Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 412

Search results for: compact radiator

412 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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411 Heat Transfer Enhancement via Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Car Radiator

Authors: S. Movafagh, Y. Bakhshan


In this study, effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (water) in car radiator is investigated numerically. Radiators are compact heat exchangers optimized and evaluated by considering different working conditions. The cooling system of a car plays an important role in vehicle's performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. In this study, the effects of fluid inlet flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer and pressure drop of acar radiator are studied.

Keywords: forced convection, nanofluid, radiator, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
410 Thermal Analysis of Automobile Radiator Using Nanofluids

Authors: S. Sumanth, Babu Rao Ponangi, K. N. Seetharamu


As the technology is emerging day by day, there is a need for some better methodology which will enhance the performance of radiator. Nanofluid is the one area which has promised the enhancement of the radiator performance. Currently, nanofluid has got a well effective solution for enhancing the performance of the automobile radiators. Suspending the nano sized particle in the base fluid, which has got better thermal conductivity value when compared to a base fluid, is preferably considered for nanofluid. In the current work, at first mathematical formulation has been carried out, which will govern the performance of the radiator. Current work is justified by plotting the graph for different parameters. Current work justifies the enhancement of radiator performance using nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluid, radiator performance, graphene, gamma aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
409 CFD Simulation of Forced Convection Nanofluid Heat Transfer in the Automotive Radiator

Authors: Sina Movafagh, Younes Bakhshan


Heat transfer of coolant flow through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, the heat transfer performance of the automobile radiator is evaluated numerically. Different concentrations of nanofluids have been investigated by the addition of Al2O3 nano-particles into the water. Also, the effect of the inlet temperature of nanofluid on the performance of radiator is studied. Results show that with an increase of inlet temperature the outlet temperature and pressure drop along the radiator increase. Also, it has been observed that increase of nono-particle concentration will result in an increase in heat transfer rate within the radiator.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, car radiator, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
408 Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Noise of Radiator Cooling Fan with Different Diameter in Hemi-Anechoic Chamber

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, F. Andree Yohanes, Khoerul Anwar


There are many sources that cause noise in a car, one of them is noise from radiator cooling fan. This part is used to control engine temperature by ensuring adequate airflow through radiator. Radiator cooling fan noise is a very important matter especially for vehicle manufacturers. This can affect brand image of the car and their customer satisfaction. Therefore, some experiments to measure noise level of the fan are required. Sound pressure level measurements for two axial fans with different diameter have been investigated in a hemi-anechoic chamber based on standard JIS-B8346, focusing on aerodynamic noise. Both fans have the same profile and shape with diameter respectively 43 cm and 49 cm. The measurement was performed in hemi-anechoic chamber in order to obtain a background noise at measuring point as low as possible. Noise characterizations of these radiator cooling fans were measured in five different rotating speed and the results were compared. The measurement result shows that the sound pressure level increases with increasing rotational speed of the fan. In comparison with a smaller diameter, it is shown that fan with larger diameter produces higher noise level at the same rotational speed.

Keywords: aerodynamics noise, hemi-anechoic chamber, radiator cooling fan, sound pressure level

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
407 Investigating and Comparing the Performance of Baseboard and Panel Radiators by Calculating the Thermal Comfort Coefficient

Authors: Mohammad Erfan Doraki, Mohammad Salehi


In this study, to evaluate the performance of Baseboard and Panel radiators with thermal comfort coefficient, A room with specific dimensions was modeled with Ansys fluent and DesignBuilder, then calculated the speed and temperature parameters in different parts of the room in two modes of using Panel and Baseboard radiators and it turned out that use of Baseboard radiators has a more uniform temperature and speed distribution, but in a Panel radiator, the room is warmer. Then, by calculating the thermal comfort indices, It was shown that using a Panel radiator is a more favorable environment and using a Baseboard radiator is a more uniform environment in terms of thermal comfort.

Keywords: Radiator, Baseboard, optimal, comfort coefficient, heat

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
406 Investigation of Night Cooling Event, Experimental Radiator

Authors: Fatemeh Karampour


In the hot climate countries, especially those countries with great desert area, such as Iran, a considerable part of the energy is consumed due to cooling and air conditioning system in a hot season. So it is important to find a renewable energy supply for cooling systems. Although, there are few consistent researches in this field of renewable energy in compare with other fields. This research is presenting a study on performance of a night cooling radiator and working fluid storage for night time operation and day time resting periods. In these experiments, we didn’t expose any heating load but focused only on the possibility of system combination and its potential cooling effect. A very simple radiator has been designed in south of Iran, Shiraz, in order to perform this study. The radiator has been insulated with polystyrene foam and bubbled plastic sheets have been used as top cover. Using a single bubbled plastic sheet, the radiator temperature reached 0°C which is 20°C lower than minimum ambient temperature. Putting a small storage tank in the line increased the radiator’s minimum temperature at night; however, provided some cool fluid source for hot days of Shiraz that easily reaches 40°C. The results have shown very good cooling potential without heating load and acceptable temperature increasing during hot day with a small, short term storage tank. Future studies can make the system more effective and applicable.

Keywords: night cooling, experimental set up, cooling radiator, chill storage

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405 Miniaturized and Compact Monopole Corner Antenna with a Periodic Slot Truncated and T-Inverted Stub-Tuning for Ultra Wideband Applications

Authors: R. Dakir, J. Zbitou, Ahmed Mouhsen, A. Errkik, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach


The design and analysis of a new compact and miniaturized monopole antenna structure for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless applications are presented and suggested in this paper. The proposed antenna structure is based on corner radiator patch with T-shaped slot and fed by mictostrip feed line with a partial ground plane combined a periodic rectangular slot and inverted T-stub tuning to increase the bandwidth. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are investigated by using 'CST Microwave Studio' and Advanced Design System. The final prototype of the proposed antenna operates from 3GHZ to 25GHz, corresponding to wide input impedance bandwidth around (157.14%) with a size of 16*24mm2 and can be easily integrated with radio-frequency or microwave circuits with low cost manufacturing. Details of the UWB antenna design and both simulated and measured results are described and discussed.

Keywords: UWB, T-shaped slots, improvement, bandwidth, stub tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
404 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith


In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

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403 Compact Finite Difference Schemes for Fourth Order Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Sufyan Muhammad


Recently, in achieving highly efficient but at the same time highly accurate solutions has become the major target of numerical analyst community. The concept is termed as compact schemes and has gained great popularity and consequently, we construct compact schemes for fourth order parabolic differential equations used to study vibrations in structures. For the superiority of newly constructed schemes, we consider range of examples. We have achieved followings i.e. (a) numerical scheme utilizes minimum number of stencil points (which means new scheme is compact); (b) numerical scheme is highly accurate (which means new scheme is reliable) and (c) numerical scheme is highly efficient (which means new scheme is fast).

Keywords: central finite differences, compact schemes, Bernoulli's equations, finite differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
402 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh


This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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401 Design of a Rectifier with Enhanced Efficiency and a High-gain Antenna for Integrated and Compact-size Rectenna Circuit

Authors: Rawaa Maher, Ahmed Allam, Haruichi Kanaya, Adel B. Abdelrahman


In this paper, a compact, high-efficiency integrated rectenna is presented to operate in the 2.45 GHz band. A comparison between two rectifier topologies is performed to verify the benefits of removing the matching network from the rectifier. A rectifier high conversion efficiency of 74.1% is achieved. To complete the rectenna system, a novel omnidirectional antenna with high gain (3.72 dB) and compact size (25 mm * 29 mm) is designed and fabricated. The same antenna is used with a reflector for raising the gain to nearly 8.3 dB. The simulation and measurement results of the antenna are in good agreement.

Keywords: internet of things, integrated rectenna, rectenna, RF energy harvesting, wireless sensor networks(WSN)

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400 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
399 Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu


Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.

Keywords: compact city development, environmental sustainability, residential area, Hangzhou

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
398 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla


This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

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397 Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator for RF Applications in 0.18 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Zainal Abidin Nordin, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


A compact and power efficient high performance Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a must in analog and digital circuits especially in the communication system, but the best trade-off among the performance parameters is a challenge for researchers. In this paper, a design of a compact 3-stage differential voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCRO) with low phase noise, low power and higher tuning bandwidth is proposed in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The VCRO is designed with symmetric load and positive feedback techniques to achieve higher gain and minimum delay. The proposed VCRO can operate at tuning range of 3.9-5.0 GHz at 1.6 V supply voltage. The circuit consumes only 1.0757 mW of power and produces -129 dbc/Hz. The total active area of the proposed VCRO is only 11.74 x 37.73 µm2. Such a VCO can be the best choice for compact and low-power RF applications.

Keywords: CMOS, VCO, VCRO, oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
396 Salinity Effects on Germination of Malaysian Rice Varieties and Weedy Rice Biotypes

Authors: M. Kamal Uddin, H. Mohd Dandan, Ame H. Alidin


Germination and seedling growth of plant species are reduced in saline due to an external osmotic potential. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory, Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to compare the salt effect on seed germination and growth of weedy rice and cultivated rice. Seeds (10 in each) were placed in petri dishes. Five salinity levels 0 (distilled water), 4, 8, 12 and 16 dSm-1 (NaCl) were applied. The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) mean germination time (MGT), shoot and root dry weight were estimated. At highest salinity (16 dSm-1) germination percentage was higher (100%) in weedy rice awn and weedy rice compact. Lowest germination percentage was in MR219 and TQR-8 (50-60%). Mean germination time (MGT) was found higher in all weedy rice biotypes compared to cultivated rice. At highest salinity (16dSm-1) weedy rice open produced the highest MGT (9.92) followed by weedy rice compact (9.73) while lowest MGT was in MR219 (9.48). At highest salinity (16dSm-1) germination index was higher in weedy rice awn (11.71) and compact type (9.62). Lowest germination index was in MR219 (5.90) and TQR-8 (8.94). At the highest salinity (16 dSm−1), seedling vigor index was highest in weedy rice awn (6.06) followed by weedy rice compact (5.26); while lowest was in MR219 (2.11) followed by MR269 (3.82).On the basis of Germination index, seedling vigor index and growth related results it could be concluded that weedy rice awn, compact and open biotypes were more salt tolerant compared to other cultivated rice MR219, MR269, and TQR-8.

Keywords: germination, salinity, rice and weedy rice, sustainable agriculture

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395 Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Local Avalanche Compact Model for Bipolar Transistors

Authors: Robert Setekera, Ramses van der Toorn


We present an extensive analysis of the temperature dependence of the local avalanche model used in most of the modern compact models for bipolar transistors. This local avalanche model uses the Chynoweth's empirical law for ionization coefficient to define the generation of the avalanche current in terms of the local electric field. We carry out the model analysis using DC-measurements taken on both Si and advanced SiGe bipolar transistors. For the advanced industrial SiGe-HBTs, we consider both high-speed and high-power devices (both NPN and PNP transistors). The limitations of the local avalanche model in modeling the temperature dependence of the avalanche current mostly in the weak avalanche region are demonstrated. In addition, the model avalanche parameters are analyzed to see if they are in agreement with semiconductor device physics.

Keywords: avalanche multiplication, avalanche current, bipolar transistors, compact modeling, electric field, impact ionization, local avalanche

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394 Development of a Compact Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor Using Soft Magnetic Composite

Authors: Nasiru Aliyu, Glyn Atkinson, Nick Stannard


With increasing demand for electric motors used in nearly all sectors of our day to day activities, which range from the motor that rotates the washing machine and dishwasher to the tens of thousands of motors used in domestic appliance. The number of applications for soft magnetic composites (SMC) material is growing significantly. This paper presents the development of a compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor using soft magnetic composite as core for reducing core losses and cost. The effects of changing the flux carrying component to pressed SMC parts are investigated based on a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the material. A 3-D finite-element analysis is performed for accurate parameter calculation. To validate the simulation, a new static test measurement was fully conducted on a prototype motor and agree with the theoretical calculations and old measured static test.

Keywords: SMC, compact development, axial field motor, 3DFA

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
393 Investigation of a Novel Dual Band Microstrip/Waveguide Hybrid Antenna Element

Authors: Raoudane Bouziyan, Kawser Mohammad Tawhid


Microstrip antennas are low in profile, light in weight, conformable in structure and are now developed for many applications. The main difficulty of the microstrip antenna is its narrow bandwidth. Several modern applications like satellite communications, remote sensing, and multi-function radar systems will find it useful if there is dual-band antenna operating from a single aperture. Some applications require covering both transmitting and receiving frequency bands which are spaced apart. Providing multiple antennas to handle multiple frequencies and polarizations becomes especially difficult if the available space is limited as with airborne platforms and submarine periscopes. Dual band operation can be realized from a single feed using slot loaded or stacked microstrip antenna or two separately fed antennas sharing a common aperture. The former design, when used in arrays, has certain limitations like complicated beam forming or diplexing network and difficulty to realize good radiation patterns at both the bands. The second technique provides more flexibility with separate feed system as beams in each frequency band can be controlled independently. Another desirable feature of a dual band antenna is easy adjustability of upper and lower frequency bands. This thesis presents investigation of a new dual-band antenna, which is a hybrid of microstrip and waveguide radiating elements. The low band radiator is a Shorted Annular Ring (SAR) microstrip antenna and the high band radiator is an aperture antenna. The hybrid antenna is realized by forming a waveguide radiator in the shorted region of the SAR microstrip antenna. It is shown that the upper to lower frequency ratio can be controlled by the proper choice of various dimensions and dielectric material. Operation in both linear and circular polarization is possible in either band. Moreover, both broadside and conical beams can be generated in either band from this antenna element. Finite Element Method based software, HFSS and Method of Moments based software, FEKO were employed to perform parametric studies of the proposed dual-band antenna. The antenna was not tested physically. Therefore, in most cases, both HFSS and FEKO were employed to corroborate the simulation results.

Keywords: FEKO, HFSS, dual band, shorted annular ring patch

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
392 Compact Dual-band 4-MIMO Antenna Elements for 5G Mobile Applications

Authors: Fayad Ghawbar


The significance of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system in the 5G wireless communication system is essential to enhance channel capacity and provide a high data rate resulting in a need for dual-polarization in vertical and horizontal. Furthermore, size reduction is critical in a MIMO system to deploy more antenna elements requiring a compact, low-profile design. A compact dual-band 4-MIMO antenna system has been presented in this paper with pattern and polarization diversity. The proposed single antenna structure has been designed using two antenna layers with a C shape in the front layer and a partial slot with a U-shaped cut in the ground to enhance isolation. The single antenna is printed on an FR4 dielectric substrate with an overall size of 18 mm×18 mm×1.6 mm. The 4-MIMO antenna elements were printed orthogonally on an FR4 substrate with a size dimension of 36 × 36 × 1.6 mm3 with zero edge-to-edge separation distance. The proposed compact 4-MIMO antenna elements resonate at 3.4-3.6 GHz and 4.8-5 GHz. The s-parameters measurement and simulation results agree, especially in the lower band with a slight frequency shift of the measurement results at the upper band due to fabrication imperfection. The proposed design shows isolation above -15 dB and -22 dB across the 4-MIMO elements. The MIMO diversity performance has been evaluated in terms of efficiency, ECC, DG, TARC, and CCL. The total and radiation efficiency were above 50 % across all parameters in both frequency bands. The ECC values were lower than 0.10, and the DG results were about 9.95 dB in all antenna elements. TARC results exhibited values lower than 0 dB with values lower than -25 dB in all MIMO elements at the dual-bands. Moreover, the channel capacity losses in the MIMO system were depicted using CCL with values lower than 0.4 Bits/s/Hz.

Keywords: compact antennas, MIMO antenna system, 5G communication, dual band, ECC, DG, TARC

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391 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN)

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390 Investigations of Thermo Fluid Characteristics of Copper Alloy Porous Heat Sinks by Forced Air Cooling

Authors: Ashish Mahalle, Kishore Borakhade


High porosity metal foams are excellent for heat dissipation. There use has been widened to include heat removal from high density microelectronics circuits. Other important applications have been found in compact heat exchangers for airborne equipment, regenerative and dissipative air cooled condenser towers, and compact heat sinks for power electronic. The low relative density, open porosity and high thermal conductivity of the cell edges, large accessible surface area per unit volume, and the ability to mix the cooling fluid make metal foam heat exchangers efficient, compact and light weight. This paper reports the thermal performance of metal foam for high heat dissipation. In experimentation metal foam samples of different pore diameters i.e. 35 µ, 20 µ, 12 µ, are analyzed for varying velocities and heat inputs. The study investigate the effect of various dimensionless no. like Re,Nu, Pr and heat transfer characteristics of basic flow configuration.

Keywords: pores, foam, effective thermal conductivity, permeability

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389 Carbon Emission Reduction by Compact City Construction in Toyama, Japan

Authors: Benyan Jiang, Dawei Xia, Yong Li


Compact city construction is considered as an effective measure to reduce carbon emission in city lives. Toyama City started its compact city strategy in 2000 and was selected as a Japanese Environmental Model City in 2008 for its achievement. This paper takes Toyama as a study case, aiming to find how city polices affected people’s life styles and reduced carbon emission. The main materials used in this study are first-hand documents, like urban planning materials, government annual report and statistic data from transportation association. It is found that the main measures taken by Toyama City include the construction of light rail transit, increasing the frequency of buses, building park and ride parking lots. In addition to hardware facilities, it also offers flexible policies like passengers' coupons for the senior citizens and free use of parking lots by buying shopping vouchers. Besides, Toyama City encourages citizens to live within 500 meters of public transportation. People who buy an apartment near public transportation will receive 500,000 Japanese Yen. These measures have proven to their effects. Compared with 2005, in 2014, the transportation sector reduced emissions of 2.35 million tons of CO₂, 13.6%. This aspect is related to the increase in the number of cars in public transport and also related to fuel improvement.

Keywords: Toyama, compact city, public transportation, CO₂ reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
388 Compactness and Quality of Life: Applying Regression Analysis on American Cities

Authors: Hsi-Chuan Wang, Hongxi Yin


Compactness has been proposed as a type of sustainable urban form globally. However, the meanings and the measurements might diverse in regarding to the varying interpretation; moreover, since compactness was proposed to eliminate auto culture and urban sprawl in the developed countries, voices have emerged asking to rethink the suitability of compactness in the developing countries – based upon such understanding, Quality of Life (QOL) has been suggested as a good way to show the overall benefit of compactness. In regarding to such background, two subjects were targeted for discussion in this paper: (I) the meaning and feasibility of compactness between the developing and developed countries, and (II) the interaction between compactness and QOL. This paper argues that compactness should not be considered a universal principle for cities of all kind, but rather an ideal concept for urban designer and planner to consider throughout local practices. It firstly reviewed the benefits of both compactness and sprawl to uncover the features behind these urban forms, and later addressed the meaning and difficulty of adopting compactness in both the developing and developed countries. Secondly, arguing compactness to be positioned as a ‘process’ along the transition from the developing countries to the developed ones, this paper applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to uncover (I) the relationship between compactness and QOL in regarding to 30 American cities and (II) the impact of ‘becoming compact’ on QOL in regarding to 8 identified American Urbanized Areas (UZAs). The findings indicated that higher compactness could link to lower QOL among the compact cities, but with higher QOL among the sprawl cities. In addition, based upon the comparison between 2000 and 2010 on 8 UZAs, their QOL have escalated during the transition from the sprawl areas into the compact ones, but the extent of improvement in QOL could differ greatly among areas. In regarding to our findings, compact development should be proposed as a general guideline leading the contemporary sprawl cities in transition with sustainable urbanism; however, to prevent the externalities from damaging QOL with over-compactness, the compact policy should be flexible to adjust a long-term roadmap for sustainable development.

Keywords: compactness, quality of life, sprawl, sustainable urbanism

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387 System Analysis on Compact Heat Storage in the Built Environment

Authors: Wilko Planje, Remco Pollé, Frank van Buuren


An increased share of renewable energy sources in the built environment implies the usage of energy buffers to match supply and demand and to prevent overloads of existing grids. Compact heat storage systems based on thermochemical materials (TCM) are promising to be incorporated in future installations as an alternative for regular thermal buffers. This is due to the high energy density (1 – 2 GJ/m3). In order to determine the feasibility of TCM-based systems on building level several installation configurations are simulated and analyzed for different mixes of renewable energy sources (solar thermal, PV, wind, underground, air) for apartments/multistore-buildings for the Dutch situation. Thereby capacity, volume and financial costs are calculated. The simulation consists of options to include the current and future wind power (sea and land) and local roof-attached PV or solar-thermal systems. Thereby, the compact thermal buffer and optionally an electric battery (typically 10 kWhe) form the local storage elements for energy matching and shaving purposes. Besides, electric-driven heat pumps (air / ground) can be included for efficient heat generation in case of power-to-heat. The total local installation provides both space heating, domestic hot water as well as electricity for a specific case with low-energy apartments (annually 9 GJth + 8 GJe) in the year 2025. The energy balance is completed with grid-supplied non-renewable electricity. Taking into account the grid capacities (permanent 1 kWe/household), spatial requirements for the thermal buffer (< 2.5 m3/household) and a desired minimum of 90% share of renewable energy per household on the total consumption the wind-powered scenario results in acceptable sizes of compact thermal buffers with an energy-capacity of 4 - 5 GJth per household. This buffer is combined with a 10 kWhe battery and air source heat pump system. Compact thermal buffers of less than 1 GJ (typically volumes 0.5 - 1 m3) are possible when the installed wind-power is increased with a factor 5. In case of 15-fold of installed wind power compact heat storage devices compete with 1000 L water buffers. The conclusion is that compact heat storage systems can be of interest in the coming decades in combination with well-retrofitted low energy residences based on the current trends of installed renewable energy power.

Keywords: compact thermal storage, thermochemical material, built environment, renewable energy

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386 Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements

Authors: Xingyu Peng, Qingyuan Hu, Xuebin Zhu, Xi Yuan


Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.

Keywords: neutron spectrometry, magnetic proton recoil spectrometer, neutron spectra, fast neutron

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385 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang


This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR

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384 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi


Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-wideband

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383 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Authors: Sam Teek Ling, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali


We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: explicit group iterative method, finite difference, fourth order compact, Poisson equation

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