Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2832

Search results for: docosahexaenoic acid

2832 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

Abstract:

In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid, composition, gas chromatography

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2831 Purification of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from Fish Oil Using HPLC Method and Investigation of Their Antibacterial Effects on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Yılmaz Uçar, Fatih Ozogul, Mustafa Durmuş, Yesim Ozogul, Ali Rıza Köşker, Esmeray Kuley Boğa, Deniz Ayas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that are essential oils from trout oil, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, bioconverted EPA and DHA into bioconverted EPA (bEPA), bioconverted DHA (bDHA) extracts by P. aeruginosa PR3. Moreover, in vitro antibacterial activity of bEPA and bDHA was investigated using disc diffusion methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). EPA and DHA concentration of 11.1% and 15.9% in trout oil increased in 58.64% and 40.33% after HPLC optimisation, respectively. In this study, EPA and DHA enriched products were obtained which are to be used as valuable supplements for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The bioconverted EPA and DHA exhibited antibacterial activities against two Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7677 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and six Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC700603, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Aeromonas hydrophila NCIMB 1135, and Salmonella Paratyphi A NCTC 13). Inhibition zones and MIC value of bEPA and bDHA against bacterial strains ranged from 7 to 12 mm and from 350 to 2350 μg/mL, respectively. Our results suggested that the crude extracts of bioconversion of EPA and DHA by P. aeruginosa PR3 can be considered as promising antimicrobials in improving food safety by controlling foodborne pathogens.

Keywords: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

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2830 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Omega-3 Fish-Oil Supplements: Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Early-Stage Tumors

Authors: Corina Muscurel, Irina Stoian, Laura Gaman, Valeriu Atanasiu

Abstract:

Chronic inflammation predisposes cells to neoplastic transformation and is associated with angiogenesis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) give rise to anti-inflammatory metabolites and decrease some inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake on patients with tumors in early-stage (without regional or distant metastasis). There were two groups of patients: one group with colon tumors and one group with lung tumors. All patients took for 60 days daily supplements from fish-oil containing 600 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid. The plasma markers were evaluated before and after PUFAs intake: ceruloplasmin (using p-phenylenediamine oxidase method), plasma total thiol groups (using dithiobis-nitrobenzoic acid method) and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay). The results reflect ceruloplasmin decrease (p < 0.05), plasma total thiol groups increase (not statistically significant) and CEA decrease (p < 0.05) after n-3 PUFAs intake. Conclusions: n-3 PUFAs intake is favorable in premalignant lesions or in early tumor stage and dietary fish-oil has anti-inflammatory effects and can contribute to reduce cancer progression.

Keywords: cancer, fish-oil, inflammation, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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2829 Antioxidant Capacity, Proximate Biomass Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Five Marine Microalgal Species with Potential as Aquaculture Feed

Authors: Vasilis Andriopoulos, Maria D. Gkioni, Elena Koutra, Savvas G. Mastropetros, Fotini N. Lamari, Sofia Hatziantoniou, Michalis Kornaros

Abstract:

In the present study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Chlorella minutissima, Dunaliella salina, Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oculata and Tisohrysis lutea, as well as the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were evaluated, with the aim to select species suitable for co-production of antioxidants and aquaculture feed. Batch cultivation was performed at 25oC in a modified f/2 medium under continuous illumination and aeration with ambient air. Biomass was collected via centrifugation and extracted first with H2O and subsequently with methanol at two growth phases (early and late stationary). Total phenolic content and antioxidant and reducing activity of the extracts were evaluated. The highest phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract of C. minutissima at the early stationary phase (9.04±0.68 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent g-1 dry weight), and the aqueous extract of D. salina at the late stationary phase (8.78±1.49 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent g-1 Dry weight). Antioxidant activity, measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of methanolic extracts were comparable to the literature and correlated to Total phenolic content and Chlorophyll content of the biomass. No such correlation was found in the aqueous extracts. N. oculata and T. lutea were high in protein (39.88±1.72% Dry weight and 43.30±1.33% Dry weight, respectively) and carotenoids (0.64±0.13% and 0.92±0.02%, respectively). Additionally, they presented high eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels (33.74±9.98 mg eicosapentaenoic acid g-1 DW and 31.31±2.92 mg docosahexaenoic acid g-1 dry weight, respectively). N. oculata and T. lutea are promising candidates for the co-production of antioxidants and aquaculture feed, while C. minutissima and D. salina showed promise due to their higher antioxidant content.

Keywords: aquaculture fee, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, microalgae, total phenolic content

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2828 The Effects of Extraction Methods on Fat Content and Fatty Acid Profiles of Marine Fish Species

Authors: Yesim Özogul, Fethiye Takadaş, Mustafa Durmus, Yılmaz Ucar, Ali Rıza Köşker, Gulsun Özyurt, Fatih Özogul

Abstract:

It has been well documented that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on health, regarding prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and autoimmune disorders, development the brain and retina and treatment of major depressive disorder etc. Thus, an adequate intake of omega PUFA is essential and generally marine fish are the richest sources of PUFA in human diet. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of different extraction methods (Bligh and Dyer, soxhlet, microwave and ultrasonics) on the fat content and fatty acid profiles of marine fish species (Mullus babatus, Upeneus moluccensis, Mullus surmuletus, Anguilla anguilla, Pagellus erythrinus and Saurida undosquamis). Fish species were caught by trawl in Mediterranean Sea and immediately iced. After that, fish were transported to laboratory in ice and stored at -18oC in a freezer until the day of analyses. After extracting lipid from fish by different methods, lipid samples were converted to their constituent fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid composition was analysed by a GC Clarus 500 with an autosampler (Perkin Elmer, Shelton, CT, USA) equipped with a flame ionization detector and a fused silica capillary SGE column (30 m x 0.32 mm ID x 0.25 mm BP20 0.25 UM, USA). The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in fatty acids of all species and also extraction methods affected fat contents and fatty acid profiles of fish species.

Keywords: extraction methods, fatty acids, marine fish, PUFA

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2827 The Potency of Sandfish (Holothuria scraba) Flesh Powder to Improve Reproduction Quality of Man

Authors: E. Riani, T. T. Irawadi, S. Nurjanah, K. Syamsu, E. G. Said, Suprihatin, M. R. Cordova

Abstract:

Especially coastal, Indonesian and Chinese communities have utilized sandfish to improve reproduction quality of men. This study aimed to examine the nutrition on sandfish flesh that has the potency to improve reproduction quality of men. The materials used were sandfish with weight of 200-500 g, and then analysis of proximate, analysis of amino acid, analysis of fatty acid and analysis of mineral contained in the sandfish were performed. The results showed that protein content (39.96%) was the main component of the flesh; the carbohydrate and fat were 25.43% and 4.18%, respectively. Sandfish powder contains several essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. Nine of ten amino acids needed by human body are contained in sandfish powder, i.e. arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine and valine; only tryptophan that are not contained in sandfish powder. Sandfish powder contains saturated fatty acid kaproat, kaprilat, kaprat, laurat, miristat, stearat, arakhidat and behenat; monosaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). MUFA is composed of fatty acid oleat, while PUFA is composed fatty acid omega 3 (linonenat, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) and omega 6 (linoleat and arakhidonat). The minerals contained in sandfish powder are macrominerals and microminerals. Based on the findings, the nutrition in sandfish powder has a good potency to improve reproduction of men, especially PUFA for the maturation of spermatozoa, zinc for production function and spermatogenesis, motility of spermatozoa, acromoson reaction; Mg for transformation of genetic information and motility of spermatozoa; calcium for spermatogenesis, capacity and fertilization of spermatozoa. Thus, sandfish flesh powder has the potency to improve reproduction quality of men.

Keywords: sandfish flesh powder, nutrition, reproduction quality, men

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2826 Bone Marrow ARA, EPA, and DHA Fatty Acids are Correlated with Femur Minerals Content and Enzyme of Bone Formation in Growing Rabbits

Authors: Al-Nouri Doha Mostfa, Al-Khalifa Abdulrahman Salih

Abstract:

The effects of long-term supplementation with different dietary omega-6/omega-3 (ω-6/ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratios on the bone marrow fatty acids level, plasma biomarkers of bone metabolism, and minerals content in bone were evaluated in rabbits. Weanling male and female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to five groups and fed ad libitum for 100 days on diets containing 70 g/kg different dietary oils which providing the following ω-6/ω-3 ratios: soy bean oil (SBO control, 8.68), sesame oil (SO, 21.75), fish oil (FO, 0.39), DHA algae oil (DHA, 0.63), and DHA and ARA algae oils (DHA/ARA, 0.68). The bone marrow arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acid levels were significantly influenced by and reflected the dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios fed to rabbits. Rabbits fed on the FO diet maintained a lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio and a higher EPA and DHA levels, those fed on the DHA/ARA diet maintained a lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio and a higher ARA level, while those fed on the SO diet maintained a higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio and a lower ARA level. Plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly higher in male and female rabbits fed the DHA/ARA diet compared with those fed the control, SO, FO, or DHA diets. There was a significant main effect of dietary treatment on femur calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) contents in both genders. This study confirmed that different dietary oil sources with varying ω-6/ω-3 ratios significantly altered the fatty acids level of bone marrow. In addition, the significant elevation in minerals content and the maintenance of optimal Ca/P ratio in bone of DHA/ARA and DHA fed groups beside the significant elevation in ALP activity in the DHA/ARA fed group proved that marine algae oils may be promising dietary sources for promoting bone mineralization and formation, thus improving bone mass during the growth stage.

Keywords: arachidonic (ARA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), growing rabbits

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2825 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

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2824 Effect of Red Cabbage Antioxidant Extracts on Lipid Oxidation of Fresh Tilapia

Authors: Ayse Demirbas, Bruce A. Welt, Yavuz Yagiz

Abstract:

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish causes loss of product quality. Oxidative rancidity causes loss of nutritional value and undesirable color changes. Therefore, powerful antioxidant extracts may provide a relatively low cost and natural means to reduce oxidation, resulting in longer, higher quality and higher value shelf life of foods. In this study, we measured effects of red cabbage antioxidant on lipid oxidation in fresh tilapia filets using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, peroxide value (PV) and color assesment analysis. Extraction of red cabbage was performed using an efficient microwave method. Fresh tilapia filets were dipped in or sprayed with solutions containing different concentrations of extract. Samples were stored for up to 9 days at 4°C and analyzed every other day for color and lipid oxidation. Results showed that treated samples had lower oxidation than controls. Lipid peroxide values on treated samples showed benefits through day-7. Only slight differences were observed between spraying and dipping methods. This work shows that red cabbage antioxidant extracts may represent an inexpensive and all natural method for reducing oxidative spoilage of fresh fish.

Keywords: antioxidant, shelf life, fish, red cabbage, lipid oxidation

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2823 Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Greta Krešić, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Renata Barić, Tanja Bogdanović, Dražen Oraić, Ana Legac, Snježana Zrnčić

Abstract:

Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.

Keywords: dentex, fatty acids, farmed fish, sea bass, sea bream

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2822 Characterization of Sunflower Oil for Illustration of Its Components

Authors: Mehwish Shahzadi

Abstract:

Sunflower is cultivated all over the world not only as an ornament plant but also for the purpose of getting oil. It is the third most cultivated plant in the history because its oil considered best for health. The present study deals with the preparation of sunflower oil from commercial seed sample which was obtained from local market. The physicochemical properties of the oil were determined which included saponification value, acid value and ester value. Results showed that saponification value of the oil was 191.675, acid value was 0.64 and ester value to be 191.035 for the sample under observation. GC-MS analysis of sunflower oil was carried out to check its composition. Oleic acid was determined with linoleic acid and isopropyl palmitate. It represents the presence of three major components of sunflower oil. Other compounds detected were, p-toluylic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4,6-trimethyl-, 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl ester and 2,4-decadienal, (E,E).

Keywords: GC-MS, oleic acid, saponification value, sunflower oil

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2821 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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2820 Quantitative on Fatty Acid Profiles, Lipid Contents and Fat-Soluble Vitamin A of Freshwater Fish Species in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

Authors: Sengly Sroy, Elodie Arnaud, Adrien Servent, Sokneang In, Sylvie Avallone

Abstract:

In Cambodia, fish plays an important role for local community in term of food habits, preference and contribution to several nutritional intakes. Consumed on a daily basis, fishes and their derivatives products are good sources of proteins, essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. They mainly obtain from the Tonle Sap Lake but, during the last decade, the fish population decreased drastically due to climate change and human activities as well. Contamination by agricultural residues and heavy metals were identified. However, fishes are currently used in several nutrition programs for children and pregnant women to improve their nutritional status. The aim of our work was to characterize the nutritional profile and contamination of 10 fish species consumed near the Tonle Sap Lake with a special attention to fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin profiles. Fish samples were analyzed for their nutritional profiles (AOAC methods for macronutrients and micronutrients), their lipid content (Folch modified method), their Fatty acid (FAME method), their vitamin A (HPLC) and their heavy metals (ICP-MS). The total lipid contents ranged from 1.43 to 10.00% according to fish species. Lipid profile was mainly dominated by saturated fat (from 47.95 to 57.32%) but some fish species were particularly rich in ω-3 and ω-6 especially eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (3.05%) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (2.82%). The more the fishes were fats, the more they contained vitamin A, DHA and EPA. Vitamin A is particularly abundant in small fishes (250.10 μg RE/100 g) compare to big ones (13.77 μg RE/100 g) because they are consumed as a whole with their organs (liver) and head. However, the contents of heavy metal in some species are higher than the maximum permitted level (MPL) from codex alimentarius, especially Mn. The results obtained provided important information on the most interesting fish in term of human nutrition and the potential risk of contaminants. The fatty acids are important for child development and pregnant women. These data are useful for supply chain stakeholders and the people in charge of nutrition program.

Keywords: fat-soluble vitamin, fatty acid, freshwater fish, lipid content, Tonle Sap Lake

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2819 Proximate Analysis of Muscle of Helix aspersa Living in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil

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The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of variations in the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn (November) in 2015. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and cholesterol analysis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The protein contents of snail muscle were determined with Kjeldahl distillation units. Statistical comparisons were made by using SPSS Software (version 16.0). Thirty different fatty acids of different saturation levels were detected. As the predominant fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), palmitic acid (C16:0), arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) were found in Helix aspersa. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified as the major SFA in autumn. Linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6) have the highest levels among the PUFAs. In the present study, ω3 were found 5.48% in autumn. Linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acid amounts in the autumn decreased significantly but cholesterol content was not affected in Helix aspersa in autumn (November) in 2015.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, fatty acid, SFA, PUFA, cholesterol

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2818 Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Properties of Fatty Acids Against Streptococcus Mutans

Authors: A. Mulry, C. Kealey, D. B. Brady

Abstract:

Planktonic bacteria can form biofilms which are microbial aggregates embedded within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). They can be found attached to abiotic or biotic surfaces. Biofilms are responsible for oral diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis and the progression of periodontal disease. Biofilms can resist 500 to 1000 times the concentration of biocides and antibiotics used to kill planktonic bacteria. Biofilm development on oral surfaces involves four stages, initial attachment, early development, maturation and dispersal of planktonic cells. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined using a range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids using the resazurin assay, followed by serial dilution and spot plating on BHI agar plates to establish the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). Log reduction of bacteria was also evaluated for each fatty acid. The Minimum Biofilm Inhibition Concentration (MBIC) was determined using crystal violet assay in 96 well plates on forming and pre-formed S. mutans biofilms using BHI supplemented with 1% sucrose. Saturated medium-chain fatty acids Octanoic (C8.0), Decanoic (C10.0) and Undecanoic acid (C11.0) do not display strong antibiofilm properties; however, Lauric (C12.0) and Myristic (C14.0) display moderate antibiofilm properties with 97.83% and 97.5% biofilm inhibition with 1000 µM respectively. Monounsaturated, Oleic acid (C18.1) and polyunsaturated large chain fatty acids, Linoleic acid (C18.2) display potent antibiofilm properties with biofilm inhibition of 99.73% at 125 µM and 100% at 65.5 µM, respectively. Long-chain polyunsaturated Omega-3 fatty acids α-Linoleic (C18.3), Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) (C20.5), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (C22.6) have displayed strong antibiofilm efficacy from concentrations ranging from 31.25-250µg/ml. DHA is the most promising antibiofilm agent with an MBIC of 99.73% with 15.625µg/ml. This may be due to the presence of six double bonds and the structural orientation of the fatty acid. To conclude, fatty acids displaying the most antimicrobial activity appear to be medium or long-chain unsaturated fatty acids containing one or more double bonds. Most promising agents include Omega-3-fatty acids Linoleic, α-Linoleic, EPA and DHA, as well as Omega-9 fatty acid Oleic acid. These results indicate that fatty acids have the potential to be used as antimicrobials and antibiofilm agents against S. mutans. Future work involves further screening of the most potent fatty acids against a range of bacteria, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative oral pathogens. Future work will involve incorporating the most effective fatty acids onto dental implant devices to prevent biofilm formation.

Keywords: antibiofilm, biofilm, fatty acids, S. mutans

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2817 Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry

Authors: Yi-Feng Kao, Huey-Jine Chai, Chin-I Chang, Yi-Chen Chen, June-Ru Chen

Abstract:

Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.

Keywords: apoptotic mimicry, neuroinflammation, microglia, squid processing by-products

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2816 Cardioprotective Effect of Oleanolic Acid and Urosolic Acid against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Sameer N. Goyal, Chandragauda R. Patil

Abstract:

Oleanolic acid (3/3-hydroxy-olea-12-en-28-oic acid) and its isomer, Ursolic acid (38-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are triterpenoids compounds which exist widely in plant kingdom in the free acid form or as glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. The aim of the study is to evaluate intravenously administered oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in albino wistar rat with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs at 12 hrs interval following doxorubicin administration in the same model cardioprotective effect of amifostine (90 mg/kg i.v, single dose prior 30 min before doxorubicin administration) was evaluated as standard treatment. Induction of cardiotoxicity was confirmed by rise in cardiac markers in serum such as CK–MB, LDH and also by electrocardiographically. The doxorubicin treated group significantly increased in QT interval, serum CK-MB, serum LDH, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant parameter. Both the treatment group showed significant protective effect on Hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters. The oleanolic acid showed slight protective effect in histological lesions in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, the results indicate that Oleanolic acid has more cardioprotective potential than ursolic acid against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: cardioprotection, doxorubicin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid

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2815 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: acetic acid, hydrogenation, operating condition, PtSn

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2814 Fatty Acid Composition and Therapeutic Effects of Beebread

Authors: Sibel Silici

Abstract:

Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acids composition of eight beebread samples obtained from different geographical origins were determined. Beebread moisture contents varied between 11.4-15.9 %, ash 1.9-2.54 %, fat 5.9-11.5 %, and protein between 14.8-24.3 %. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating fatty acids (FAs) composition of the selected monofloral beebreads. A total of thirty-seven FAs were identified. Of these (9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, (9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, (Z)-icos-11-enoic acid and octadecanoic acid were the most abundant in all the samples. Cotton beebread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, 41.3 %. Unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios ranged between 1.38 and 2.39 indicating that beebread is a good source of unsaturated FAs. The pollen, proximate and FAs composition of beebread samples of different botanical and geographical origins varied significantly.

Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, pollen analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2813 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn

Abstract:

Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
2812 Physico-Chemical, GC-MS Analysis and Cold Saponification of Onion (Allium cepa L) Seed Oil

Authors: A. A Warra, S. Fatima

Abstract:

The experimental investigation revealed that the hexane extract of onion seed oil has acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, relative density and refractive index of 0.03±0.01 mgKOH/g, 129.80±0.21 gI2/100g, 3.00± 0.00 meq H2O2 203.00±0.71 mgKOH/g, 0.82±0.01and 1.44±0.00 respectively. The percentage yield was 50.28±0.01%. The colour of the oil was light green. We restricted our GC-MS spectra interpretation to compounds identification, particularly fatty acids and they are identified as palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, linolenic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid. The pH , foam ability (cm³), total fatty matter, total alkali and percentage chloride of the onion oil soap were 11.03± 0.02, 75.13±0.15 (cm³), 36.66 ± 0.02 %, 0.92 ± 0.02% and 0.53 ± 0.15 % respectively. The texture was soft and the colour was lighter green. The results indicated that the hexane extract of the onion seed oil has potential for cosmetic industries.

Keywords: onion seeds, soxhlet extraction, physicochemical, GC-MS, cold saponification

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
2811 Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples

Authors: Chand Pasha

Abstract:

A Simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid is described. This method is based on the reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with acetylacetone in basic medium to form azo dyes, which shows absorption maxima at 470 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.5-11.2 gml-1 of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetylacetone. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 5-aminosalicylic acid -acetylacetone azo dye is 2.672 ×104 lmol-1cm-1, 5.731 × 10-3 gcm-2 respectively. The dye formed is stable for 10 hrs. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. Interference due to foreign organic compounds have been investigated. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid in pharmaceutical samples.

Keywords: spectrophotometry, diazotization, mesalazine, nitrite, acetylacetone

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
2810 Lipase-Mediated Formation of Peroxyoctanoic Acid Used in Catalytic Epoxidation of α-Pinene

Authors: N. Wijayati, Kusoro Siadi, Hanny Wijaya, Maggy Thenawijjaja Suhartono

Abstract:

This work describes the lipase-mediated synthesis of α-pinene oxide at ambient temperature. The immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used to generate peroxyoctanoic acid directly from octanoic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy acid formed is then applied for in situ oxidation of α-pinene. High conversion of α-pinene to α-pinene oxide (approximately 78%) was achieved when using 0,1 g enzim lipase, 6 mmol H2O2, dan 5 mmol octanoic acid. Various parameters affecting the conversion of α-pinene to α pinene oxide were studied.

Keywords: α-Pinene; P. aeruginosa; Octanoic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
2809 Morphology and Mineralogy of Acid Treated Soil

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad, G. Kalyan Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents the morphological and mineralogical changes occurring in the soil due to immediate and prolonged interaction with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. In order to assess the effect of acid contamination, a series of sediment volume, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis tests were carried out on soil samples were exposed to different concentrations (1N, 4N and 8N) of phosphoric and sulphuric acid. Experimental results show that both acids showed severe morphological and mineralogical changes with synthesis of neogenic formations mainly at higher concentrations (4N and 8N) and at prolonged duration of interaction (28 and 80 days).

Keywords: phosphoric acid, scanning electron microscopy, sulphuric acid, x-ray diffraction analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
2808 Analysis of Kinetin Supramolecular Complex with Glytsirrizinic Acid and Based by Mass-Spectrometry Method

Authors: Bakhtishod Matmuratov, Sakhiba Madraximova, Rakhmat Esanov, Alimjan Matchanov

Abstract:

Studies have been performed to obtain complexes of glycyrrhizic acid and kinetins in a 2:1 ratio. The complex of glycyrrhizic acid and kinetins in a 2:1 ratio was considered evidence of the formation of a molecular complex by determining the molecular masses using chromato-mass spectroscopy and analyzing the IR spectra.

Keywords: monoammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, supramolecular complex, isomolar series, IR spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
2807 The Ability of Organic Acids Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria in M17 Broth and Squid, Shrimp, Octopus, Eel Infusion Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Sezen Özçeli̇k, Yesim Özogul

Abstract:

Lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were monitored in M17 broth (the control) and some fish (squid, shrimp, octopus, and eel) infusion broth by using HPLC method. There were significant differences in terms of lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production (p < 0.005) among bacterial strains. Acetic acid production was the lowest by LAB while succinic acid followed by propionic acid was synthesized at the highest levels. Lactic acid production ranged from 0 to 938 mg/L by all LAB strains in different infusion broth. The highest acetic acid production was found by Lb. acidophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactic in octopus and shrimp infusion broth, with values of 872 and 674 mg/L, respectively while formic acid formation ranged from 1747 mg/L by Lb. acidophilus in octopus infusion broth to 69 mg/L by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis in shrimp infusion broth. Propionic acid and butyric acid productions by St. thermophilus were 9852 and 3999 mg/L in shrimp infusion broth while Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris synthesized 312 and 9 mg/L of those organic acid in European squid infusion broth, respectively. Apparently, LAB strains had a great capability to generate succinic acid followed by propionic and butyric acid. In addition, other organic acid production differed significantly depending on bacterial strains and growth medium.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria , organic acid, HPLC analysis, growth medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2806 Encryption and Decryption of Nucleic Acid Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid Algorithm

Authors: Iftikhar A. Tayubi, Aabdulrahman Alsubhi, Abdullah Althrwi

Abstract:

The deoxyribonucleic acid text provides a single source of high-quality Cryptography about Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence for structural biologists. We will provide an intuitive, well-organized and user-friendly web interface that allows users to encrypt and decrypt Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence text. It includes complex, securing by using Algorithm to encrypt and decrypt Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence. The utility of this Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid Sequence Text is that, it can provide a user-friendly interface for users to Encrypt and Decrypt store the information about Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence. These interfaces created in this project will satisfy the demands of the scientific community by providing fully encrypt of Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence during this website. We have adopted a methodology by using C# and Active Server Page.NET for programming which is smart and secure. Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence text is a wonderful piece of equipment for encrypting large quantities of data, efficiently. The users can thus navigate from one encoding and store orange text, depending on the field for user’s interest. Algorithm classification allows a user to Protect the deoxy ribonucleic acid sequence from change, whether an alteration or error occurred during the Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence data transfer. It will check the integrity of the Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid sequence data during the access.

Keywords: algorithm, ASP.NET, DNA, encrypt, decrypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2805 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail

Abstract:

The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
2804 Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Upasana Khairnar, Chandrashekhar Upasani

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period, serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (Hemoglobin content, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Total iron content), tissue parameters (Lipid peroxidation, Reduced glutathione, Nitric oxide content) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with Protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity. In conclusion Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride-induced splenic toxicity in rats.

Keywords: aniline, spleen toxicity, protocatechuic acid, ascorbic acid, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2803 The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Ismail Borazan, Ayse Celik Bedeloglu, Ali Demir, David Carroll

Abstract:

In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.

Keywords: organic solar cells, PEDOT:PSS, polymer electrodes, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 696