Min-Jae Lee, Myong-Hoon Lee


The polarizer is one of the most essential optical elements in LCDs. Currently, the most widely used polarizers for LCD is the derivatives of the H-sheet polarizer. There is a need for coatable polarizers which are much thinner and more stable than H-sheet polarizers. One possible approach to obtain thin, stable, and coatable polarizers is based on the use of highly ordered guest-host system. In our research, we aimed to fabricate coatable polarizer based on highly ordered liquid crystalline monomer and dichroic dye ‘guest-host’ system, in which the anisotropic absorption of light could be achieved by aligning a dichroic dye (guest) in the cooperative motion of the ordered liquid crystal (host) molecules. Firstly, we designed and synthesized a new reactive liquid crystalline monomer containing polymerizable acrylate groups as the ‘host’ material. The structure was confirmed by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. The liquid crystalline behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). It was confirmed that the monomers possess highly ordered smectic phase at relatively low temperature. Then, the photocurable ‘guest-host’ system was prepared by mixing the liquid crystalline monomer, dichroic dye and photoinitiator. Coatable polarizers were fabricated by spin-coating above mixture on a substrate with alignment layer. The in-situ photopolymerization was carried out at room temperature by irradiating UV light, resulting in the formation of crosslinked structure that stabilized the aligned dichroic dye molecules. Finally, the dichroic ratio (DR), order parameter (S) and polarization efficiency (PE) were determined by polarized UV/Vis spectroscopy. We prepared the coatable polarizers by using different type of dichroic dyes to meet the requirement of display application. The results reveal that the coatable polarizers at a thickness of 8μm exhibited DR=12~17 and relatively high PE (>96%) with the highest PE=99.3%, which possess potential for the LCD or flexible display applications.

Keywords: coatable polarizer, display, guest-host, liquid crystal

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