Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: S. R. Nigam

15 Degree of Approximation of Functions by Product Means

Authors: Hare Krishna Nigam


In this paper, for the first time, (E,q)(C,2) product summability method is introduced and two quite new results on degree of approximation of the function f belonging to Lip (alpha,r)class and W(L(r), xi(t)) class by (E,q)(C,2) product means of Fourier series, has been obtained.

Keywords: Degree of approximation, (E, q)(C, 2) means, Fourier series, Lebesgue integral, Lip (alpha, r)class, W(L(r), xi(t))class of functions

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14 Single Phase PV Inverter Applying a Dual Boost Technology

Authors: Sudha Bhutada, S. R. Nigam


In this paper, a single-phase PV inverter applying a dual boost converter circuit inverter is proposed for photovoltaic (PV) generation system and PV grid connected system. This system is designed to improve integration of a Single phase inverter with Photovoltaic panel. The DC 24V is converted into to 86V DC and then 86V DC to 312V DC. The 312 V DC is then successfully inverted to AC 220V. Hence, solar energy is powerfully converted into electrical energy for fulfilling the necessities of the home load, or to link with the grid. Matlab Simulation software was used for simulation of the circuit and outcome are presented in this paper.

Keywords: H bridge inverter, dual boost converter, PWM, SPWM

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13 A Rare Case of Acquired Benign Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Bouayyad, Ajay Nigam, Meera Beena


Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare medical condition that usually results from trauma, foreign bodies, or granulomatous infections. This is an unusual presentation of a male patient with a history of laryngectomy who had had over a period of several years inappropriately and vigorously used valve cleaning brushes to clean tracheal secretions, which had led to the formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula. Due to the patient’s obsessive habit, we couldn’t manage him using conventional surgical methods. Instead, we opted for the placement of a salivary bypass tube, which yielded good results and recovery. To the best of our knowledge, no other case of similar etiology has been published. We would like to highlight the importance of appropriate patient selection and education prior to performing a tracheoesophageal puncture to avoid developing life-threatening complications as demonstrated in our case report.

Keywords: tracheoesophageal fistula, speech valve, endoscopic insertion of salivary bypass tube, head and neck malignancies

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12 Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime

Authors: Vrince Vimal, Madhav J. Nigam


Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN), Random Deployment, Clustering, Isolated Nodes, Networks Lifetime

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11 Status Check: Journey of India’s Energy Sustainability through Renewable Sources

Authors: Santosh Ghosh, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Vivekananda Mukherjee, Ishta Garg


India, akin to the rest of the world today, is grappling with balancing act between ever increasing demand for energy and alarmingly high level of green house gas emission, which is inevitable corollary of energy production in the conventional way. Researchers and energy policy makers around the world are now focusing on renewable energy (RE) technologies to find solution to this crisis. In India various agencies at both national and state level has been set up and bestowed with responsibility of development of renewable energy technologies, viz. Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVNL), Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) and RE Development Agencies in respective states. In the present work, the preparedness of India in terms of forming institutional and policy frame work briefly discussed. Status of implementation of RE technologies state wise and of India as a whole, critically reviewed.

Keywords: energy policy, energy sustainability, renewable energy, IREDA

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10 Analysis of Airborne Data Using Range Migration Algorithm for the Spotlight Mode of Synthetic Aperture Radar

Authors: Peter Joseph Basil Morris, Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan, P. Radhakrishna


This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data using the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) for the spotlight mode of operation. Unlike in polar format algorithm (PFA), space-variant defocusing and geometric distortion effects are mitigated in RMA since it does not assume that the illuminating wave-fronts are planar. This facilitates the use of RMA for imaging scenarios involving severe differential range curvatures enabling the imaging of larger scenes at fine resolution and at shorter ranges with low center frequencies. The RMA algorithm for the spotlight mode of SAR is analyzed in this paper using the airborne data. Pre-processing operations viz: - range de-skew and motion compensation to a line are performed on the raw data before being fed to the RMA component. Various stages of the RMA viz:- 2D Matched Filtering, Along Track Fourier Transform and Slot Interpolation are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the resolution of the final image. The ability of RMA to compensate for severe differential range curvatures in the two-dimensional spatial frequency domain are also illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: range migration algorithm, spotlight SAR, synthetic aperture radar, matched filtering, slot interpolation

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9 A Cross-Sectional Study on Smartphone Addiction, Sleep Hygiene, and Perceived Stress

Authors: Kriti Singh, Saurabh Tripathi, Pankaj Chaudhary, Abid Ali Ansari, Seema Nigam


Introduction: The introduction of android and iOS has changed our lives dramatically over the past few years. The new generation is more dependent on their mobile phones for carrying out their daily pursuits. Smartphones have revolutionized our lives. The cutdown in rates of mobile network services has been affecting us drastically. A new type of dependence is seen among the people for Smartphones. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the state of addiction among the group of medical students, along with its association with sleep hygiene and anxiety. Material and Method: Study included 50 individuals in the age group of 18-35 years. Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Perceived Stress Scales were used conducting the study. Results: Mean age of 22 years (12%). The majority of subjects were 20-year olds (15 out of 50), the majority were males with few females. Mean Smartphone addiction score 39 (very severe), Mean Sleep Hygiene Index score 26.76 (moderate maladaptive hygiene and Mean Perceived Stress score of 19.92 (moderate stress). Conclusion: In majority students were found to have a very severe Smartphone Addiction with moderate sleep hygiene and a moderate level of perceived stress. The Smartphone was being used was for surfing social media applications.

Keywords: addiction perceived stress, sleep hygiene index, smartphone

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8 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: cell seeding, CFD, flow patterns, modelling, perfusion systems, scaffold

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7 Integrating Road Safety into Mainstreaming Education and Other Initiatives with Holistic Approach in the State: A Case Study of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Yogesh Mahor, Subhash Nigam, Abhai Khare


Road safety education is a composite subject which should be viewed holistically if taken into accoubehavior change communication, safe road infrastructure and low enforcement. Specific and customized road safety education is crucial for each type of road user and learners in the formal and informal teaching and various kind of training programs directly sponsored by state and center government, as they are active contributors to shaping a community and responsible citizens. The aim of this discussion article is to explore a strategy to integrate road safety education into the formal curriculum of schools, higher education institutions, driving schools, skill development centers, various government funded urban and rural development training institutions and their work plans as standing agenda. By applying the desktop research method, the article conceptualizes what the possible focus of road safety education and training should be. The article then explores international common practices in road safety education and training, and considers the necessary synergy between education, road engineering and low enforcement. The article uses secondary data collected from documents which are then analysed in a sectoral way. A well-designed road safety strategy for mainstreaming education and government-sponsored training is urgently needed, facilitating partnerships in various sectors to implement such education in the students and learners in multidisciplinary ways.

Keywords: road safety education, curriculum-based road safety education, behavior change communication, low enforcement, road engineering, safe system approach, infrastructure development consultants

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6 Evaluation of the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenol Content of the Wild and Cultivated Variety of Aegle Marmelos (L) Correa Leaves Used in the Treatment of Diabetes

Authors: V. Nigam, V. Nambiar


Aegle Marmelos leaf has been used as a remedy for various gastrointestinal infections and lowering blood sugar level in traditional system of medicine in India due to the presence of various constituents such as flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids (eg. Aegelin, Marmelosin, Luvangetin).The objective of the present study was to evaluate the total antioxidant activity, total and individual phenol content of the wild and cultivated variety of Aegle marmelos leaves to assess the role of this plant in ethanomedicine in India. The methanolic extracts of the leaves were screened for total antioxidant capacity through Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay; Total Phenol content (TPC) through spectrophotometric technique based on Folin Ciocalteau assay and for qualitative estimation of phenols, High performance Liquid Chromatography was used. The TPC of wild and cultivated variety was 7.6% and 6.5% respectively whereas HPLC analysis for quantification of individual polyphenol revealed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and Ferullic acid in wild variety whereas gallic acid, Ferullic acid and pyrocatechol in cultivated variety. FRAP values and IC 50 value (DPPH) for wild and cultivated variety was 14.65 μmol/l and 11.80μmol/l; 437 μg/ml and 620μg/ml respectively and thus it can be used as potential inhibitor of free radicals. The wild variety was having more antioxidant capacity than the cultivated one it can be exploited further for its therapeutic application. As Aegle marmelos is rich in antioxidant, it can be used as food additives to delay the oxidative deterioration of foods and as nutraceutical in medicinal formulation against degenerative diseases like diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, aegle marmelos, antidiabetic, nutraceutical

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5 Airborne SAR Data Analysis for Impact of Doppler Centroid on Image Quality and Registration Accuracy

Authors: Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan


This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to study the impact of Doppler centroid on Image quality and geocoding accuracy from the perspective of Stripmap mode of data acquisition. Although in Stripmap mode of data acquisition radar beam points at 90 degrees broad side (side looking), shift in the Doppler centroid is invariable due to platform motion. In-accurate estimation of Doppler centroid leads to poor image quality and image miss-registration. The effect of Doppler centroid is analyzed in this paper using multiple sets of data collected from airborne platform. Occurrences of ghost (ambiguous) targets and their power levels have been analyzed that impacts appropriate choice of PRF. Effect of aircraft attitudes (roll, pitch and yaw) on the Doppler centroid is also analyzed with the collected data sets. Various stages of the RDA (Range Doppler Algorithm) algorithm used for image formation in Stripmap mode, range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, azimuth compression, range cell migration correction are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the final image. The ability of Doppler centroid estimation to enhance the imaging accuracy for registration are also illustrated in this paper. The paper also tries to bring out the processing of low squint SAR data, the challenges and the performance limits imposed by the imaging geometry and the platform dynamics on the final image quality metrics. Finally, the effect on various terrain types, including land, water and bright scatters is also presented.

Keywords: ambiguous target, Doppler Centroid, image registration, Airborne SAR

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4 A Study of the Understated Violence within Social Contexts against Adolescent Girls

Authors: Niranjana Soperna, Shivangi Nigam


Violence against women is linked to their disadvantageous position in the society. It is rooted in unequal power relationships between men and women in society and is a global problem which is not limited to a specific group of women in society. An adolescent girl’s life is often accustomed to the likelihood of violence, and acts of violence exert additional power over girls because the stigma of violence often attaches more to a girl than to her doer. The experience of violence is distressing at the individual emotional and physical level. The field of research and programs for adolescent girls has traditionally focused on sexuality, reproductive health, and behavior, neglecting the broader social issues that underpin adolescent girls’ human rights, overall development, health, and well-being. This paper is an endeavor to address the understated or disguised form of violence which the adolescent girls experience within the social contexts. The parameters exposed under this research had been ignored to a large extent when it came to studying the dimension of violence under the social domain. Hence, the researchers attempted to explore this camouflaged form of violence and discovered some specific parameters such as: Diminished Self Worth and Esteem, Verbal Abuse, Menstruation Taboo and Social Rigidity, Negligence of Medical and Health Facilities and Complexion- A Prime Parameter for Judging Beauty. The study was conducted in the districts of Haryana where personal interviews were taken from both urban and rural adolescent girls (aged 13 to 19 years) based on structured interview schedule. The results revealed that the adolescent girls, both in urban as well as rural areas were quite affected with the above mentioned issues. In urban areas, however, due to the higher literacy rate, which resulted in more rational thinking, the magnitude was comparatively smaller, but the difference was still negligible.

Keywords: adolescent girls, education, social contexts, understated violence

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3 Cerebral Pulsatility Mediates the Link Between Physical Activity and Executive Functions in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Longitudinal NIRS Study

Authors: Hanieh Mohammadi, Sarah Fraser, Anil Nigam, Frederic Lesage, Louis Bherer


A chronically higher cerebral pulsatility is thought to damage cerebral microcirculation, leading to cognitive decline in older adults. Although it is widely known that regular physical activity is linked to improvement in some cognitive domains, including executive functions, the mediating role of cerebral pulsatility on this link remains to be elucidated. This study assessed the impact of 6 months of regular physical activity upon changes in an optical index of cerebral pulsatility and the role of physical activity for the improvement of executive functions. 27 older adults (aged 57-79, 66.7% women) with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were enrolled in the study. The participants completed the behavioral Stroop test, which was extracted from the Delis-Kaplan executive functions system battery at baseline (T0) and after 6 months (T6) of physical activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied for an innovative approach to indexing cerebral pulsatility in the brain microcirculation at T0 and T6. The participants were at standing rest while a NIRS device recorded hemodynamics data from frontal and motor cortex subregions at T0 and T6. The cerebral pulsatility index of interest was cerebral pulse amplitude, which was extracted from the pulsatile component of NIRS data. Our data indicated that 6 months of physical activity was associated with a reduction in the response time for the executive functions, including inhibition (T0: 56.33± 18.2 to T6: 53.33± 15.7,p= 0.038)and Switching(T0: 63.05± 5.68 to T6: 57.96 ±7.19,p< 0.001) conditions of the Stroop test. Also, physical activity was associated with a reduction in cerebral pulse amplitude (T0: 0.62± 0.05 to T6: 0.55± 0.08, p < 0.001). Notably, cerebral pulse amplitude was a significant mediator of the link between physical activity and response to the Stroop test for both inhibition (β=0.33 (0.61,0.23),p< 0.05)and switching (β=0.42 (0.69,0.11),p <0.01) conditions. This study suggests that regular physical activity may support cognitive functions through the improvement of cerebral pulsatility in older adults with CVRF.

Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, cerebral pulsatility, physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, executive functions

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2 Facile Surfactant-Assisted Green Synthesis of Stable Biogenic Gold Nanoparticles with Potential Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Sneha Singh, Abhimanyu Dev, Vinod Nigam


The major issue which decides the impending use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in nanobiotechnological applications is their particle size and stability. Often the AuNPs obtained biomimetically are considered useless owing to their instability in the aqueous medium and thereby limiting the widespread acceptance of this facile green synthesis procedure. So, the use of nontoxic surfactants is warranted to stabilize the biogenic nanoparticles (NPs). But does the surfactant only play a role in stabilizing by being adsorbed to the NPs surface or can it have any other significant contribution in synthesis process and controlling their size as well as shape? Keeping this idea in mind, AuNPs were synthesized by using surfactant treated (lechate) and untreated (cell lysate supernatant) Bacillus licheniformis cell extract. The cell extracts mediated reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4) in the presence of non-ionic surfactant, Tween 20 (TW20), and its effect on the AuNPs stability was studied. Interestingly, the surfactant used in the study served as potential alternative to harvest cellular enzymes involved in bioreduction process in a hassle free condition. The surfactants ability to solubilize/leach membrane proteins and simultaneously stabilizing the AuNPs could have advantage from process point of view as it will reduce the time and economics involve in the nanofabrication of biogenic NPs. The synthesis was substantiated with UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering study, FTIR spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. The Zeta potential of AuNPs solutions was measured routinely to corroborate the stability observations recorded visually. Highly stable, ultra-small AuNPs of 2.6 nm size were obtained from the study. Further, the biological efficacy of the obtained AuNPs as potential antibacterial agent was evaluated against Bacilllus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli by observing the zone of inhibition. This potential of AuNPs of size < 3 nm as antibacterial agent could pave way for development of new antimicrobials and overcoming the problems of antibiotics resistance

Keywords: antibacterial, bioreduction, nanoparticles, surfactant

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1 Understanding Magnetic Properties of Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 Using Local Structure Probes

Authors: P. Suchismita Behera, V. G. Sathe, A. K. Nigam, P. A. Bhobe


Co-existence of long-range ferromagnetism and semi-conductivity with correlated behavior of structural, magnetic, optical and electrical properties in various sites doping at CdCr2Se4 makes it a most promising candidate for spin-based electronic applications and magnetic devices. It orders ferromagnetically below TC = 130 K with a direct band gap of ~ 1.5 eV. The magnetic ordering is believed to result from strong competition between the direct antiferromagnetic Cr-Cr spin couplings and the ferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr exchange interactions. With an aim of understanding the influence of crystal structure on its magnetic properties without disturbing the magnetic site, we investigated four compositions with 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of Sn-substitution at Cd-site. Partial substitution of Cd2+ (0.78Å) by small sized nonmagnetic ion, Sn4+ (0.55Å), is expected to bring about local lattice distortion as well as a change in electronic charge distribution. The structural disorder would affect the Cd/Sn – Se bonds thus affecting the Cr-Cr and Cr-Se-Cr bonds. Whereas, the charge imbalance created due to Sn4+ substitution at Cd2+ leads to the possibility of Cr mixed valence state. Our investigation of the local crystal structure using the EXAFS, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic properties using SQUID magnetometry of the Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 series reflects this premise. All compositions maintain the Fd3m cubic symmetry with tetrahedral distribution of Sn at Cd-site, as confirmed by XRD analysis. Lattice parameters were determined from the Rietveld refinement technique of the XRD data and further confirmed from the EXAFS spectra recorded at Cr K-edge. Presence of five Raman-active phonon vibrational modes viz. (T2g (1), T2g (2), T2g (3), Eg, A1g) in the Raman spectra further confirms the crystal symmetry. Temperature dependence of the Raman data provides interesting insight to the spin– phonon coupling, known to dominate the magneto-capacitive properties in the parent compound. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the longitudinal damping of Eg mode associated with Se-Cd/Sn-Se bending and T2g (2) mode associated to Cr-Se-Cr interaction, show interesting deviations with respect to increase in Sn substitution. Besides providing the estimate of TC, the magnetic measurements recorded as a function of field provide the values of total magnetic moment for all the studied compositions indicative of formation of multiple Cr valences.

Keywords: exchange interactions, EXAFS, ferromagnetism, Raman spectroscopy, spinel chalcogenides

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